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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
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1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'growth'

Category: Article

article id 5632, category Article
Annikki Mäkelä, Veli-Pekka Ikonen, Petteri Vanninen. (1997). An application of process-based modelling to the development of branchiness in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5632. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8534
Original keywords: puutavara; mänty; kasvu; hiili; läpimitta; biomassa; oksat; laatu; latvus; simulointi; kasvumallit; mallit; hiilitase; oksaisus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; carbon balance; simulation; pipe model; timber quality; growth model; branching; crown structure; whorl
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A process-oriented tree and stand growth model is extended to be applicable to the analysis of timber quality, and how it is influenced by silvicultural treatments. The tree-level model is based on the carbon balance and it incorporates the dynamics of five biomass variables as well as tree height, crown base, and breast height diameter. Allocation of carbon is based on the conservation of structural relationships, in particular, the pipe model. The pipe-model relationships are extended to the whorl level, but in order to avoid a 3-dimensional model of entire crown structure, the branch module is largely stochastic and aggregated. In model construction, a top-down hierarchy is used where at each step down, the upper level sets constraints for the lower level. Some advantages of this approach are model consistency and efficiency of calculations, but probably at the cost of reduced flexibility. The detailed structure related with the branching module is preliminary and will be improved when more data becomes available. Model parameters are identified for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Finland, and example simulations are carried out to compare the development of quality characteristics in different stocking densities.

  • Mäkelä, E-mail: am@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ikonen, E-mail: vi@mm.unknown
  • Vanninen, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown
article id 5630, category Article
John H. M. Thornley. (1997). Modelling allocation with transport/conversion processes. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5630. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8532
Keywords: simulation; modelling; partitioning; shoot-root ratio; plant growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A shoot-root carbon:nitrogen allocation model, based on the two processes of transport and chemical conversion, is described and explored. The view is proposed that all allocation models, whether built for the purposes of theoretical investigation or practical application, should start with this irreducible framework. In the present implementation, the processes operate according to: for substrate sources, dependence on shoot and root sizes, with possible product inhibition; for transport, movement down a substrate concentration gradient; for substrate sinks or utilization, linear bisubstrate kinetics. The dynamic and equilibrium properties of the model are explored. Failure of this approach to allocation will indicate to the modeller that additional mechanisms to control the processes are needed, and the mode of failure will indicate the type of mechanisms required. Additional mechanisms are discussed which may involve hormones or teleonomic (goal-seeking) controls, and may be added to the irreducible framework. However, these additions should not replace the irreducible framework of transport and chemical conversion, because they do not in reality. Modifications to the basic model to reflect some possibilities such as ontogenesis with the transition from exponential growth towards a steady state or with the scaling of within-plant transport resistances, the influence of hormones, and active transport, are described.

  • Thornley, E-mail: jt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5629, category Article
Risto Sievänen, Eero Nikinmaa, Jari Perttunen. (1997). Evaluation of importance of sapwood senescence on tree growth using the model Lignum. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5629. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8531
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; growth; growth model; pipe-model theory; sapwood senescence; open-grown trees
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effects of two alternative formulations of sapwood senescence on the behaviour of model LIGNUM (with parameter values adjusted for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing southern Finland) were studied. The two alternatives were autonomous sapwood senescence assuming a maximum age for the tree ring, and sapwood senescence that is controlled by the mortality of foliage. For the latter alternative two hypothetical further mechanisms were stipulated. All the formulations were implemented in LIGNUM. Simulations were made with all model variants for fertile and poor soil conditions using high, normal and low rates of foliage mortality. The simulation results were compared against of a data set consisting of 11 open grown Scots pine trees from southern Finland. Observations of heartwood proportion were used in this study. They show that heartwood starts to increase in trees from age of approximately 20 years onwards. The simulation results showed no differences between fertile and poor soil conditions as regards heartwood formation. Of the variants of foliage-controlled sapwood senescence the one where death of sapwood in a tree segment induces sapwood senescence in the tree parts below only slightly was the best. This and the autonomous sapwood senescence corresponded equally well to the observations. In order to make more refined conclusions additional data and simulations are necessary.

  • Sievänen, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nikinmaa, E-mail: en@mm.unknown
  • Perttunen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown
article id 5628, category Article
Séverine Le Dizès, Philippe Balandier, Pierre Cruiziat, Patrick Jacquet, André Lacointe, Xavier Le Roux, Hervé Sinoquet. (1997). A model for simulating structure-function relationships in walnut tree growth processes. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5628. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8530
Keywords: carbon; simulation; pruning; growth; Juglans regia; structure-function relationships; frame-based representation; rule-based representation; walnut
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An ecophysiological growth process model, called INCA, for simulating the growth and development of a young walnut tree (Juglans regia L.) during three or four years, is presented. This tool, currently under development, aims at integrating architectural and physiological knowledge of the processes involved, in order to give a more rational understanding of the pruning operation. The model describes a simple three-dimensional representation of tree crown, solar radiation interception, photosynthesis, respiration, growth and partitioning of assimilates to leaves, stems, branches and roots. It supports the hypothesis that the tree grows as a collection of semiautonomous, interacting organs that compete for resources, based on daily sink strengths and proximity to sources. The actual growth rate of organs is not predetermined by empirical data, but reflects the pattern of available resources. The major driving variables are solar radiation, temperature, topological, geometrical and physiological factors. Outputs are hourly and daily photosynthate production and respiration, daily dimensional growth, starch storage, biomass production and total number of different types of organ. The user can interact or override any or all of the input variables to examine the effects of such changes on photosynthate production and growth. Within INCA, the tree entities and the surrounding environment are structured in a frame-based representation whereas the processes are coded in a rule-based language. The simulation mechanism is primarily based on the rule chaining capabilities of an inference engine.

  • Le Dizès, E-mail: sl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Balandier, E-mail: pb@mm.unknown
  • Cruiziat, E-mail: pc@mm.unknown
  • Jacquet, E-mail: pj@mm.unknown
  • Lacointe, E-mail: al@mm.unknown
  • Le Roux, E-mail: xl@mm.unknown
  • Sinoquet, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown
article id 5627, category Article
Philippe de Reffye, Daniel Barthélémy, Frédéric Blaise, Thierry Fourcaud, François Houllier. (1997). A functional model of tree growth and tree architecture. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5627. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8529
Keywords: growth; water transport; ecophysiology; plant architecture; assimilate production; mathemetical models; computer simulations; growth simulation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A new approach for modelling plant growth using the software AMAPpara is presented. This software takes into consideration knowledge about plant architecture which has been accumulated at the Plant Modelling Unit of CIRAD for several years, and introduces physiological concepts in order to simulate the dynamic functioning of trees. The plant is considered as a serial connection of vegetative organs which conduct water from the roots to the leaves. Another simple description of the plant as a network of parallel pipes is also presented which allows an analytical formulation of growth to be written. This recurring formula is used for very simple architectures and is useful to understand the role of each organ in water transport and assimilate production. Growth simulations are presented which show the influence of modifications in architecture on plant development.

  • de Reffye, E-mail: pd@mm.unknown (email)
  • Barthélémy, E-mail: db@mm.unknown
  • Blaise, E-mail: fb@mm.unknown
  • Fourcaud, E-mail: tf@mm.unknown
  • Houllier, E-mail: fh@mm.unknown
article id 5626, category Article
Winfried Kurth, Branislav Sloboda. (1997). Growth grammars simulating trees – an extension of L-systems incorporating local variables and sensitivity. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5626. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8527
Keywords: tree growth; competition; allocation; morphology; tree architecture; L-systems; sensitivity; tree structure
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The rule-based formal language of "stochastic sensitive growth grammars" was designed to describe algorithmically the changing morphology of forest trees during their lifetime under the impact of endogenous and exogenous factors, and to generate 3-D simulations of tree structures in a systematic manner. The description in the form of grammars allows the precise specification of structural models with functional components. These grammars (extended L-systems) can be interpreted by the software GROGRA (Growth grammar interpreter) yielding time series of attributed 3-D structures representing plants. With some recent extensions of the growth-grammar language (sensitive functions, local variables) it is possible to model environmental control of shoot growth and some simple allocation strategies, and to obtain typical competition effects in tree stands qualitatively in the model.

  • Kurth, E-mail: wk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Sloboda, E-mail: bs@mm.unknown
article id 5623, category Article
Harry T. Valentine. (1997). Height growth, site index, and carbon metabolism. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5623. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8524
Keywords: height growth; carbon balance; carbon allocation; carbon dioxide; Bertalanffy model; Mitscherlich model; pipe-model theory; site inxed
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A metabolic model of height growth and site index is derived from a parametrization of the annual carbon balance of a tree. The parametrization is based on pipe-model theory. Four principal variants of the height-growth model correspond to four combinations of assumptions regarding carbon allocation: (a) the apical shoot is autonomous or (b) it is not; and (A) the specific rate of elongation of a shoot equals that of a woody root or (B) it does not. The bB model is the most general as it includes the aA, bA, and aB models as special cases. If the physiological parameters are constant, then the aA model reduces to the form of the Mitscherlich model and the bA model to the form of a Bertalanffy model. Responses of height growth to year-to-year variation in atmospheric conditions are rendered through adjustments of a subset of the model's parameters, namely, the specific rate of production of carbon substrate and three specific rates of maintenance respiration. As an example, the effect of the increasing atmospheric concentration of CO2 on the time-course of tree height of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) is projected over 50-year span from 1986. Site index is predicted to increase and, more importantly, the shape of the site-index curve is predicted to change.

  • Valentine, E-mail: hv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5622, category Article
Christine Deleuze, François Houllier. (1997). A transport model for tree ring width. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5622. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8523
Keywords: carbon; optimization; tree growth; stem taper; allocation; environment; wood distribution; functional balance; Münch’s theory; partitioning; process-model; reaction-diffusion; Thornley's model; silvicultural treatments
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Process-based tree growth models are recognized to be flexible tools which are valuable for investigating tree growth in relation to changing environment or silvicultural treatments. In the context of forestry, we address two key modelling problems: allocation of growth which determines total wood production, and distribution of wood along the stem which determines stem form and wood quality. Growth allocation and distribution are the outcome of carbon translocation, which may be described by the Munch theory. We propose a simpler gradient process to describe the carbon distribution in the phloem of conifers. This model is a reformulation of a carbon diffusion-like process proposed by Thornley in 1972. By taking into account the continuity of the cambium along the stem, we obtain a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model which describes both growth allocation between foliage, stem and roots, and growth distribution along the stem. Distribution of wood along the stem is then regarded as an allocation process at a smaller scale. A preliminary sensitivity analysis is presented. The model predicts a strong relationship between morphology and foliage-root allocation. It also suggests how empirical data, such as stem analysis, could be used to calibrate and validate allocation rules in process-based growth models.

  • Deleuze, E-mail: cd@mm.unknown (email)
  • Houllier, E-mail: fh@mm.unknown
article id 5616, category Article
Hannu Hökkä, Virpi Alenius, Timo Penttilä. (1997). Individual-tree basal area growth models for Scots pine, pubescent birch and Norway spruce on drained peatlands in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5616. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8517
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; site quality; Picea abies; Betula pubescens; forest drainage; mixed models; peatlands; growth models
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Models for individual-tree basal area growth were constructed for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), pubescent birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) growing in drained peatland stands. The data consisted of two separate sets of permanent sample plots forming a large sample of drained peatland stands in Finland. The dependent variable in all models was the 5-year basal area growth of a tree. The independent tree-level variables were tree dbh, tree basal area, and the sum of the basal area of trees larger than the target tree. Independent stand-level variables were stand basal area, the diameter of the tree of median basal area, and temperature sum. Categorical variables describing the site quality, as well as the condition and age of drainage, were used. Differences in tree growth were used as criteria in reclassifying the a priori site types into new yield classes by tree species. All models were constructed as mixed linear models with a random stand effect. The models were tested against the modelling data and against independent data sets.

  • Hökkä, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Alenius, E-mail: va@mm.unknown
  • Penttilä, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5607, category Article
Paola Virgilietti, Joseph Buongiorno. (1997). Modeling forest growth with management data: A matrix approach for the Italian Alps. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5607. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8508
Keywords: forest dynamics; succession; growth models; matrix models; Italian Alps; Italy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper reports on the possibility and difficulties in building growth models from past Forest Administration records on cut and growth in the Italian Alps. As a case study, a matrix model was calibrated for uneven-aged forests in the Valsugana valley of the Trentino province. The model gave reliable predictions over 30 years, and plausible long-term forest dynamics, including steady-states that are similar to virgin forests. The results support the view that the current forests are deeply altered as to composition, relative to what would obtain from natural growth. They also support the concept of long cyclic changes in natural stands, gradually approaching a climax state. Shortcomings of the data are that they do not come from an experimental design, they are not always accurate, and they must be supplemented with other information, especially concerning mortality. Still, these cheap and available data can lead to workable models adapted to local conditions, with many management applications.

  • Virgilietti, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown (email)
  • Buongiorno, E-mail: jb@mm.unknown
article id 5582, category Article
Jonathan J. Ruel, Matthew P. Ayres. (1996). Variation in temperature responses among populations of Betula papyrifera. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5582. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9227
Keywords: Betula papyrifera; adaptation; photosynthesis; growth; temperature; climate warming; elevation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

How will global warming affect southern populations of boreal trees? In paper birch, Betula papyrifera (Betulaceae), alpine trees with an evolutionary history of relatively cool summers may be more sensitive to climate warming than valley populations. We evaluated this scenario by growing seedlings from different populations in four temperature treatments (mountain field site, valley field site, and two greenhouse rooms).

Populations from low elevations germinated earlier and had higher germination success than population from high elevations (16.8 vs. 22.0 d; 72% vs. 11%). At the valley site, seedlings from native populations grew faster than seedlings from higher elevations (mean ± SE = 0.25 ± 0.02 vs. 0.09 ± 0.04 mm · cm-1 · d-1) while at the mountain site, all seedlings grew at similar rates. Seedling grown in cooler environments had higher root : shoot ratios, perhaps to compensate for temperature limitations in nutrient uptake by roots. Leaf area varied among populations but was not affected by environmental differences across the field sites. Net photosynthetic rates at valley temperatures were higher for seedlings grown in the valley than for seedling grown in the mountains or the warm greenhouse (12.0 vs. 10.3 and 5.8 μmoles · m-2 · s-1), perhaps due to adaptive phenotypic adjustments. Climatic warming could rapidly produce important phenotypic changes in birch trees (e.g. decreased root : shoot ratio, reduced growth in alpine populations). On a longer time-scale, warming could also result in genetic changes as natural selection favours valley genotypes in alpine sites where they are presently rare.

