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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 | 1976

Category: Article

article id 4956, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri, Paavo Pelkonen. (1976). Rooting of Scots pine needle fascicles with different growth substances and media. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4956.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; vegetative propagation; rooting; needle fascicles; Jacobsen’s germination apparatus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Needle fascicles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were rooted in a standard Jacobsen’s germination apparatus. The apparatus was found to be suitable for rooting at least on laboratory scale. The best rooting substrate was living Sphangnum, which remained sufficiently moist in the germination containers throughout the experiments. In a comparison of various growth substrate treatments, the best result was obtained with a combination of IAA (100 mg/l) and thiamine (5 mg/l). The rooting percentage using these growth substances with Sphagnum as the rooting medium was in the first experiment 30 and in the second 48.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pelkonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 4955, category Article
Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto. (1976). Puutavaraselvitys 1976. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4955.
English title: Timber report 1976. – Finland’s roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue balances by 1980 as well as the wood raw material situation of Finnish forest industries by the year 2000.
Original keywords: metsäteollisuus; raakapuu; puuvarat; raaka-aine; metsätase; teollisuusjätepuu; metsätähde
English keywords: Finland; roundwood supply; forest industry; logging residue; timber balance; Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries; industrial residue
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study was carried out on behalf of the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries Federation) in order to obtain information about the wood raw material situation, to serve, in turn, as a basis for the forest industries’ long-term planning. The study deals with the potential supply of roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue by the year 200 by five wood-supply areas. Examination of the situation during the period of 1972–80 is based on available balances and that concerning the period 1985–2000 in the estimated quantities available for industrial use.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto, E-mail:
article id 4954, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Fertilization of Scots pine seedlings with different nitrogen fertilizer. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4954.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; kasvu; taimet; lannoitus; kuolleisuus; typpilannoitus; ammoniumsulfaatti
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; growth; mortality; seedlings; fertilizing; nitrogen fertilizers; ammonium sulphate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes an attempt to determine whether ammonium, nitrate and urea nitrogen are bound in peat used as a filling material in containerized seedling production, what is the effect of the nutrients on certain chemical properties in the peat, and what is the effect of the nitrogen fertilizers on the primary growth of containerized (paper-pot VH 608) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in connection with planting out. The seedlings were fertilized with ammonium sulphate, potassium nitrate and urea.

The results show that none of the fertilizers used were bound in the peat. The nitrogen content in the above ground part of the seedlings increased clearly. Fertilization with ammonium sulphate resulted in the greatest increment and this increase appears to be permanent. The wintering process was somewhat delayed by the fertilization. The seedling mortality rate for all the treatments has been quite appreciable. However, fertilization particularly with ammonium sulphate on the poorer of the two sites studied has had a positive effect on seedling survival. Furthermore, it appears that fertilizer treatments have decreased growth after planting, but in the case of ammonium sulphate this decrease has changed into a clear growth increment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4953, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pertti Hari. (1976). Rate of photosynthesis of some forest mosses as a function of temperature and light intensity and effect of water content of moss cushion on photosynthetic rate. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4953.
Keywords: photosynthesis; temperature; light intensity; Pleurosium schreberi; Hylocomnium splendens; Dicranum undulatum; mosses; water deficiency
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The photosynthetic rate of Pleurosium schreberi (Willd.), Hylocomnium splendens (Hedw.) and Dicranum undulatum (Sw.) grown in plastic containers was monitored with infrared gas analyser in open air under natural weather conditions. It proved that the photosynthetic rate of wet moss cushions was satisfactorily predicted by temperature and light intensity. In dry moss cushions this kind of model gave too high an estimate for photosynthetic rate. Water requirements of each moss species were found to be moderate, and water content of moss cushions limited photosynthetic rate only under serious water deficiency.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
article id 4952, category Article
Irja Lehtonen, Seppo Kellomäki, Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4952.
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand. II. Amount and quality of precipitation in a Scots pine stand at the pole stage.
Original keywords: mänty; metsikkösadanta; runkovalunta; sademäärä; ravinnekierto; happamuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; precipitation; stemflow; throughfall; acidity; nutrient budget
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study forms part of a project designed to elucidate the total nutrient budget of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Central Finland during the 1974 growing period. Precipitation has been divided up into precipitation, throughfall and stemflow.

The acidity of the rainwater was found to increase in the order – Precipitation, throughfall and stemflow. The electrolyte content of the rain water from throughfall and stemflow was higher than that of precipitation. The nutrient contents of precipitation were rather low. Throughfall and stemflow were found to leach some nutrient from the trees. This was most clear in the case of potassium. The total amounts of nutrients reaching the ground in throughfall were found to be smaller than those in precipitation. On the other hand, the amounts of potassium, calcium and magnesium in stemflow were clearly greater than those in precipitation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown
article id 4951, category Article
Heikki Heiskanen. (1976). Metsätyön palkkauksen perusongelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4951.
English title: Basic problems of the wage system for forest work.
Original keywords: metsätyö; palkkaus; urakkapalkka; aikapalkka; ikääntyvät työntekijät
English keywords: forest work; wages; piece rate; time rate; aging workers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

It has been in Finland discussed to replace the present straight piece rate by a time rate in forest work. The low earnings of aged forest workers, the health hazards, its tendency to cause conflicts and considerable income differences are the main drawbacks of the piece rate and the proneness to increase the labour costs is the essential fault of the time rate mentioned in the discussion. One possible solution for these problems is an efficiency bonus (prevents the labour costs from increasing and decreases the income differences) combined with a bonus for age (guarantees high incomes for aged wage earners), a maximum efficiency standard (prevents health hazards), and a group incentive (prevents conflicts).

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4950, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Lisähavaintoja haapatukkien poikkipinta-alan mittaamisesta. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4950.
English title: Auxiliary observations on the measurement of the cross-sectional area of aspen logs.
Original keywords: puutavaranmittaus; tukit; läpimitta; haapa; poikkipinta-ala
English keywords: logs; diameter; cross-sectional area; aspen; timber scaling
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this study the area, 8 diameters, and 16 radii were measured of 174 discs representing aspen logs in a mill. The average difference between the largest and smallest diameter was 18 mm, or 7% of the longest diameter. The difference between the largest and smallest radius was 29 mm, or 22% of the longest radius. The diameter was on the average 2.4 mm longer than the two corresponding radii.

The exact area of each disc was measured using a planimeter. In comparison, the area based on the circle formula the diameter being the arithmetic mean of largest and smallest diameters overestimated the area by 1.7%. The results also indicated that the use of random direction in the measurement of diameter overestimated the cross-sectional area on the average by 1.8%.

The study is continuation of the earlier study where the bibliography is presented. As far as the results are comparable, they support each other.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)

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