  • Ruel, E-mail: jr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ayres, E-mail: ma@mm.unknown
article id 5581, category Article
Oddvar Skre, Knut Nes. (1996). Combined effects of elevated winter temperatures and CO2 on Norway spruce seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5581. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9226
Keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; photosynthesis; provenance; growth; Norway; N fertilization; carbon dioxide; winter temperatures
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A total of 1,800 3-year old seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) from two Norwegian and one German provenance were treated with two different nitrogen levels during the 1992 growth season. The plants were kept during the following winter at two different temperature levels. In the spring of 1993, the nutrient application was resumed, and the plants were divided between three different treatments, 350 and 650 p.p.m. in open top chamber and a control plot outside the chambers. This treatment was repeated also during the following 1994 growth season.

The growth and primary production were studied by photosynthesis experiments and by non-destructive growth measurements. The result indicate that raised winter temperature may lead to increased needle loss and reduced growth the following season, particularly in northern provenances. Carbon dioxide significantly influenced growth in addition to nutrient level and winter temperature. High CO2 also seemed to cause increased photosynthesis at early season, and earlier budbreak and growth cessation than in control plants.

  • Skre, E-mail: os@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nes, E-mail: kn@mm.unknown
article id 5574, category Article
Jouni Vettenranta. (1996). Effect of species composition on economic return in a mixed stand of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5574. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9219
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; net present value; mixed forests; growth models; tree species composition; forest management practices; felling methods; valuation; soil expectation value; treatment programme
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of species mixture was studied in a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by simulating around 100 different treatment schedules during the rotation in a naturally regenerated even-aged stand located on a site of medium fertility in North Karelia, Finland. Both thinning from below and thinning from above were applied. Optimum rotations were determined by maximising the net present value calculated to infinity and different treatment schedules were compared with the net present value over one rotation as per rotation applied. In the optimum treatment programme, the proportion of pines was decreased by half of the basal area in the first thinning stage and by the end of the rotation to about one third. In thinning from above, the proportion of pines can be maintained at a slightly higher level. It is economically profitable to maintain the growing stock capital at approximately the level recommended by Forest Centre Tapio, a semi-governmental forestry authority. With non-optimum species composition, the loss in net present value over one rotation can be about 10 % in thinning from below and about 20 % in thinning from above.

  • Vettenranta, E-mail: jv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5559, category Article
Jari Hynynen. (1995). Predicting the growth response to thinning for Scots pine stands using individual-tree growth models. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 5559. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9210
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; thinnings; height; diameter; stem form; growth models; individual-tree; distance-dependent
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Individual tree-growth models for diameter and height, and a model for the cylindrical stem form factor are presented. The aims of the study were to examine modelling methods in predicting growth response to thinning, and to develop individual-tree, distance-independent growth models for predicting the development of thinned and unthinned stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The models were constructed to be applicable in simulation systems used in practical forest management planning. The models were based on data obtained from eleven permanent thinning experiments located in even-aged Scots pine stands in Southern and Central Finland.

Two alternative models were developed to predict tree diameter growth in thinned and unthinned stands. In the first model, the effect of stand density was described using stand basal area. In the alternative model, an explicit variable was incorporated referring to the relative growth response due to thinning. The magnitude of the growth response was expressed as a function of thinning intensity. The Weibull function was employed to describe the temporal distribution of the thinning response. Both models resulted in unbiased predictions in unthinned and in moderately thinned stands. An explicit thinning variable was needed for unbiased growth prediction in heavily thinned stands, and in order to correctly predict the dynamics of the growth response.

In the height growth model, no explicit thinnning variable referring thinning was necessary for growth prediction in thinned stands. The stem form factor was predicted using the model that included tree diameter and tree height as regressor variables. According to the results obtained, the information on the changes in the diameter/height ratio following the thinning is sufficient to predict the change in stem form.

  • Hynynen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5541, category Article
Anneli Viherä-Aarnio. (1994). Performance of micropropagated plants of silver birch (Betula pendula) in a field trial. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 5541. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9181
Keywords: Betula pendula; forestry; growth; mortality; seedlings; clones; tissue culture; clonal propagation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Micropropagated and seed-borne plants of sliver birch (Betula pendula Roth) were compared for survival and growth in a field trial at the age of six years. Three clones for micropropagation were selected from open-pollinated progenies of selected southern Finnish plus trees at the age of 17 and 20. The three seed-borne lots were of southern Finnish stand origin. The best two lots of the experiment as regards the height and diameter growth at the age of six were the clones. The best of these differed significantly from the best-growing seed-grown lot. The weakest lot of the experiment was also a clone which was clearly slow-growing with a dense and bushy crown. Survival of the material was high (mean = 94%), and there was no damage caused by voles and elks, for example. The results clearly show that the selection of material for clonal propagation should be done carefully. The clones should also be tested for performance in the field before propagation on a large scale.

  • Viherä-Aarnio, E-mail: av@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5534, category Article
Hyun Kang, Inger Ekberg, Gösta Eriksson, Johan Ununger. (1994). Second and third growth period responses of Picea abies families to first growth period photoperiodic, light intensity and temperature treatments. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 5534. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9174
Keywords: Picea abies; growth; maturation; temperature; seedlings; photoperiod; environmental effects; genetic effects; juvenility
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Seedlings of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. full-sib families of contrasting origins were cultivated in a phytotron under different photoperiodic, light-intensity and temperature treatments during their first growth period. The effects of the treatments on juvenile growth traits – whether enhanced or delayed maturation was induces – were observed during the two subsequent growth periods. The following hypotheses were tested: (A) Enhanced maturation can be induced in the first growth period from sowing with (i) a long period of continuous light during active growth (24 weeks vs. 8 weeks); (ii) a shorter night during bud maturation (12 h vs. 16 h); high temperature (25°C vs. 20°C) during (iii) active growth, growth cessation and bud maturation; and during (iv) the latter part of growth cessation and bud maturation only. (B) Delayed maturation can be induced after (i) low light intensity during growth cessation and bud maturation (114 μmol m-2 s-1 vs. 340 μmol m-2 s-1); low temperature (15°C vs. 20°C) during (ii) active growth, growth cessation and bud maturation; and during (iii) the latter part of growth cessation and bud maturation only.

The most dramatic effect was observed after 24 weeks of continuous light during active growth. All traits showed a significantly more mature performance in the second growth period compared with the control. The effect for all but one trait was carried over to the third growth period. This is in accordance with the hypothesis that the activity of apical shoot meristems controls the maturation process. For the other treatments there was only weak or no support for the hypothesis of induction of enhanced or delayed maturation. Strong family effects were observed for all traits. Differential responses of the various latitudinal families were observed, suggesting that family effects must be considered to predict and interpret correctly how plants will respond to environmental effects.

  • Kang, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ekberg, E-mail: ie@mm.unknown
  • Eriksson, E-mail: ge@mm.unknown
  • Ununger, E-mail: ju@mm.unknown
article id 5529, category Article
Jukka Lippu. (1994). Patterns of dry matter partitioning and 14C-photosynthate allocation in 1.5-year-old Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 5529. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9169
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; carbon; photosynthesis; root growth; allocation; shoot growth; 14C-incorporation; dry matter partitioning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Change in dry matter partitioning, 14C-incorporation, and sink 14C-activity of 1.5-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in growth chamber conditions were studied during a 91-day experiment. On five sampling dates, seedlings were labelled with 14CO2 and whole-plant allocation patterns were determined. Intensively growing shoots modified the dry matter partitioning: during shoot growth the proportion of roots decreased but after that it increased. Based on their large proportion of dry matter, the needles (excluding current needles) were the strongest sink of carbon containing 40% of the incorporated 14C. Despite their small initial sink size, the elongating shoots (current main shoot + current branch) and their needles were the second strongest sink (30–40% of the total 14C) which reflects their high physiological activity. The proportion of 14C in the current year’s main shoot increased during shoot growth but decreased as the growth began to decline after 70 days. 10–20% of the total assimilated 14C was translocated to the roots. Laterals above 2nd order were the strongest sink in the root system, containing twice as much 14C as the other roots together. Alternation between shoot and root growth can be seen clearly: carbon allocation to roots was relatively high before and after the period of intensive shoot growth. Changes in root sink strength resulted primarily from changes in root sink activity rather than sink size.

  • Lippu, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5400, category Article
Kari J. Jokinen, Don J. Durzan. (1994). Properties of rescued embryonal suspensor masses of Norway spruce determined by the genotype and the environment in vitro. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 2 article id 5400. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9165
Keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; growth; somatic embryogenesis; callus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

53 genotypes of embryonal suspensor masses (ESMs) rescued from mature seeds of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were examined for their pattern of growth and development under standardized culture conditions in vitro. Patterns were classified according to the colour of the colonies grown in darkness, clarity of cell masses and proembryos in the mucilaginous ESM, surface boundary topology of colonies, structure of suspensors, growth rate of the ESM, and recovery of mature embryos.

Five distinctive major growth patterns were observed among ESM colonies under standardized culture conditions. The multiplication of proembryos and early embryos by cleavage and budding polyembryony was the main factor contributing to proliferation and colony growth and further determined the morphology of the colonies. Callus and teratological structures were induced from early embryos by changing the standardized culture conditions i.e. inadequate subculture, excessive dose of 2,4-D in the medium and premature exposure of the colonies to light. Results enable the selection of ESM genotypes for the predictable recovery of mature somatic embryos.

  • Jokinen, E-mail: kj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Durzan, E-mail: dd@mm.unknown
article id 5525, category Article
Jari Miina. (1994). Spatial growth model for Scots pine on drained peatland. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 5525. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9159
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; drained peatlands; growth models; linear models
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A spatial growth model is presented for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on a dwarf-shrub pine mire drained 14 years earlier. The growth model accounts for the variation in tree diameter growth owing to the competition between trees, the distance between tree and ditch, and the time passed since drainage. The model was used to study the effect of tree arrangement on the post-drainage growth of a pine stand. Clustering of trees decreased the volume growth by 9–20% as compared to a regular spatial distribution. Stand volume growth, for a given number of stems, was at its maximum and variation in diameter growth at its minimum when the stand density on the ditch border was 1.5–5 higher than midway between two adjacent ditches.

  • Miina, E-mail: jm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5518, category Article
Heikki Hänninen, Seppo Kellomäki, Kaisa Laitinen, Brita Pajari, Tapani Repo. (1993). Effect of increased winter temperature on the onset of height growth of Scots pine: a field test of a phenological model. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5518. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15679
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; height growth; frost damage; bud burst; climatic change
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to a recently presented hypothesis, the predicted climatic warming will cause height growth onset of trees during mild spells in winter and heavy frost damage during subsequent periods of frost in northern conditions. The hypothesis was based on computer simulations involving a model employing air temperature as the only environmental factor influencing height growth onset. In the present study, the model was tested in the case of eastern Finnish Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings. Four experimental saplings growing on their natural site were surrounded by transparent chambers in autumn 1990. The air temperature in the chambers was raised during the winter to present an extremely warm winter under the predicted conditions of a double level of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The temperature treatment hastened height growth onset by two months as compared to the control saplings, but not as much as expected on the basis of the previous simulation study. This finding suggests that 1) the model used in the simulation study needs to be developed further, either by modifying the modelled effect of air temperature or by introducing other environmental factors, and 2) the predicted climatic warming will not increase the risk of frost damage in trees as much as suggested by the previous simulation study.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hänninen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Laitinen, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown
  • Pajari, E-mail: bp@mm.unknown
  • Repo, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
article id 5512, category Article
Christian Messier, Pasi Puttonen. (1993). Coniferous and non-coniferous fine-root and rhizome production in Scots pine stands using the ingrowth bag method. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5512. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15673
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; ground vegetation; undergrowth; roots; root systems; fine-root production; ingrowth bag; rhizomes; underwood
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Coniferous and non-coniferous fine root and rhizome production was measured after one growing season using the ingrowth bag method in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands differing in ages from 7 to 105 years in Southern Finland. Total fine-root production decreased from the 7-year to 20-year-old stands, and then increased slightly in the 85- to 105-year-old stands. Most of the total fine-root biomass in the youngest age groups came from non-conifer species, whereas most of the total fine-root biomass in the three older age groups came from conifer species. The maximum coniferous fine-root production was found to occur at crown closure in the 11- to 13-year-old stands. Rhizome production was the lowest and highest in the 20- and 85- to 105-year-old stands, respectively. The increase in rhizome production in the 85- to 105-year-old stands was associated with an abundant understory cover of Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea and an increase in light penetration. The ingrowth bag method was found to be useful in assessing the relative fine-root production among species-group and successional stages of Scots pine stands.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Messier, E-mail: cm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Puttonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 5510, category Article
Esa Koistinen, Sauli Valkonen. (1993). Models for height development of Norway spruce and Scots pine advance growth after release in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5510. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15671
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; Finland; growth models; advance growth; release cut
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Mixed linear models were constructed to describe the height development of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) advance growth after release cutting. The models related density of the overstory, time elapsed since release cutting and tree size with annual height increment. Parameters of preliminary models were estimated from a limited data set to judge the feasibility of the approach for further studies.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Koistinen, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
  • Valkonen, E-mail: sv@mm.unknown
article id 5503, category Article
Juha Heiskanen. (1993). Variation in water retention characteristics of peat growth media used in tree nurseries. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 2 article id 5503. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15664
Keywords: density; production; water retention; container grown plants; porosity; growth media; substrates; planting stock; hydraulic conductivity; Sphagnum peat media; physical properties
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The water retention characteristics and their variation in tree nurseries and related physical properties were determined for commercially produced growth media made of light slightly humified Sphagnum peat. A total of 100 samples of peat media were collected from filled seedling trays in the greenhouses of four Finnish nurseries in 1990. In addition, the physical properties were determined for two growth media made of compressed peat sheets and chips. The variation in water retention characteristics in nurseries was described using linear models with fixed and random effects. The sources of variation in the mixed linear models were producer, grade, batch (greenhouse) and sample (tray).

The water retention of the peat media at different matric potentials was comparable to that given in the literature. The media shrank an average of 0–16% during desorption. The peat grades were finer than the Nordic quality standards for peat growth media. Particles < 1 mm increased and particles 1–5 mm decreased the water retention characteristics measured. The greatest total variation in water retention was at -1 kPa. The water retention of the peat media differed least at -5 and -10 kPa. The water retention characteristics of media from different producers usually differed significantly. The grades, on the other hand, did not differ from each other in their water retention characteristics nor were there significant interactions between producer and grade. The batch effect was marked but was lower than the effect within batches, where the sample (tray) effect was greater than the effect due to random measurement error. At -10 kPa, the measurement error was, however, clearly greater than the sample effect. The random measurement error was comparable to the batch effect. Aeration of the growth media is dependent on the water content retained between saturation and -1 kPa. The water availability to seedlings at the nursery phase is affected mainly by water retention between -1 and -10 kPa.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5487, category Article
Maarit Kytö. (1992). Lygus bugs as agents of growth disorders in permethrin-treated pine seedlings in regeneration areas. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5487. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15648
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; growth disorders; seedlings; Lygus; permethrin; bud disorders
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The ability of Lygus bugs to cause growth disorders in permethrin-treated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings after planting was studied in two regeneration areas. There were three treatments: exposure of the seedlings to Lygus, mechanical protection of the seedlings from insects, and control seedlings. There were no significant differences in the rate of growth disorders between the treatments. The permethrin application protected the seedlings against Lygus bugs in the early summer, as well as when the bug abundance was low. The development of these seedlings, as well as the multiple-leadered and bushy seedlings on a third regeneration area, was followed for two years. Multiple leaders reduced height growth and bud number of a seedling, but caused marked losses in growth only when the seedlings still had multiple leaders the following year, or when they formed several, equally developed stems.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kytö, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5475, category Article
Jyrki Hytönen. (1992). Allelopathic potential of peatland plant species on germination and early seedling growth of Scots pine, silver birch and downy birch. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5475. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15636
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Betula; seedling growth; seed germination; alleopathy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The potential alleopathic inhibitive effects of aqueous extracts of 13 peatland plant species on germination, radicle and seedling growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver and downy birch (Betula pendula Roth., B. pubescens Ehrh.) were studied. Freshly cut plant parts were finely ground, mixed with distilled water and agitated. The proportions of fresh plant mass in the mass-based extracts varied within the range of 1, 5, 10 and 20% (w/w). The seeds were germinated in petri dishes moistened with the plant extracts. In a separate experiment growth of birch seedlings irrigated with the extracts was studied.

Ledum palustre, Vaccinium uliginosum and Empetrum nigrum extracts, and in certain experiments extracts of other species, inhibited the germination of Scots pine and birch seeds. Results from the different experiments were not, however, fully consistent. None of the low (1% w/w) extract concentrations had any effect on germination. Strong extract concentrations (20% w/w) inhibited germination of pine seedlings significantly. The extracts affected only slightly the growth of potted birch seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hytönen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5470, category Article
Juha Heiskanen, Jukka Laitinen. (1992). A measurement system for determining temperature, water potential and aeration of growth medium. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 5470. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15629
Keywords: peat; diffusion; measuring methods; matric potential; oxygen; sensors; growth media
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A measurement system developed for the parallel and real-time measurement of temperature, matric potential and oxygen diffusion rate (ODR) of a growth medium was assessed. The system consisted of a portable computer, a datalogger, temperature sensors, tensiometers and an ODR-meter with Pt-sensors.

For the measurements, proper sensor contact with the growth medium was needed. For matric potential measurement, appropriate shape and material of the tensiometer tips should be selected for different measurement purposes. The determination of oxygen diffusion rate is based on single, non-continuous measurements. The ODR-measurement required special care with the insertion and handling of the electrodes and selection of applied voltage. The ODR-measurement of a coarse peat medium was applicable only at matric potentials > -5 kPa. This measurement system was shown to be useful and suitable for accurate determination of thermal-, water- and aeration conditions of a growth medium under greenhouse conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laitinen, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
article id 5469, category Article
Risto Heikkilä, Kari Löyttyniemi. (1992). Growth response of young Scots pines to artificial shoot breaking simulating moose damage. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 5469. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15627
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; height growth; timber quality; Alces alces; stems; diameter growth; breakage; moose damage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The main stem of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees was cut off halfway along the current leading shoot and the two previous years’ leading shoots to simulate moose (Alces alces) damage. Trees of the same size were chosen as controls before treatments. The experiment was inspected ten years after artificial stem breakage. Removing the current leading shoot and the second shoot did not essentially affect the height and diameter growth of the trees. Removal down to the third shoot reduced the height as well as diameter growth. The average loss in growth was equivalent to less than one year’s growth. When the stem was cut off at the second or third shoot, stem crookedness and the presence of knots resulted in stem defects that will subsequently reduce the sawtimber quality. A high proportion of the stem defects will obviously still be visible at the first thinning cutting. Removing injured trees as pulpwood and pruning the remaining parts of cut stems evidently improves the quality of pine stand with moose damage.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heikkilä, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown
article id 5462, category Article
Wladyslaw Chalupka. (1991). Usefulness of hormonal stimulation in the production of genetically improved seeds. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5462. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15620
Keywords: conifers; seed orchards; seed production; flowering regulation; growth regulation; gibberellins
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Application of growth regulators, primarily gibberellins, has become an efficient method of flowering regulation in many coniferous forest trees. In this paper some results are discussed with respect to various genetic processes in seed orchards. It is concluded that there are still several unsolved problems in the regulation of flowering in forest seed orchards. These problems are related to different genetic processes occurring in the seed orchards and they should be taken into account in endeavouring to produce genetically improved seeds. 

  • Chalupka, E-mail: wc@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5450, category Article
Bo Långström, Claes Hellqvist. (1991). Shoot damage and growth losses following three years of Tomicus-attacks in Scots pine stands close to a timber storage site. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 5450. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15604
Keywords: Picea abies; growth; forest damage; Tomicus piniperda; Tomicus minor; timber storage; insect damages; shoots
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Shoot losses due to maturation feeding by pine shoot beetles (Tomicus piniperda (L.) and T. minor (Hart.), Col., Scolytidae) and subsequent growth losses were studied in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing at different distances from a timber yard, where pine timber was stored during the years 1982–84. In autumn 1985, pine trees were felled at 20, 40, 80, 500 and 1,500 m distance from the timber yard, five trees in each distance class. Trees were analysed for beetle attack, needle biomass and growth. In autumn 1988, increment cores were taken from 20 trees in each distance class.

In 1985, different damage estimates showed that beetle damage was more than 10-fold in the crowns of pine trees growing close to the timber yard as compared to less damaged trees in greater distance. Crude needle biomass estimates indicated that the trees attacked most had lost more than half of the total foliage. Following three years of attack, basal area growth decreased for 2–3 years and recovered during the subsequent 3 years, the total period of loss thus being 5–6 years. The loss in volume growth during 1983–85 was ca. 70, 40, 20 and 10% at 20, 40, 80 and 500 m distance from the beetle source, respectively, compared to the stand at 1,500. Growth losses did not occur until the number of beetle-attacks, ”pegs”, exceeded ca. 200 per tree. The highest observed growth losses occurred in trees with more than 1,000 pegs per tree.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Långström, E-mail: bl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hellqvist, E-mail: ch@mm.unknown
article id 5449, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Taneli Kolström. (1991). Effect of spatial pattern of trees on the growth of Norway spruce stand. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 5449. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15603
Keywords: Picea abies; thinnings; growth; spatial distribution; simulation models; biological competition
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The simulation model consists of a method to generate theoretical Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands, and a spatial growth model to predict the growth of these stands. The stand generation procedure first predicts the tree diameters from a few stand characteristics and from tree locations. Tree age and height are predicted using spatial models. Spatial growth models were made for both diameter growth and basal area growth. Past growth was used as a predictor in one pair of models and omitted in another pair. The stand generation method and the growth models were utilized in studying the effect of tree arrangement and thinning method on the growth of a Norway spruce stand.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kolström, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
article id 5445, category Article
Taneli Kolström. (1991). Kuusen kylvö- ja istutuskoe viljavilla kivennäismailla Pohjois-Karjalassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5445. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15599
English title: Results from the sowing and planting experiment of Norway spruce (Picea abies) on fertile sites in North Karelia, Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; kylvö; istutus; metsänuudistaminen; heinäntorjunta; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu
English keywords: Picea abies; height growth; planting; mortality; sowing; artificial regeneration; survival rate; control of ground vegetation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Different methods of sowing and planting of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were compared on fertile sites in North Karelia (62°20’N, 29°35’E, 85–120 m a.s.l.). The planting material were 4-year-old bare-rooted transplants, 2-year-old bare-rooted seedlings, and 2-year-old containerized seedlings raised in plastic greenhouse. The sowing methods were band sowing and shelter sowing. Ground vegetation was controlled during the first growing season mechanically or chemically, or the control was omitted totally.

Planting of spruce gave better results than sowing. After eight growing seasons there were sowed seedlings left in 30% of the sowing pots. The average height of them was 35 cm. Seedling survival was best with large bare-rooted transplants (91%). Survival of containerized seedlings was 79% and of small bare-rooted transplants 71%. The average height of large bare-rooted transplants was 131 cm, of containerized seedlings 86 cm and small bare-rooted seedlings 68 cm.

Sowing is not an advisable method for regeneration of spruce due to the small survival rate and slow initial development when ground vegetation is controlled only once. Also 2-year-old seedlings gave a satisfactory result in regeneration. Seedlings raised in greenhouse were more sensitive to frost damage than seedlings grown on open ground.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kolström, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5430, category Article
Winai Sirikul, Markku Kanninen. (1990). Shoot growth and its clonal variation in Pinus kesiya. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5430. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15584
Keywords: phenology; clonal variation; shoot growth; Pinus kesiya; Thailand
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Shoot elongation of Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon was studied using 2-year old grafts in a clonal seed orchard of the Pine Improvement Centre, located at the Huey Bong Experimental Station near Chiangmai, Thailand (19° 17’ N, 99° 15’ E, 900 m a.s.l.).

The seed orchard had a completely randomized block design with 30 blocks and 80 single-tree plots (clones) in each block. Eleven clones in four blocks were selected out of the total of 80 grafts (clones). From each graft, three lateral branches at the height of 1.6 m from the ground level were selected. Thus, total of 109 branches were measured. Shoot length of branches was measured between July 3, 1983 and March 11, 1984 at approximately bi-weekly intervals. Method of classical growth analysis were used in describing the shoot growth.

The annual shoot growth pattern of P. kesiya exhibited two consecutive sigmoid growth curves, i.e. it consisted of two flushes of shoot elongation, both formed by free growth. Thus, the pattern of shoot growth resembled the caribaea pattern. However, the annual shoot was composed of summer and winter shoots. These could be distinguished from each other by the reproductive organs, which always occur on winter shoot. The shoot contributed 61% of the total annual shoot length.

There were significant differences in the pattern of shoot elongation between the studied clones, which may reflect differences in the adaptation to different environmental conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Sirikul, E-mail: ws@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5409, category Article
Jukka Lippu, Pasi Puttonen. (1990). Istutustaimen juuriston alkukehitys kasvupaikalla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5409. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15561
English title: The early development of seedling roots at the planting site: A literature review.
Original keywords: menetelmät; maan kosteus; maan lämpötila; juuriston kehitys; fotosynteesituote; fysiologinen sopeutuminen; istutustaimet
English keywords: planting; soil temperature; root growth; soil moisture; photosynthates; acclimatization; methodology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The structure and functional responses of roots in planted seedlings when acclimatizing at the planting site are reviewed. A wide range of methods for classifying roots has been employed, and the terminology used is not uniform. Roots can be classified by their morphology, origin, and function. The temporal and spatial variation of soil temperature, moisture, structure, and concentration of nutrients are among the most important properties to which root systems acclimatize. In order to reliably describe the function of the root system, several parameters usually have to be measured. Studies on the root-soil interface have indicated that roots are not necessarily in continuous contact with soil. The control mechanism of root growth is inadequately known and theoretically formulated. Generally, only the mass needed for water and nutrient uptake has been allocated to the roots. However, the amount of photosynthates allocated to the roots is high. Acclimatization of seedlings out at the planting site is a complicated process which is influenced by the growing conditions at both the nursery and at the site. The function, distribution and structure of roots are controlled by the environment in a way similar to the shoot, but the control mechanism is imperfectly known.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Lippu, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Puttonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 5388, category Article
Martti Varmola. (1989). Männyn istutustaimikoiden lustonleveysmalli. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5388. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15546
English title: A model for ring width of planted Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; taimikot; lustonleveys; kasvumallit; puuaineen laatu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; wood quality; spacing; ring width; growth models
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ring width at breast height is presented as a function of stem radius at breast height, the ratio between the diameter of a tree and the basal area median diameter, site index, and density of stand. By means of a conversion model ring width at stump height can be estimated as a function of ring width at breast height.

According to previous studies substantially better wood quality can be expected if mean width near the pith at stump height decreases from 3 to 2 mm. According to the present study only on the poorest sites suitable for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) planting (poor Vaccinium type) the ring width is less than 3 mm at stump height even in the thickest trees. On more fertile sites a substantial increase in the recommended planting density is required, if the mean ring width is aimed to be less than 3 mm. On the best sites it is impossible to reach mean ring width of less than 2 mm, when the density is less than 4,000 stems/ha. Only the thinnest trees on the poorest sites can have a mean ring width less than 2mm.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Varmola, E-mail: mv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5384, category Article
Raija-Liisa Petäistö. (1989). Syyskoulinnan ajankohdan vaikutus männyn taimien kuiva-ainepitoisuuteen, neulasten pitolujuuteen ja juurten uudistumiskykyyn. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 3 article id 5384. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15541
English title: The influence of autumn transplanting date on the dry matter content, needle retention values and root regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings.
Original keywords: mänty; taimitarhat; koulinta; kuiva-ainepitoisuus; juurten kasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; root growth; nurseries; transplanting; dry matter content
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The experiment was performed in 1982–85 at the forest tree nursery in Suonenjoki, Central Finland. There were four to five transplanting dates ranging from the beginning of August to the end of September. The dry matter content, root regeneration and needle retention value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were examined. Development of the needle retention value in autumn was followed in nurseries at Suonenjoki, Rantasalmi, Mäntyharju and Taavetti in 1982.

Root regeneration was usually the worse, the later the seedlings were transplanted in the autumn. The dry matter content was generally lowest in the seedlings transplanted later in the autumn, and also to some extent in the seedlings transplanted at the beginning of August. The needle retention value increased as autumn advanced. Early transplanting in autumn had an adverse effect on the development of needle retention, and the values were highest in the seedlings transplanted later in the autumn.

The PDF includes an abstract English.

  • Petäistö, E-mail: rp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5383, category Article
Pasi Miettinen, Aino Smolander. (1989). Growth requirements of Frankia strains isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia, and the influence of the isolates on the growth of the host plant. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 3 article id 5383. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15540
Keywords: Casuarina; Frankia; growth response; nitrogen fixation; Kenya
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Frankia was isolated from the root nodules of Casuarina equisetifolia L. seedlings, grown in a growth chamber, after inoculation with soil originating from an old east Kenyan casuarina forest. Optimum pH for the growth of the two isolates ranged from 6.4 to 6.9. The optimum temperature for their growth was 32°C. The growth of these cultures ceased at NaCl concentration above 2%. The influence of the isolates on the growth of the host plant was determined in a growth chamber experiment in which an American Frankia strain (HFPCc13) was used as a reference. The biomass of the inoculated seedlings was 2.4–4.1 fold those of the non-inoculated control seedlings at the end of the 7-month experiment.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Miettinen, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Smolander, E-mail: as@mm.unknown
article id 5376, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1989). Predicting diameter growth in even-aged Scots pine stands with a spatial and non-spatial model. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5376. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15533
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; growth prediction; spatial distribution; growth models; tree models
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The single tree growth models presented in this study were based on about 4,000 trees measured in 50 even-aged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample plots with varying density, spatial pattern of trees and stand age. Predictors that used information about tree locations decreased the relative standard error of estimate by 10 percentage points (15%), if past growth was not used as a predictor, and about 15 percentage points (30%) when past growth was one of the predictors. When ranked according to the degree of determination, the best growth models were obtained for the basal area increment, the next best for relative growth, and the poorest for diameter increment. The past growth decreased the relative standard error of estimate by 15–20 percentage points, but did not make the spatial predictors unnecessary. The degree of determination of the spatial basal area growth model was almost 80% if the past growth was unknown and almost 90% if the past growth was known. Variables that described the amount of removed competition did not improve the growth models.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5363, category Article
Veli Pohjonen, Timo Pukkala. (1988). Profitability of establishing Eucalyptus globulus plantations in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5363. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15520
Keywords: reforestation; Ethiopia; Eucalyptus globulus; simulation of growth; economic analysis; land use planning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The economic analysis is based on computer simulations which covered a seedling rotation and three successive coppice rotations. Calculations were carried out for the four site productivity classes in Eucalyptus globulus plantations. The rotation length that maximized the land expectation value is 12–20 years for seedling rotation and 8–16 years for coppice rotations with discounting rates 2–8%. The mean wood production is over 40 m3/ha/a in the best site class and about 10 m3/ha/a in the poorest class with rotation lengths ranging from 10 to over 20 years. Thinnings increase the wood production and land expectation value by a few percentage points. In areas suitable to Eucalyptus globulus growth, the land expectation value is considerably higher in forestry than in agriculture, except in very poor areas or with very high rate of interest.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pohjonen, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5360, category Article
Risto Rikala, Pasi Puttonen. (1988). Maan lämpötilan vaikutus kuivuusrasitukseen perustuvassa taimien laatutestissä. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5360. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15517
English title: Effect of soil temperature in drought exposure-based test of seedling quality.
Keywords: Scots pine; soil temperature; root growth; seedling growth; shoot growth; drought; planting shock; desiccation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of root exposure on the shoot and root development of Pinus sylvestris (L.) seedlings was studied at two soil temperatures. Roots of bare-rooted three-year-old seedlings were exposed to the temperature of 32°C at relative humidity of 50–40% for 85, 155 and 270 minutes which corresponds to accumulated water pressure deficit of 24, 47 and 91 mbar·h, respectively. Thereafter, seedlings were grown for 65 days at the soil temperatures of 12 and 23°C. Drought exposures inhibited new root initiation, delayed shoot elongation, and reduced shoot and needle growth. The stronger the exposure the larger the proportion of needles from the lower part of current shoot that remained undeveloped. Low soil temperature increased the effect of exposures so that needle elongation and initiation of new root tips of seedlings in cold soil with the longest exposure were inhibited totally. Root growth assessments made in warm soil may overestimate the acclimation potential of planted seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Rikala, E-mail: rr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Puttonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 5359, category Article
Olli Haltia, Markku Simula. (1988). Linkages of forestry and forest industry in the Finnish economy. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5359. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15516
Keywords: forestry; Finland; employment; national economy; forest industries; input-output analysis; sectoral growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose was to analyse the importance of forestry and forest industry in the Finnish economic development since the 1950’s, and to find out how the sector has contributed to the growth of the national economy through other sectors. Data were derived from the input-output tables of 1959, 1970 and 1980. Information provided by Hirschmanian linkages was expanded by taking into account e.g. induced, consumption, final demand and absorption linkages. The linkages of forestry and forest industry had multiplied during the study period. Both final demand linkages and intermediate product linkages were significant. The sector’s contribution to the development of metal and machinery and equipment industries as well as that of energy/water supply was significant. Integration with most other sectors has increased. Indirect production coefficients of forestry and forest industry were larger than on average in manufacturing. Because of labour productivity growth, production and employment coefficients were different.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Haltia, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Simula, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown
article id 5353, category Article
Øystein Johnsen, Inger Apeland. (1988). Screening early autumn frost hardiness among progenies from Norway spruce seed orchards. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5353. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15510
Keywords: frost hardiness; Picea abies; provenance; breeding; progeny testing; growth cessation; cold tolerance; bud-set
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Nursery grown Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings from 12 different seed orchards were tested for early autumn frost hardiness using artificial freezing tests. Seed orchards containing grafted parent clones originating from high altitudes produced seedlings showing higher damage than commercial control seed lots of the commercial controls. A seed orchard containing both German and Norwegian clones produced seedlings showing high damage. The correlation between bud-set and frost damage was high at the provenance level, but lower at the half- and full-sib-levels. Families with good growth capacity in progeny field tests showed large between-family variation in frost damage in the artificial freezing tests. This indicates the possibility to combine high growth rate with acceptable autumn frost hardiness in the selection of parent trees.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Johnsen, E-mail:
  • Apeland, E-mail: ia@mm.unknown
article id 5338, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1988). Effect of spatial distribution of trees on the volume increment of a young Scots pine stand. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 5338. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15495
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; simulation; competition; spatial distribution; growth model; spatial pattern
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of grouping on 5-year old volume increment was studied by a simulation technique using spatial growth models estimated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in the phase of the first commercial thinning. A total of 24 model stands were regenerated by applying 12 spatial processes for two different diameter distributions. In addition to model stands, 6 different thinnings were simulated in two real stands. The clustering of trees was described with Fisher’s grouping index and by estimating the relative interception of diffuse radiation. In model stands with constant diameter distribution the correlation between the grouping index and volume increment ranged from -0.81 to -0.91. The correlation between volume increment and interception was 0.81–0.83 with one diameter distribution and 0.70 if both distributions were combined. In one thinned stand the correlation between the growth estimate and grouping index varied between -0.33 and 0.76. The correlation between interception and growth was about 0.30 in one stand and 0.72 if both stands were combined. Small irregularities do not decrease the volume production of a young Scots pine stand, but if the clustering is considerable or there are reasonably wide harvest strips, growth will be reduced by 10–20%.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5312, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Siementuotannon vaikutus kuusen ja männyn vuotuiseen kasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5312. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15469
English title: Effect of seed production on the annual growth of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; Lappi; siemensato; sädekasvu; kesäpuu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; Finland; latewood; Lapland; radial growth; seed crop
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study material consisted of 13 rather old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 17 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands located in different parts of Finland. In each stand the seed crops, radial growth and amount of latewood were measured during a period of about ten years. Seed production reduces the radial growth of spruce and pine in the year of seed maturing. In Southern and Central Finland also the proportion of latewood is reduced. Seed production accounts for about 14% of the variation in radial growth of a spruce stand growing in Lapland, and 27% in other parts of Finland. In pine stands the seed crop explains 19% of the variation in radial growth in Lapland, and only 7% in the rest of Finland. In spruce stands an average seed crop reduces radial growth by 14% in Lapland and 5% in the rest of the country. An abundant seed production causes a reduction of about 20%. In southern parts of Finland, the proportion of latewood is reduced by 5% in an average seed year and by 24% in a good seed year. In pine stands an average seed crop decreases the width of annual ring by 5%, and a good seed crop by 15%. Outside Lapland, also the proportion of latewood is reduced: in an average seed year by 5%, and in a good seed year by 16%. The reduction in volume growth of spruce stands due to an average seed crop was estimated to be about 10% in Lapland, and 6% in other parts of Finland. A prolific seed production causes a reduction of 20%. In old pine stands the reduction is 5% in an average seed year, and 15% in a good seed year.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5306, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Taneli Kolström. (1987). Competition indices and the prediction of radial growth in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5306. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15463
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; stand characteristics; simulation; tree growth; competition; radial growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of competition on the radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied in three naturally regenerated stands located in North Karelia, Finland. The competition situation of an individual tree was described with various competition indices which depended on the sizes and distances from the neighbouring trees. One competition index explained about 50% of the variation in 5-year radial growth in one stand. If all stands were combined, one index explained 43.5%, two indices 48.9% and three indices 51.2% of the variation. In one stand, the best competition indices accounted for about 20% of that variation which could not be explained by tree diameter. If all three stands were combined, the best index explained 11% of the residual variation. About 40% of the variation in 5-year radial growth could not be explained by the diameter and competition indices.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kolström, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
article id 5254, category Article
Kristina Palmgren, Anna Saarsalmi, Assi Weber. (1985). Nitrogen fixation and biomass production in some alder clones. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5254. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15433
Keywords: biomass; height growth; Alnus incana; clones; nitrogen fertilization; Alnus glutinosa x incana; nitrogenase activity; nodulation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In a greenhouse experiment that lasted for two years, nitrogenase activity, height growth and biomass production was compared in six clones of alder of which four were clones of Alnus incana and two A. incana x A. glutinos hybrids. In addition, the effect of a fertilizer nitrogen gradient was tested on one of the clones.

Clonal differences in height growth and nitrogenase activity were recorded at the end of the first growing season. The growth rhythm of some of the clones changed markedly during the second growing season but differences in nitrogenase activity between clones levelled out. Nitrogen fertilization suppressed nodulation during the first growing season, and also the following year the nitrogenase activity was significantly higher in alders grown without nitrogen supplement. Height growth and total biomass production was also depressed at rather low nitrogen levels.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Palmgren, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saarsalmi, E-mail: as@mm.unknown
  • Weber, E-mail: aw@mm.unknown
article id 5253, category Article
Carl Johan Westman, Matti Leikola, Tapio Nummi. (1985). Käytännön typpilannoituksen vaikutus varttuneiden kuusikoiden kasvuun ja tuotokseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5253. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15432
English title: The effect of large-scale nitrogen fertilization on growth and yield of mature Norway spruce stands in south-western Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; kannattavuus; metsätyyppi; tilavuuskasvu; lannoitus; typpilannoitus
English keywords: Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; volume growth; profitability; nitrogen fertilization
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method for calculation of the effect of practical fertilization for economic evaluation is presented and discussed. 55 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus type sites were surveyed five to eight years after fertilization with nitrogen (90-170 kg/ha). The relationships between the fertilization effect and various stand characteristics were discussed. Fertilization increased the growth of the stands on an average by 2.2 m3/ha/year. In total the increase of tree growth during the research period was 17.5 m3/ha. This corresponds to a yield of 525–659 FIM/ha.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown (email)
  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown
  • Nummi, E-mail: tn@mm.unknown
article id 5251, category Article
Markku Halinen. (1985). Männyn nuoruusvaiheen kasvunopeuden vaikutus sahatavaran laatuun. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5251. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15430
English title: The effect of the growth rate of young Scots pine on the quality of sawn goods.
Original keywords: mänty; kasvunopeus; sahatavaran laatu; tukin koko; nuoruusvaihe
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; ring width; diameter growth; sawlogs; quality of timber; sawn goods; early growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Totally 653 battens and planks sawn from butt logsof Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were chosen from 3 saw mills. The sawn goods were sorted according to normal sorting principles. In order to determine growth rate in the youth, the mean value of the average ring width was measured at the butt end at various distances from the pith.

The average ring width increased as the quality of the sawn goods decreased. The difference between the quality classes in ring width was measured between 2 and 4 cm from the pith. As the size of sawn goods, and, simultaneously, the log size increased, the average ring width increased in a given quality class. Research reinforced previous results, in which slow diameter growth of young Scots pines has been shown to reflect the good quality of sawn goods.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halinen, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5249, category Article
Jari Parviainen. (1985). Istuttamalla perustetun nuoren männikön, kuusikon, siperianlehtikuusikon ja rauduskoivikon kasvu. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5249. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15428
English title: Growth of young Scots pine, Norway spruce, siberian larch and silver birch plantations.
Original keywords: kuusi; istutus; taimikko; läpimitan kasvu; tilavuuskasvu; pituuskasvu; rauduskoivu; siperianlehtikuusi; kasvunopeus
English keywords: Betula pendula; Picea abies; height growth; planting; diameter growth; volume growth; seedling stands; Larix sibirica
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Early growth of four different tree species (Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Larix sibirica Ledeb and Betula pendula Roth) 16–23 years after planting were compared in a field experiment of 16 square plots established on a stony, grove-like upland (Oxalis-Myrtillus forest type) in Southern Finland. This study gives additional results to the publication Folia Forestalia 386/1979.

At this early stage, the growth of the spruce stand was clearly slower than that of the other species for all parameters to be measured (height, diameter, and volume growth). Height growth was most rapid in the silver birch stand and diameter growth in the larch stand. No clear differences were found in the mean volume of the 100 thickest trees in the stand between the larch and silver birch.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Parviainen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5238, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1985). Suomalaisen kuusen puuaineen vertailua Keski-Euroopassa kasvaneiden kuusi- ja jalokuusilajien puuaineeseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5238. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15417
English title: Norway spruce wood grown in Finland compared with spruce and fir wood grown in Central Europe.
Original keywords: puutavara; Suomi; kuuset; puuaines; Keski-Eurooppa; lujuus; puuaineen tiheys; vuosiluston paksuus; kutistuminen
English keywords: Norway spruce; wood properties; density; Picea; sawn goods; Abies; shrinkage; width of growth rings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this literature review was to compare Finnish Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) sawn goods to Central European spruce sawn goods which contain fir in some amount. However, it was found that no statistically valid comparisons have been made. Therefore, conclusions have been based mainly on the relationship between various properties and growth rate. According to this analysis, most properties of Finnish spruce are better, although small in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5237, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Laine. (1985). Duration of the height growth response of young pine stands to NPK-fertilization on oligotrophic pine bogs in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5237. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15416
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; drained peatlands; Scots pine; Finland; climate; growth; degree days
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This is the latest report in a series of publications from an on-going investigation which is concerned with the influence of different fertilization treatments and ditch spacings on the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings and transplants growing on nutrient drained poor bogs in different parts of Finland. This paper concentrates on duration of the growth response to NPK-fertilization on the experimental plots. The experiment was established and the treatments performed in 1965–66.

The results show that climate, expressed as effective temperature sum (dd°C, threshold +5°C) has a clear influence on the duration of the fertilization effect. In Southern Finland (>1,200 dd°C), the duration was at least 15 years. In Central Finland (1,200–1,000 dd°C), it appears to be almost 10 years, and in Northern Finland (<1,000 dd°C), slightly shorter. The amount of fertilizer applied clearly influenced the duration of the fertilization effect. The dosage of 500 kg/ha (N 14, P 7.8, K 8.3 per cent) had, on average, a shorter duration than the greater dosages of 1,000 and 1,500 kg/ha. However, there was no clear difference between the latter two dosages.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laine, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
article id 5233, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1985). Verhopuuston vaikutus kuusitaimikon kehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5233. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15412
English title: The influence of birch nurse crop (Betula pubescens) on the growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedling stands on drained peatlands.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsänhoito; kasvu; ojitetut suot; suojapuusto; pakkasvauriot; hieskoivu; verhopuusto; verhopuuston tiheys; verhopuuston poisto
English keywords: forest management; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Betula pubescens; tree growth; frost damages; nurse stand
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) are susceptible to early summer frost damage. Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) naturally colonize rich or fairly rich drained peatlands after clear cutting, and can provide protection for developing seedlings. The report describes the development of spruce stands after various types of handing of the birch nurse crops.

Different proportions of birch and spruces did not have any influence on the spruce stand production. In cases where the nurse crop stand is removed when the spruce stand age was 20 years and height 4 m the spruce suffered badly but recovered with time, reaching the spruce stand growing under a nurse stand within the next 20 years. The height growth of spruce depends on the density of the nurse stand, especially on fertile sites. The development of diameter growth also depends on the density of the nurse trees. Removal of the nurse stand in spruce stands on the sites concerned should be done when the spruce stand is 20 years old and at the height of 4 m.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5208, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1984). Effect of tree social status on basic density of Norway spruce. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5208. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15387
Keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; growth rate; canopy layer; basic density
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of growth rate on wood basic density in even-age Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) plantations was studied on the basis of samples collected from 53 stands; 30 trees were sampled in each stand. The prediction of basic density with the help of growth rate and some other tree characteristics could be improved if the social status of the tree was taken into account. Within a stand, the smaller trees had a lower density, while taller trees had a higher density than they should have had on the basis of growth rate alone.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5199, category Article
Pekka Saranpää. (1983). Puuaineen tiheyden ja vuosiluston leveyden vaikutus kuusen iskutaivutuslujuuteen Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5199. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15182
English title: The influence of basic density and growth ring width on the impact strength of Norway spruce wood from Southern and Northern Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; alkuperä; lujuus; puuaineen tiheys; vuosiluston leveys; iskutaivutuslujuus
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; northern Finland; basic density; progeny; Southern Finland; growth ring width; impact strength
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Basic density and absorbed energy in impact bending were measured for 500 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples from Northern and Southern Finland. Statistical analysis showed that the relationship between impact strength and basic density was significant and regression analysis showed that it was linear.

Furthermore, with constant density, the impact strength was higher in Northern than in Southern Finland. This was due to growth ring width: i.e. when density was kept constant the impact strength increased with decreasing growth ring width. In addition, when the growth ring width was kept constant, the basic density of wood was higher in Southern Finland than in Northern Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saranpää, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5198, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Laine, Jarmo Lepola. (1983). Lannoitus- ja sarkaleveyskokeita karujen rämeiden uudistamisessa ja taimikoiden kasvatuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5198. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15181
English title: Fertilization and ditch spacing experiments concerned with regeneration and growth of young Scots pine stands on nutrient poor pine bogs.
Original keywords: mänty; luontainen uudistaminen; istutus; uudistaminen; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; taimikot; pituuskasvu; sarkaleveys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; regeneration; natural regeneration; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; planting; ditch spacing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effects of variations in the intensity of drainage and NPK fertilization on the natural regeneration and planting results and the subsequent development of seedling stands under various climatic conditions on drained nutrient poor pine bogs was investigated in a 16-year-old study.

Comparison of height development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands on drained peatlands to that of pine stands growing in mineral soil sites show that in Southern Finland the most efficient forest improvement measures (10 m ditch spacing and 1,000 kg/ha NPK-fertilization) resulted in growth that corresponds a to a height index of a stand in a Vaccinium type site. Less efficient treatment (30 m ditch spacing and no fertilizer) resulted in growth corresponding the development of young stand in a Calluna type site. In Northern Finland the effect of fertilization on height growth was almost negligible. This is possibly due to a decrease in the nitrogen mobilization from south to north of Finland. Thus, it seems evident that fertilization of young Scots pine stands on nutrient poor drained peatlands can be recommended only in the southern part of the country.

The effect of ditch spacing is same in the whole country. The narrower the spacing the better the height growth. In the south planted stands thrive better than naturally regenerated stands, but the situation is reversed in the north.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laine, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
  • Lepola, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
article id 5197, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Erkki Annila, Eero Terho. (1983). Effect of nitrogen fertilization and insecticides on the population density of pine bark bug, Aradus cinnamomeus (Heteroptera, Aradidae). Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5197. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15180
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; Scots pine; height growth; insecticides; insect damages; prevention; nitrogen fertilization; Aradus cinnamomeus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of nitrogen fertilization and two insecticides on the occurrence of the plant pine bark bug, Aradus cinnamomeus Panzer, was investigated in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland. Three years after the treatment the bug density was lowest in the trees treated with lindane or dimethoate. However, in spite of the increasing height growth of the trees, they did not grow significantly faster than the control trees. Nitrogen fertilization increased both bug density and the height growth of the trees. Thus, the value of nitrogen fertilization against Aradus cinnamomeus remains obscure.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Annila, E-mail: ea@mm.unknown
  • Terho, E-mail: et@mm.unknown
article id 5181, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Olle Dumell. (1983). Kuusipuun taivutuslujuuden riippuvuus tiheydestä ja vuosiluston leveydestä Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5181. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15097
English title: Effect of basic density and growth ring width on the bending strength of Norway spruce wood from southern and northern Finland.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; Pohjois-Suomi; kuusi; alkuperä; puuaines; puuaineen tiheys; vuosiluston leveys; taivutuslujuus
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; northern Finland; basic density; progeny; Southern Finland; growth rings; bending strength
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A population consisting of 450 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples was gathered from northern and southern Finnish wood. The static bending strength was affected greatly by the density of the wood. However, keeping the density constant, the bending strength was higher in northern than in southern Finnish wood. The reason was the effect of the growth ring width.

The basic density was affected by the growth rate. Keeping the growth ring width constant, the basic density was over 5 kg/m3 lower in northern than in southern Finnish wood. This result supports the earlier findings on the effect of latitude.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Dumell, E-mail: od@mm.unknown
article id 5174, category Article
Tiina Heinonen. (1983). Haavikon lannoituskoe. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5174. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15089
English title: A fertilization experiment in a Populus tremula stand.
Original keywords: lannoitus; haapa; pohjapinta-ala; typpi
English keywords: Populus tremula; fertilization; nitrogen; aspen; basal growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The growth response of aspen (Populus tremula L.) to fertilization was studied in an experiment laid out in a naturally regenerated 35-year old stand on a previously burned-over land. The site was rather fertile. One-tree plot method was used. Applications of nitrogen (150 kg/ha as ammonium nitrate with lime), phosphorus (35 kg/ha as superphosphate), and potassium (66 kg/ha as potassium chloride) separately and in all possible combinations were used; the test included 11 replications. The growth reaction was measured as basal area growth excluding bark during 5 years. The factorial effects were computed using Yates method.

Potassium did not have any effect on basal growth of the trees. The response to phosphorus was also rather small. On the other hand, nitrogen appeared to have increased the basal area growth. The growth increase obtained with nitrogen alone was greater than when it was applied together with phosphorus and/or potassium.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heinonen, E-mail: th@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5169, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pasi Puttonen, Heikki Tamminen, Carl Johan Westman. (1982). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on photosynthesis and growth in young Scots pines. Preliminary results. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5169. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15084
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; Scots pine; stem growth; nitrogen fertilization; needle area; photosynthetic rate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Application of nitrogen at levels of 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 resulted in increases of 35, 18 and 12% in the photosynthetic rate in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The number of buds, degree of branching, and needle size were positively related to the amount of nitrogen applied. A 10–40% increase in the average needle area was found. A positive correlation was found between total photosynthesis and stem growth.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Puttonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
  • Tamminen, E-mail: ht@mm.unknown
  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown
article id 5168, category Article
Kari Heliövaara. (1982). The pine bark bug, Aradus cinnamomeus (Heteroptera, Aradidae) and the height growth rate of young Scots pines. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5168. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15083
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; height growth; insect damages; Aradus cinnamomeus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Relationships between densities of pine bark bug, Aradus cinnamomeus Panzer and the height growth of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied in several habitats, including a highly infested area in Southern Finland. The slower the growth of the pines was, the greater was the height up to which bugs were found. On the average, maximum bug density was noted at a height corresponding to a fifth of the height of the tree. In stands restocked by natural generation, the greatest bug densities were noted in pines about three metres high and over twenty years old. Bug densities in trees whose height growth had been decelerating for five years were twice those in trees whose growth was accelerating. A significant negative correlation was found between the bug density and the last-year height increment.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5163, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1982). Ojitusalueiden taimistojen kehityksestä vuosina 1964-68 toimeenpannun suometsäkilpailun koealojen valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5163. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15078
English title: Development of seedling stands on drained peatlands in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: metsitys; ojitusalueet; kasvu; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; taimikot
English keywords: afforestation; drained peatlands; Finland; growth; seedling stands; fertilizing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the paper was to describe the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedling stands on drained peatlands and to find out the principal factors influencing their growth. The material under survey consists of 180 sample plots distributed from southern coast of Finland to the Polar Circle.

The most important growth factors have been the accumulated temperature sum, site quality, drainage intensity and silvicultural condition, such as the density of the stand, the proportion of birch in the stand, and the amount of possible shelterwoods. The influence of these factors, and to some extent the influence of fertilizing, and the disturbing effects of some forest damages, such as frost, growth disturbances and elk damages were investigated. Comparisons of the development in the seedling stands on drained peatlands with the known development of seedling stands in mineral soils were made.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5155, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1982). Wood anatomy and physical properties of the wood and bark in Betula nana growing in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5155. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15070
Keywords: Betula nana; bark; basic density; wood anatomy; growth rings; vessels; fibres
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Eighty Betula nana samples were collected from three swamp sites. In the butt portion of the dwarf shrub the average number of growth rings was 12 and the average diameter of the sprouts 6 mm. The basic density of wood was 457 kg/m3 and that of bark 544 kg/m3. The proportion of bark was 32–38% of weight or volume. The vessel elements and fibres were short and their diameter small. The proportion of vessels was 15%, that of fibres 70% and that of rays 15%.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, E-mail: kb@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5151, category Article
A. Mäkelä, P. Hari, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). A model for the effect of air pollutants on forest growth. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5151. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15378
Keywords: photosynthesis; growth; modelling; air pollution; environmental impact; allocation of photosynthates
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A model was constructed, the aim of which was to predict growth under conditions where air pollutants are present. The model is based on photosynthesis and on the allocation of photosynthetic products for growth. It is assumed that air pollutants released during energy production mainly affect photosynthesis in two ways: 1) directly by injuring the photosynthetic mechanism, and 2) indirectly by leaching nutrients. The two ways were studied empirically in order to identify a sub-model for the photosynthesis of a plant exposed to air pollutants. 

The stand model will be applied to two purposes. The present stage of forests in Finland is compared with the simulated state based on the assumption that no pollutants are present. In addition, the decrease in forest yield under different conditions derived from predictions about long-range pollutant transport in Europe is analysed.

  • Mäkelä, E-mail: am@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5140, category Article
Lars Westman. (1981). Monitoring of coniferous forest ecosystems in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5140. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15367
Keywords: soil respiration; conifers; tree growth; acidification; Sweden; air pollution; monitoring programme; acid compounds; heavy metals; bioindicators; phosphatase activity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A monitoring program is planned for the terrestrial environment around industries in Sweden, which emit acid compounds and heavy metals. Directions for the County Government Boards are being prepared. The paper deals with the present pollution situation in Sweden, based on recent scientific results, the justifications for local monitoring, and the organizing of the monitoring including the parameters suggested.

Four examples from a case study at an oil power station illustrate reporting of the data and the difficulties in interpreting the results. The examples are the distribution of a lichen indicator, heavy metal content and phosphatase activity in the moor layer, soil respiration and tree growth.

  • Westman, E-mail: lw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5137, category Article
V. C. Runeckles, K. T. Palmer, H. Trabelsi. (1981). Effects of field exposures to SO2 on Douglas fir, Agropyron spicatum and Lolium perenne. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5137. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15364
Keywords: root growth; shoot growth; air pollution; Douglas fir; Pseudotsuga mentziesii; Lolium perenne; Agropyron spicatum; sulphur dioxide
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Grasses Agropyron spicatum Pursh, Lolium perenne L. (S23) and 2-year old Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were exposed to low SO2 concentrations under field conditions for approximately eleven weeks. SO2 was released continuously via manifold delivery systems, and provided treatment mean concentrations of 0.007 (ambient air), 0.042, 0.106 and 0.198 ppm. The concentrations in each treatment were approximately log-normally distributed, with standard geometric deviations ranging from 2.58 to 3.24. In both grass species, 0.198 ppm SO2 caused substantial reduction of total growth. In L. perenne, this was largely the result of impaired root growth, whereas both shoot and root growth of A. spicatum were reduced. 0.106 ppm SO2 had no significant effect on A. spicatum growth, but reduced root growth of L. perenne. Growth of Douglas fir was reduced in each of the tree highest concentrations, with root growth being markedly diminished, particularly on trees which showed chlorotic and necrotic injury. However, in these trees the shoot and total leaf weights tended to increase at the highest SO2 concentrations, suggesting that in these plants injury to leaves stimulated further shoot growth at the expense of root development.

  • Runeckles, E-mail: vr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Palmer, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown
  • Trabelsi, E-mail: ht@mm.unknown
article id 5129, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1981). Effects of gibberellins GA4 and GA7 on flowering in Scots pine grafts. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5129. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15186
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; flowering; growth hormones; gibberellic acid; male flowering; female flowering
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ethanolic sprays of GA4 or GA7 on 9-year old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grafts, repeated four times during the shoot elongation period, resulted in a statistically significant increase in female flowering one year after the treatment. Of the two compounds, GA4 seemed to be somewhat more efficient, yielding 47 female strobili/100 shoots vs. 36 and 6 strobili/100 shoots in GA7 and control treatments respectively. The mixture of GA4 and GA7 compounds was also applied and seemed to have an effect intermediary to those of the pure compounds. However, due to the limited amounts of material, none of the differences between the gibberellins could be statistically confirmed. Male flowering frequencies were also too low to allow any firm conclusions, but the numerical results suggested that the purified gibberellins may promote male and female flowering in different ways.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5128, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1981). Eräistä ojitetuilla soilla kasvaneen puun fysikaalisista ominaisuuksista. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5128. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15069
English title: Physical properties of wood growing on drained swamps.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; ojitetut suot; reaktiopuu; lujuus; puuaineen tiheys; vuosiluston leveys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; drained peatlands; Scots pine; density; compressive strength; growth rings; Norway spruce Picea abies; bending strength
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of the investigation was to determine the differences between timber grown on a peatland before and after draining, in respect of compressive strength parallel to the grain, static bending strength and density. In addition, the characteristics of boundary zone between the wood formed before, and after the draining with wider growth rings was studied. 41 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 22 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees were studied.

The compressive strength of pine usually decreased from the butt end upwards, but no trend was observed in spruce wood. In coniferous trees, wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining was slightly lighter than the close-ringed wood produced prior the draining. The density of pine as well as spruce increases as the width of the growth rings decrease up to a certain limit. The strength of the different kinds of wood seems to decrease from the butt end upwards.

In both species, the compressive strength parallel to the grain and the bending strength are lowest in such wood that contains exclusively wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining. Also, compressive and bending strength increase with decreasing width of the growth rings. The longitudinal shrinkage of compression wood in spruce was several times that of normal wood, and the bending strength was lower than that of normal wood particularly in spruce. The compressive strength parallel to the grain in dry condition was, however, higher than in normal wood both in pine and spruce.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, E-mail: po@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5125, category Article
Ilppo Greis, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Crown structure and stem growth of Norway spruce undergrowth under varying shading. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5125. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15066
Keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; photosynthesis; height growth; shading; crown; undergrowth; crown structure
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The crown structure and stem growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) undergrowth was studied in relation to the prevailing light conditions and potential photosynthesis. Shading decreased the stem height growth more than the length increment of laterals, producing a plate-shaped crown in deep shade. Needles responded to shading by adopting a horizontal inclination in deep shade. The needles were wide and thin respectively in shade. In the open the needle cross-section was almost square. Stem radial growth and height growth were both affected by shading exhibiting a linear response to the prevailing light conditions and the potential photosynthesis. Light conditions under dominating trees were closely correlated with the basal area of the dominating trees.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Greis, E-mail: ig@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5123, category Article
Heljä-Sisko Katainen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Happaman veden vaikutus männyn taimiin. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5123. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15064
English title: Effect of foliar application of dilute sulphuric acid on Scots pine seedlings.
Original keywords: mänty; taimet; pituuskasvu; neulasvauriot; fotosynteesi; happamuus; hapan sade
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; Scots pine; height growth; acidity; seedlings; needle damages; acid rain
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Needle damages, transpiration, photosynthesis and needle and stem height growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings treated with dilute sulphuric acid were studied. The acidity of the solution was pH 3. Application of a dilute solution of sulphuric acid equivalent to the normal amount of precipitation occurring during the growing season damaged the surface of two-year-old needles but not that of the current-year needles. A reduction in the photosynthetic rate of 10–30% was observed compared with the untreated seedlings. Transpiration of the seedlings was not affected by the treatment. Needle growth and stem height growth of the seedlings growing on a substrate representing poor sandy soil were reduced. Increased needle growth and stem height growth were characteristic for the seedlings growing on substrate representing fertile moraine.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Katainen, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5117, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1981). Forestry and the timber economy in economic development. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5117. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15058
Keywords: forestry; forest industries; economic development; economic growth; differentiation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article deals with differences in economic growth in different countries and regions and with reasons for these differences. The central role in investments in economic growth and the mechanism of its differentiation are elucidated. The properties of forestry and the forest industries in equation or differentiating economic growth are considered. In the light of the theories of regional differentiation, the mere production of raw material in some region tends to increase differences in economic development if that raw material is processed in some other region – despite the fact that the level of income rises in both regions. It is therefore desirable that afforestation projects in the development countries are accompanied by the development of the forest industries.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5111, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Effect of the within-stand light conditions on the share of stem, branch and needle growth in a twenty-year-old Scots pine stand. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5111. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15052
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; growth; stand density; branches; stems; light conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The share of stem, branch and needle growth was dependent on the within-stand light regime in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. The share of needle growth increased at the expense of stem and branch growth in poor light conditions. In good light condition the share of branch wood increased substantially. The share of stem wood growth was greatest in moderate shading, emphasizing the role of an adequate stand density for growing high-quality timber. The basic density of the stem wood was considerably greater in suppressed trees than in dominating trees. The differences were related to the illumination of the crown system.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5092, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Markku Kanninen. (1980). Eco-physiological studies on young Scots pine stands. IV. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5092. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15033
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; height growth; radial growth; basic density; crown; photosynthate supply; light conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Crown and stem growth of young Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied in relation to photosynthate supply and light condition in a stand. The magnitude of needle and bud formation, and radial and height growth were to a great extent dependent on the photosynthate supply. However, in shaded conditions the growth of each characteristics was greater than expected on the basis of photosynthate supply. In the stem system this was especially apparent for height growth. Consequently, height growth was favoured at the expense of radial growth in shaded conditions. It also appeared that the basic density of wood was negatively related to both tree position and photosynthate supply.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5081, category Article
Reijo Jokinen. (1980). Metsälannoituksella saatavan kasvunlisäyksen arviointi. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5081. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15022
English title: Estimation of growth response achieved through forest fertilization.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; lannoitus; typpilannoitus; metsikkötunnukset; kasvunlisäys; pohjapinta-ala
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; basal area; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; Scots pine; growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Dependence of the growth increase given by fertilization on different stand characteristics is examined in this article. The aim was to determine whether the volume growth increase can be accurately determined beforehand when fertilization is carried out on mineral soil sites at a dosage of 120 kg N/ha. The material consisted mostly on of mature stands ready for cutting, a total of 22 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 20 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands. Increase in basal area, height quality class and basal area of the stand were found to best explain the increment and its increase in the regression equations calculated for different types of fertilizer and the control level.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jokinen, E-mail: rj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5070, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen, Stig Johansson. (1980). Flower induction by exogenous plant hormones in Scots pine and Norway spruce grafts. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5070. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15011
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; flowering; seed orchards; growth hormones; gibberellin; kloonit
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to establish whether hormone treatments would promote flowering in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) grafts under Finnish conditions. Also, an attempt was made to test the efficiency of hormones as well as the variation in response among different clones. Six Scots pine and six Norway spruce clones were selected in each seed orchard based on their flowering intensity, and treated with growth hormones (GA, NAA) of different dosages by spraying. Flowering was observed one year after the treatments.

None of the treated or untreated spruce grafts flowered. However, poor flowering in the natural stands indicated that the environmental conditions during the previous years did not favour flowering. On the other hand, a distinct increase in flowering in Scots pine was observed as a result of spraying with hormone solutions. Treatments with gibberellin had a distinct promoting effect both on male and female flowering in the Scots pine grafts, although the responses varied between the different hormones or clones. The relative effect was generally stronger in male flowering.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
  • Johansson, E-mail: sj@mm.unknown
article id 5069, category Article
Jouni Mikola. (1980). The effect of seed size and duration of growth on the height of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) provenances and progenies at the nursery stage. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5069. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15010
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; height growth; provenance; seed size; annual growth rhythm
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this paper the connection between seed weight and amount and duration of growth are studied at the progeny level within stands or climatically uniform areas, and at the provenance level within larger geographic areas. The material consists of materials of several experiments in the nursery of Maisala in Southern Finland in 1971–76. The origins of the plant material used in the different experiments ranged from progenies of individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees to provenance selections covering almost the whole natural range of these species.

The effect of seed weight on plant height is strongest immediately after germination and subsequently decreases steadily, when the genetic growth properties of the plants themselves become effective. The effect is usually visible at least until the end of the 1st growing season. This relationship varies considerably depending on the material studied. The connections between the duration and the amount of height growth also proved to differ according to the nature of genetic variation. In wide selection of provenances, which show clear genetic differentiation in annual growth rhythm. The variation in the duration of growth accounts for most of the differences in total height growth. At the individual and family level or between provenances of a limited area, there seems to be no clear connection between the duration and the amount of growth. It seems that the duration of the annual growing period is a genetic property, which is not affected by seed weight.

The total height alone in 1-year old test material grown in a greenhouse had hardly any value in the forecasting of growth capacity. The growth differences were caused mainly by the variation in seed size and growth rate differences during the growing period.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, E-mail: jm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5056, category Article
Liisa Nylund, Antti Haapanen, Seppo Kellomäki, Markku Nylund. (1980). Radial growth of Scots pine and soil conditions at some camping sites in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5056. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14997
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; ground vegetation; radial growth; trampling; soil compaction; recreation; camping areas
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was investigated in seven camping areas located in Southern Finland. Radial growth reduction of 20–40% were found. The magnitude of this reduction was related to the amount of damage in the trees, and the age of the trees. A loss of humus, exposure of the roots and soil compaction were associated with the use of area but not related to the reduction in growth.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nylund, E-mail: ln@mm.unknown (email)
  • Haapanen, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Nylund, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown
article id 5052, category Article
Markku Nylund, Antti Haapanen, Seppo Kellomäki, Liisa Nylund. (1979). Deterioration of forest ground vegetation and decrease of radial growth of trees on camping sites. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5052. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14909
Keywords: tree growth; ground vegetation; trampling; campsite; grass
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The ground cover vegetation and tree growth at several camping sites in Southern Finland were investigated. The deterioration of ground vegetation appeared to be unavoidable in these areas, and only a few grass species were tolerant to heavy trampling. Only moderate deterioration was, however, detected when the trampling level was lower than 10,00015,000 user days. On the other hand, the ground cover was completely destroyed when the trampling level exceeded 100,000 user days. A considerable decrease in radial growth appeared to be associated with destruction of the ground vegetation. The decrease was abrupt and was found to continue throughout the whole period of use. After ten years’ use the growth in the trampled areas was 35% lower than that that of the untrampled areas. A further decrease in radial growth is expected in the future. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish. 

  • Nylund, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
  • Haapanen, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Nylund, E-mail: ln@mm.unknown
article id 5049, category Article
Pirkko Ilonen, Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). On distribution of growth in crown system of young Scots pine stands. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5049. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14906
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; light; Scots pine; needle; branching; terminal growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Branching and terminal growth of lateral shoots and needle growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is investigated as a function of the whorl’s position and age and prevailing light climate. Number of buds per whorl was linearly and positively related to the whorl’s position and prevailing light climate. The growing whorl’s number counting from the apex was associated with declining bud number. The terminal growth of lateral shoots increased exponentially within the values 0.6–1.0 of the whorls position. Under these values the terminal growth was negligible. The growing whorl’s number indicated curvlinear decrease in shoot growth respectively, and only negligible growth occurred when the whorl’s age exceeded 10 years. The shoot growth was linearly related to the prevailing light climate but differences between dominating and dominated trees were apparent. The distribution of needle growth in the crown system was similar to that of shoot growth.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ilonen, E-mail: pi@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5033, category Article
Tapani Haapanen, Pertti Hari, Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). Effect of fertilization and thinning on radial growth of Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5033. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14890
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; thinning; Scots pine; radial growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands at the age 30–40 years was measured retrospectively five years after the fertilizing and thinning of the stands. The abrupt effect of fertilizing was culminated 3–4 years after the treatment. The effect of thinning increased throughout the monitoring period. In stands that had been both thinned and fertilized, the effect of thinning was covered almost entirely by the effect of fertilizing, but fertilizing and thinning gave greater response than applying fertilizer or thinning only. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Haapanen, E-mail: th@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5021, category Article
Antti Koskimäki, Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). Inherent growth rythm of some Larix-species grown in a plastic greenhouse. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5021. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14875
Keywords: nursery; height growth; larch; seedlings; Larix decidua; Larix sibirica; Larix laricina; greenhouse cultivation; Larix leptolepsis; growth rythm
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The daily height growth rate of several larch species and progenies (Larix decidua, Larix sibirica, Larix laricina, Larix leptolepis) grown in a plastic greenhouse and in the open was measured. The growth pattern indoors was completely different compared with the normal outdoor growth pattern. The onset of growth took place in the greenhouse much earlier than outdoors and the phase of increasing growth was much shorter, as was expected. However, the phase of maximum growth was unexpectedly long. This fact suggests that there is great potential for using greenhouse cultivation to change the growth pattern of cultivated plants in order to obtain more complete utilization of the potential growing season.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koskimäki, E-mail: ak@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5012, category Article
Jyrki Hari, Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen. (1978). An electronic auxanometer for field use. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5012. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14866
Keywords: diameter; diameter growth; measuring instruments
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper describes the design and functioning of an electronic auxanometer designed for field use, and some results obtained with it. The changes in stem radius are monitored with a micrometer screw turned by an electirc motor. A potentiometer transforms the position of the screw into an electronic signal, which is recorded. The accuracy of the device is approximately 1–2 μm. Field experiments with the auxanometer are described and discussed. The accuracy of the device was found to be sufficient for measuring hourly changes in stem radius.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hari, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 4980, category Article
Eero Väisänen, Pertti Hari, Seppo Kellomäki. (1977). Annual growth level of some plant species as a function of light available for photosynthesis. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4980. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14834
Keywords: light; temperature; methods; annual growth; forest vegetation; net photosynthesis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A quantitative method for determining the annual growth level of plant species has been presented. In particular, attention was paid to the dependence of the growth level on the amount of light available for photosynthesis. A mathematical model for the dependence of structural matter production on photosynthetic production has been presented for some plant species.

The study is based on the assumption that the total amount of annual net photosynthesis plays a role of primary importance in determining the relationship between photosynthetic production and structural matter production. The basic environmental factors determining the photosynthetic rate are light and temperature, if the water and nutrient supply is adequate. The dependence of photosynthetic rate on light and temperature was determined by monitoring the CO2 uptake rate of natural plant populations between the photosynthetic levels of different plant populations with an infrared gas analyser.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Väisänen, E-mail: ev@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 4959, category Article
Irja Lehtonen, Pertti Hari, Seppo Kellomäki, Eero Väisänen. (1977). On control of daily structural matter production in population of Avenella flexuosa (L.) Parl. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4959. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14810
Keywords: growth; temperature; Avenella flexuosa; Deschampsia flexuosa; self-regulation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the boreal zone, the environmental control of growth rate, i.e. the rate of irreversible change in shoot dimensions, is assumed to be dominated by temperature. Promnitz (1975) emphasises that in boreal and temperate zones storage of photosynthetic products is an essential part of the growth process, and thus direct interaction between growth rate and radiation is not evident. The aim of the present study was to investigate the control of daily structural matter production in populations of Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer. Special attention was paid to the role of temperature and radiation in addition to the self-regulation of the plants themselves.

Temperature and self-regulation were found to explain over 90% of the daily variation of growth rate. Introduction of radiation into the analysis did not increase the explanatory power of the growth model based on temperature and self-regulation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lehtonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Väisänen, E-mail: ev@mm.unknown
article id 4954, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Fertilization of Scots pine seedlings with different nitrogen fertilizer. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4954. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14800
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; kasvu; taimet; lannoitus; kuolleisuus; typpilannoitus; ammoniumsulfaatti
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; growth; mortality; seedlings; fertilizing; nitrogen fertilizers; ammonium sulphate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes an attempt to determine whether ammonium, nitrate and urea nitrogen are bound in peat used as a filling material in containerized seedling production, what is the effect of the nutrients on certain chemical properties in the peat, and what is the effect of the nitrogen fertilizers on the primary growth of containerized (paper-pot VH 608) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in connection with planting out. The seedlings were fertilized with ammonium sulphate, potassium nitrate and urea.

The results show that none of the fertilizers used were bound in the peat. The nitrogen content in the above ground part of the seedlings increased clearly. Fertilization with ammonium sulphate resulted in the greatest increment and this increase appears to be permanent. The wintering process was somewhat delayed by the fertilization. The seedling mortality rate for all the treatments has been quite appreciable. However, fertilization particularly with ammonium sulphate on the poorer of the two sites studied has had a positive effect on seedling survival. Furthermore, it appears that fertilizer treatments have decreased growth after planting, but in the case of ammonium sulphate this decrease has changed into a clear growth increment.

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  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4931, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1976). Mitä vanhalla ajalla tiedettiin puiden kasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4931. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14773
English title: What was known in ancient times about growth of trees?
Original keywords: historia; puiden kasvu
English keywords: history; growth of trees
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this article, information about tree growth which was familiar to the learned men in the old days is presented. The time when different tree species start growing, the different growth rate of various tree species, the age of trees, their resistance to injury etc. are discussed.

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  • Makkonen, E-mail: om@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4924, category Article
Teklé Kapustinskaité. (1975). Puuston kasvu ja turpeen tuhkapitoisuus ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14766
English title: Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth in connection with drainage.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; ravinteisuus; puulajit; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; pituuskasvu; rauduskoivu; tervaleppä; Liettua; tuhkapitoisuus; hieskoivu; metsäsaarni
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; birch; Betula pendula; Picea abies; Betula pubescens; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; tree species; Alnus glutinosa; alder; ash content; fertility; Fraxinus exelsior; ash; Lithuania
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The ash content has been found to correlate with the fertility of peatlands. Relationship between height of 80-year-old stands and ash content of peat in topmost 30 cm layer was examined in Lithuanian conditions. On drained peatlands with ash content of peat from 3% to 8% pine stands increase in height. Ash content of peat being about 7% Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands on drained sites are found to be of equal height. Ash content of peat more than 8–9% has no significant effect on growth of pine or spruce stands. Birch (Betula verrucosa (B. Pendula Roth.) and Betula pubescens Erhrh.), stands are less sensitive to ash content of peat compared with other species. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) stands occurred in sites with ash content of peat more than 8–10%. The height of the stands become equal both in drained and undrained sites in the cases where ash content of peat is about 16–18%. Ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) stands attain high productivity on drained sites with ash content of peat about 20%.

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  • Kapustinskaité, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4908, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1974). Sarkaleveyden ja naveroinnin vaikutus pohjavesipinnan syvyyteen ja männyntaimiston kehitykseen lyhytkortisella nevalla. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4908. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14752
English title: The effect of ditch spacing and furrowing on depth of ground water table and on development of a Scots pine plantation on small-sedge bog.
Original keywords: mänty; ojitetut suot; avosuot; pituuskasvu; sarkaleveys; naverointi; kuivatussyvyys; kuivatusteho
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; seedlings; open peatlands; drainage effect; ground water table; ditch spacing; furrowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results obtained from an investigation into the effect of ditch spacing, ditch depth and furrowing on ground water table and on development of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantation on open small-sedge bog in Central Finland (60° 50’ N; 24° 20’ E), drained in 1967. The area was planted in 1968 with 2+1 Scots pine transplants, and fertilized with Y fertilizer for peat soils. The seedlings were measured in 1972.

The depth of the ground water table was greater, the narrower the ditch spacing. The water furrows shortened the duration of the high ground water and lowered the ground water table particularly in the case of ineffective drainage. The narrower the ditch spacing within the blocks, the higher were the young trees. On the other hand, the differences in the height of the trees between the ditch spacings were eliminated by the effect of the furrows.

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  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4901, category Article
Veli Pohjonen. (1974). Istutustiheyden vaikutus eräiden lyhytkiertoviljelyn puulajien ensimmäisen vuoden satoon ja pituuskasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4901. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14745
English title: Effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of some species undergoing short rotation culture.
Original keywords: pituuskasvu; hybridihaapa; harmaaleppä; kiiltopaju; lyhytkiertoviljely; istutustiheys; tuotto; satotaso; vesipaju
English keywords: yield; height growth; Alnus incana; Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides; Populus x wettsteinii; Salix ’Aquatica Gigantea’; Salix phylicifolia; short rotation cultivation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx. (Populus x wettsteinii), Salix ’Aquatica Gigantea’, and Salix phylicifolia L. was studied at the Arctic Circle Agricultural Experimental Station in Northern Finland. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ gave yields which were twice as high as those of the other species in the study. The highest yields were of the order of 60 tons per hectare (fresh yield including foliage). The annual height growth in S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ was about 100 cm, in the others about 30–50 cm. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ had a maximal height growth when the distance between the seedlings was 25 cm.

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  • Pohjonen, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4886, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1973). Metsälannoituksen edullisuuden vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4886. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14723
English title: Variations in the profitability of forest fertilization.
Original keywords: kannattavuus; kasvupaikka; puuntuotanto; metsänlannoitus; maantieteellinen sijainti; tuotonlisäys; kasvun lisäys
English keywords: fertilization; stand growth; profitability; geological location; quality of the site
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

About one million hectares of forests are fertilized annually in Finland. The goal of the present study was to find out, by means of calculations, how the profitability of forest fertilization varies with variations in the stage of development of tree crops, the quality of the site and its geographical location. Calculations concerned bot fertilization of forests in mineral soil sites and in drained peatlands. The study is a part of a larger project concerning the order of profitability of different forest improvement measures in different conditions. The problems dealt with in this study were approached from the point of view of national economy.

On the basis of two empirical materials it is shown that there is a high correlation between the stand growth percentages before and after the fertilization. Applying the results to existing yield tables the authors calculate benefit/cost ratios showing the stage of development of the stand, the quality of the site and its geographical location. According to the results, fertilization is more profitable in sites of medium fertility than on poor sites. Profitability decreases rather fast from south to north and with decreasing timber prices. 

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  • Keltikangas, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Seppälä, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown
article id 4869, category Article
Ole Oskarsson, P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1972). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet II. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4869. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14672
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding II. Selection differences and genetic gains in selected seed stands of Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänjalostus; tilavuuskasvu; valintahyöty; siemenkeräysmetsät; fenotyyppi; kuutiokasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; volume growth; genetic gain; forest tree breeding; seed stands; phenotype
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) selected seed stands. To obtain highest possible accuracy, the estimations are based on a large statistical material comprising 197 separate seed stands. It is concluded that the genetic gain of volume growth ranges between 7.4–15.0%. Unwanted pollen contaminations may, however, in the worst case halve this genetic gain.

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  • Oskarsson, E-mail: oo@mm.unknown (email)
  • Tigerstedt, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown
article id 4859, category Article
Eljas Pohtila. (1972). Istutuskuoppaan annetun kuparihienofosfaatin vaikutus männyn ja kuusen taimien elossapysymiseen ja pituuskasvuun eräällä kulotetulla ja auratulla uudistusalalla Koillis-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4859. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14662
English title: Effect of fine-grounded copper rock phosphate placed in the planting hole on the survival and height growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce in a burnt and furrowed reforestation are in northeast Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; metsänviljely; taimet; lannoitus; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu; fosforilannoitus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; Scots pine; height growth; planting; phosphorus; mortality; copper; seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results of a fertilization experiment, in which transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were fertilized with various doses of fine-ground copper rock phosphate (33% P2O5, 4% Cu) placed direct in the planting hole. The experiment was made in northeast Finland on a clear-cut, burnt-over and furrowed moraine heath. The fertilization increased especially the survival and condition of the Scots pines and increased to some extent also the height growth of the plants. The spruce survived better than the pines.

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  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4856, category Article
Pekka Rautiainen. (1971). Ympäristö- ja perintötekijöiden vaikutus männyn ilmiasuun Pohjois-Karjalan piirimetsälautakunnan siemenviljelyksessä Tohmajärvellä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4856. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14658
English title: The effect of environmental and genetical factors on the phenotype of Scots pine in a seed orchard in North Karelia.
Original keywords: mänty; oksikkuus; Suomi; periytyvyys; pituuskasvu; fenotyppi; heritabiliteetti; siemenviljelmä; Tohmajärvi; oksakulma
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; height growth; heritability; branchiness; fenotyyppi; seed orchard; angle of branching
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study material included 600 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grafts from the Tohmajärvi seed orchard in Eastern Finland. Their broad sense heritability for the height growth was 0.92, for the number of branches 0.87 and for the angle of branching 0.84. Grafts from Central Finland had cones more often than the southern ones, the frequencies being 26.3% and 11.2%. It seems that dominance plays a significant role in the genetical variation of this seed orchard and that height growth is probably more rewarding breeding characteristic than quality, the difference being small, however.

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  • Rautiainen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4853, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen, Pentti K. Räsänen, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1971). Neulasten väri myöhemmän kasvun ja lannoitusvaikutuksen ilmaisijana. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4853. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14655
English title: The use of needle colour in predicting growth and response to fertilization.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; kasvu; taimet; lannoitus; neulaset
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; planting; growth; seedlings; needle clour
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

About 4,000 seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were planted in 1965 both on a clear-cut and sheltered area in Central Finland. In the autumn of 1966 needle colour was determined by using Muncell Color Charts which allowed a quantitative measurement of three colour dimensions (hue, value, and chroma). Terminal shoot growth was recorded for two years after colour measurements. In both species, fertilization (NPK in the spring of the year of colour measurement) as well as other site factors caused differences in all three dimensions of needle colour. A regression of shoot growth on needle colour was found in both species. In most cases colour value (darkness) and, in spruce, also chroma, predicted the subsequent growth almost as well as did these two-colour variables together.

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  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown
article id 4847, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Matti Hiltunen. (1971). Männyn erilaisten taimierien istutuskelpoisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4847. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14649
English title: The effect of differences in Scots pine nursery stock on the field survival and growth.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänviljely; istutus; kasvu; taimet; varastointi; kastelu; kuolelisuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; growth; mortality; storage; seedlings; watering
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were stored for five days in an ordinary wood shed. One half of the seedlings were planted out directly, and another half after soaking the roots of the seedlings for 3–6 hours in water to compensate the possible water deficit developed. According to the results of the experiment, the effect of watering was extremely small. The difference observed, which was in favour of the trees that had been watered during storage, was discernible only in the needle length and in the number of lateral buds; in mortality or in the growth of the seedlings no difference could be observed.

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  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hiltunen, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown
article id 4841, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1971). Lannoituksen vaikutus kylvösten ensi kehitykseen turvealustalla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4841. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14643
English title: Effect of fertilization on the initial development of Scots pine and Norway spruce plantations established by sowing on peat.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; turvemaat; lannoitus; itäminen; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; germination; Scots pine; height growth; mortality; sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Experiments were carried out to find out the effect of fertilizer application on germination, seedling emmergnece and initial development in conifer plantations established on peat by sowing, with a special reference to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The experiments were carried out in 1968–70 in laboratory, in greenhouse and in the field.

In the greenhouse experiments with Y fertilizer for peat soils (14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) it was shown that germination and seedling emergence decreased markedly with increased fertilizer application. Mortality among seedlings that had emerged was the higher the larger quantities of fertilizer had been applied. The effect of fertilization was the greater, the drier the substrate. Fine ground rock phosphate (33% P2O5) promoted seedling emergence on a dry substrate but not on a wet one.

The field experiments carried out in Central Finland included dry and wet sites. Y fertilizer, Oulu Saltpeter (25% N), fine-ground rock phosphate and potassium salt (50% K2O) were used. According to the results, easily soluble fertilizers decreased seedling emergence. On wet sites the effect of Y fertilizer was weaker than on drier sites. Fine-ground rock phosphate slightly increased the number of seedlings emerging. Height growth was increased during the first three growing seasons only by those fertilizers containing phosphorus.

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  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4838, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1971). Metsityslannoituksessa käytetyn lannoitemäärän ja levitystavan merkitys istutustaimiston alkukehitykselle ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4838. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14640
English title: The quantity of fertilizer and application methods used in afforestation of open bogs.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; metsitys; taimet; turvemaat; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; avosuot; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; afforestation; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; mortality; seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results obtained from an experiment of fertilization of drained treeless peatlands in connection of planting in three sites in Central Finland. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings 2+0 was used. The fertilizer (Y-fertilizer for peat soils, 14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) was applied in rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 g/transplant. The fertilizer was strewn either around the plant within a circular patch of 20 cm in diameter, in a ring with a radius of 10 cm and in a ring with a radius of 20 cm. The seedlings were measured two and five years after planting.

The greater the quantity of fertilizer applied and the closer it was applied to the plant the higher was the mortality of transplants. Fertilization increased the mortality during the first two growing seasons after application. Later, however, the mortality decreased to a similar level irrespective the way the fertilizer was applied. In the beginning of the second growing season the fertilized plants showed considerably better height growth than the control plants. The smallest quantity of fertilizer applied produced almost full increase in growth. The pattern of application of the fertilizer had little effect on the growth.

It was concluded that a use of small amounts of fertilizer can be recommended in connection with planting and that it should not be applied very near the seedlings.

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  • Seppälä, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4836, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1971). Anaerobisten olosuhteiden ja aerobisuusrajan esiintymisestä erilaisilla luonnontilaisilla turvemailla ja merkityksestä suotyypin kuvaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4836. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14625
English title: Anaerobic conditions in various virgin peat soils and the significance of the aerobic limit as an indicator of site quality.
Original keywords: suotyypit; turvemaat; luonnontilaiset suot; anaerobisuusraja; puuston kasvu; pohjaveden syvyys
English keywords: Finland; tree growth; virgin peatlands; peatland types; aerobic limit; ground water table
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to increase the knowledge of the anaerobic conditions prevailing in virgin peat soils of different kinds, and on the fluctuation of the aerobic limit. Silver rod method was used to indicate anaerobic conditions and to locate the aerobic limit. The material included 18 peatland sample plots on treeless bogs, in pine bogs and in spruce swamps in Southern Finland. Observations of the discoloration of the silver rods and measurements of ground water level were made from 8 June to 13 August 1968.

The results show that the location of the aerobic limit is dependent of the depth of the ground water table, and usually lies 5–15 cm above the ground water table. Down to 10–20 cm below the aerobic limit, where it reaches maximum, the rate of decomposition of sulfurous organic matter is positively correlated with the distance from the aerobic limit. Deeper it gradually decreases, and in the depth of 25–35 cm no hydrogen sulphide seems to be released.

In the forested peatland types the volume of the growing stock and the increment were dependent on the depth of the aerobic limit only when nutrient content and pH of the peat was more or less constant. Where the aerobic limit was close to the ground surface but the nutrient contents were relatively high, the volume of the growing stock may be comparatively high. Birch (Betula sp.), better than the conifers, is able to stand conditions poor in oxygen. The growing stock was poor in sites where the aerobic limit was near the ground surface, but the nitrogen and phosphorus contents were high, or vice versa. Consequently, aerobic limit is of great importance as an indicator of site quality.

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  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4835, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1971). Havupunkin, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi), aiheuttaman neulasvioituksen vaikutuksesta kuusen taimien kasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4835. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14624
English title: Influence of damage caused to needles of Norway spruce by spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis, on seedling growth.
Original keywords: kuusi; taimituhot; pituuskasvu; havupunkki; neulasvauriot
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; height growth; spruce spider mite; Oligonychus ununguis; needle damages
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study was carried out in order to establish the possible influence of damage caused to the needles of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. by the spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi), and the growth of the damaged seedlings. The study was carried out in 1968–1970 by comparing growth of seedlings infected with spruce spider mite with that of seedlings where mites had been killed with acaricide (Eradex®). In the seedlings that had not been treated with acaricide, the number of wintering eggs were 60, 20 and 5 per shoot in the various years of the study. When the experiment was laid out, before planting and acaricide treatment, the seedlings were four years old, all seadlings were heavily infected, the number of wintering eggs being 100 per shoot. The growth of infected seedlings was 3, 20 and 15% smaller than that obtained for the seedlings which had been treated with acaricide.

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  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4823, category Article
Christel Palmberg. (1970). Heritabiliteetin arvioiminen eräässä männyn (Pinus silvestris L.) jälkeläiskokeessa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4823. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14612
English title: Estimation of heritability in open-pollinated plus tree progenies of Pinus sylvestris L.
Original keywords: mänty; oksikkuus; metsänjalostus; pluspuut; pituuskasvu; perinnöllisyys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; height growth; tree breeding; heritability; branchiness; plus trees
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Field experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was established by planting seedlings grown from seeds collected from open-pollinated plus trees throughout the country. The 36 progenies represented were planted in 4 blocks as 2+2 transplants in 1960. The main characteristics of the seedlings were measured in 1966 and 1968. Considerable damage had been caused to the stands by moose (Alces alces) and Melampsora pinitorqua Rostr., consequently, therefore, only normally developed seedlings were measured.

Highly significant differences between progenies were found in the number of branches in 1968 and in the ratio of height of tree to the length of the longest branch. In 1968, the differences in height between progenies were not significant, but there were significant differences between blocks both in tree height and length of terminal shoot. Obviously, the edaphic heterogeneity of the site has influenced mainly the juvenile growth of the plants, because in the length of the terminal shoot there could be seen also significant differences between the progenies. There were no significant differences between the progenies in the length of the longest branch, in the angles of the thickest branches, in stem taper and in the diameter of the thickest branch.

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  • Palmberg, E-mail: cp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4817, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Ouni. (1970). Turvemaiden taimistojen pituuskasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4817. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14606
English title: Height growth of seedling stands growing on peatland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; turvemaat; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; taimikot; pituuskasvu; ylispuusto
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; peatlands; seedling stands; hold-overs
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper presents the results of a contest performed on behalf of the Finnish bank Kansallis-Osake-Pankki and the Central Forestry Board Tapio on growing trees on peatlands. Over 5,000 sample plots were established on drained peatlands in various parts of Finland. The aim was to achieve a best possible growth of seedling stands on peatland. The factors influencing the growth of 85 best Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 60 best Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) sample plots were studied.

The height growth of the seedling stands decreased towards the north. Fertilization seemed not to decrease the regional differences; rather on the contrary. On the other hand, fertilization increased height growth, but evidently so that the increase obtained was greater in the southern than in the northern parts of the country. Light fertilization (50 kg/ha of K2O and 60 kg/ha of O2P5) caused a clear increase in height growth while heavy fertilization (100 g/ha of K2O and 120 kg/ha of O2P5), had same effect but to much greater extent than the former. Spruce seedling stands in particular benefitted of the heavy fertilization.

Fertilization did not eliminate the original differences in the quality of the sites in question, but these could still be seen in the height growth after fertilization. The effect of drain spacing on the height growth was not very clear. In dense seedling stands (800 seedlings/ha) the height growth of the dominant seedlings was greater than that obtained in stands of lower density. Hold-overs caused a decrease in the growth of the seedling stands.

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  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ouni, E-mail: jo@mm.unknown
article id 4807, category Article
J. G. Iyer, G. Chesters, S. A. Wilde. (1969). Recovery of growth potential of nursery stock produced on biocide-treated soils. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4807. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14595
Keywords: recovery; tree seedlings; nurseries; tree nurseries; biocides; growth disturbances; pesticide; abnormal growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Certain biocides used in production of tree nursery stock exterminate undesirable organisms but cause an abnormal growth stimulation of plants. The reforestation material has decreased survival potential because of high degree of succulence, top:root and height:diameter ratios, and low specific gravity and root surface area. Some fumigants impede mycorrhizae development and arrest phosphorus uptake. Recovery of growth potential was achieved by aluminium sulphate and/or fermented compost inoculated with mycorrhiza-forming fungi.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Iyer, E-mail: ji@mm.unknown (email)
  • Chesters, E-mail: gc@mm.unknown
  • Wilde, E-mail: sw@mm.unknown
article id 4786, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1969). Havaintoja männyn paksuuskasvun loppumisesta ja puiden keloutumisesta Inarin Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4786. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14572
English title: Termination of diameter growth of Scots pine in old age in northernmost Finnish Lapland.
Original keywords: mänty; Lappi; läpimitan kasvu; kelo; kasvun päättyminen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Lapland; diameter growth; termination of growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the present study is to throw light on the termination of diameter growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in old age in northernmost Finnish Lapland. The material consists of thirty over-mature, dying or already dead standing trees grown in natural state. In 1907 the stand was marked for cutting, but the harvest was never carried through. Now the old labels served as a means for cross-dating the year of the final termination of growth.
It was found that as pine becomes senile its annual ring formation becomes incomplete. At first diameter growth stops in the middle part of the stem, then at the butt end, and at last on the canopy level. No correlation between the mean temperature of July and the dying of the tree was found. The average age for dying for the pine in the stand was 420–450 years. After the tree has died it takes about 35–40 years before it has become a silvery, branchless dead bole.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4774, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1968). Some economic aspects of growing forest stands. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4774. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14559
Keywords: forest management; fellings; growing shedule; rotation; current gross soil rent; value growth; rent of the growing stock
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this paper was that of studying the optimum growing schedules of forest stands, with the classic Faustmann formula as starting point. The study is mainly theoretical in nature. The study shows that the net present-value of the future revenues from a forest stand can be calculated, not only by means of the harvesting revenues, but also by a more theoretical concept, here termed the current gross soil rent. The current gross soil rent represents the difference between the current value growth and the rent of the growing stock.

By use of the concepts described here, it is theoretically possible to find the growing schedule for the stand which maximizes the net present-value of the stand. To make the formulae simpler, a one-year period has been adopted for discussion of the concepts involved in determination of the optimum structure and density of the growing stock, and the financial maturity. However, these concepts can be extended to cover periods of any length.

The method for determination of the optimum growing schedule for a forest stand can be summarized as follows: Thin the stand as the internal rate of return on the marginal increase in ’timber capital’ falls below the guiding rate of interest. Clear-cut and regenerate the stand as the internal rate of return on the sum of the ’timber and soil capital’ falls below the guiding rate of interest.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4771, category Article
J. G. Gordon, G. E. Gatherum. (1968). Photosynthesis and growth of selected Scots pine populations. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4771. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14556
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; Scots pine; height growth; provenance; growth; photoperiod
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Eight Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed sources, ranging from 42° to 66° north latitude, were grown under a constant, 16-hour photoperiod in a greenhouse for approximately 6 months. Rates of photosynthesis, as measured by an IRGA, and growth, as measured by increase in height and fresh and dry weight, differed among seed sources at the end of the six-month growing period. Photosynthetic capacity and growth were strongly related to latitude of seed source, and were greatest in the seed sources coming from a parent environment in which maximum photoperiods are about 16 hours.

Photosynthetic efficiency (rate of photosynthesis per gram needle weight) was also strongly related to latitude of seed source, but was lowest in the seedlings which exhibited the greatest growth and photosynthetic capacity. This may have been due to (1) more mutual shading of needles on the larger seedlings and (2) a lesser proportion of juvenile needles on the larger seedlings or (3) biochemical differences in the use of photosynthate in the needles. Seed source and light intensity had an interacting effect on rates of photosynthesis only in seedlings of the two northernmost seed sources.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Gordon, E-mail: jg@mm.unknown (email)
  • Gatherum, E-mail: gg@mm.unknown
article id 4756, category Article
Bo Eklund. (1967). Annual variation of increment in Scots pine and Norway spruce in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 4 article id 4756. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14540
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; läpimitan kasvu; vuosilustot; vuosikasvu; kasvun vaihtelu; kasvuindeksi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; diameter growth; annual rings; annual growth; annual ring index series
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This lecture discusses the problem of the annual variation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), and its significance. A newly constructed instrument for field measurements of diameter growth is described, also the latest of the Royal College of Forestry’s series of machines for annual ring measurement. The method of constructing an annual ring index is also mentioned.

Examination of material from undisturbed stands in Northern Sweden has shown that the annual ring index series for pine are characterised by a relatively marked autocorrelation, which increases with latitude, implying that the annual ring index for a given calendar year is positively correlated with that for the year immediately preceding it. However, this seems not to be so in spruce, in which the annual ring index series is marked by the effect of the changes in cone production from the year to year. The annual ring index for spruce may be expressed in the form of climatic functions, according to which the index can be approximately calculated or known values of the meteorological variables contained in the function, in association with numerical expressions for the cone production. By means of a number of examples illustrating annual ring series from thinned stands. It is shown finally how the response to thinning can be presented in a more essential form from the variation in the annual rings, and how climatically corrected increment can be determined.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Eklund, E-mail: be@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4737, category Article
S. A. Wilde. (1967). Production of energy material by forest stands as related to supply of soil water. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4737. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14447
Keywords: biomass; forest growth; soil water; supply of transpiration water; red pine; Pinus resinosa
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study estimates the supply of soil water required for the annual and total production of energy material by the biomass of 32-year-old plantation of red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait. in Wisconsin, the United States.

The supply of transpiration water was determined as the sum of summer precipitation, winter stored water, and condensed vapor, minus gravitational discharge and evaporation of intercepted rainfall. On the average, the 1,20 m root zone of coarse sandy soils of central Wisconsin receives 2,750 M.T. of water per hectare. During the 32nd year of plantation growth, the increment biomass, including 43% of merchantable timber, was 10,100 kg/ha, or 162 x 105 kcal/g. At this time of the culminating growth, the production of 1 kg of wood material consumed 272 kg of water. The corresponding transpiration coefficient 0,37% is near the maximum for the ecosystem of hard pines – sandy soils of glacial outwash with field capacity between 7 and 9%. On the weight basis, the annual leaf fall constituted 32% of the biomass and over 80% of merchantable timber.

The entire supply of water of 96,000 M.T./ha produces in 32 years 211,112 kg of total dry matter at a rate of 1 kg of wood per 455 kg of water, with corresponding transpiration coefficient of 0,22%. The evapogravitational losses during the early stages of the stand’s growth decreased the water utilization efficiency of trees about 40%.

The information obtained permitted to outline several hydrological relationships pertinent to forest culture, namely: maximum rate of forest growth as delineated by the supply of available transpiration water; content of available moisture in soils of high tension capacity; contribution to soil water rendered by natural subirrigation and condensation of athmospehric vapor; growth depressing effect of weeds.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Wilde, E-mail: sw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4726, category Article
H. Lyr, G. Hoffmann. (1965). Studies on growth of roots and shoots of certain tree species. Silva Fennica vol. no. 117 article id 4726. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14284
Keywords: birch; larch; pine; tree species; growth; experiments
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Understanding the growth of trees is the prerequisite for meaningful forest management. Hence the studies on the ways the trees grow is important. The growth of roots and sprouts was studied by Larix leptolesis, Pinus silvestris, Betula pendula, Robinia pseudoacasia, Populus euramericana, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Quercus borealis and some other species. The results of still ongoing experiments on pine, birch and larch are presented for root and shoot growth.

The results indicate that the amount of light or shade the tree is having plays an important role in the growth. Hence some tree species are better adapted to shade than others, there are differences in their growth depending whether they are in light or in shade. 

  • Lyr, E-mail: hl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hoffmann, E-mail: gh@mm.unknown
article id 4676, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1958). Eräitä havaintoja keskisuomalaisen ja paikallisen mäntyrodun biologisista ja teknillisistä ominaisuuksista Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 96 article id 4676. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9122
English title: Biological and technical properties of the local Scots pine and proveniences of Central Finland in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; mänty; Pinus sylvestris; kasvu; alkuperä; tuotos; taudinkestävyys; provenienssi; Keski-Suomi
English keywords: Scots pine; northern Finland; growth; resistance; provenience; pathogen resistance; disease resistance; Central Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to find out if it is possible to use Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed from Central-Finnish origin in Northern Finland to supplement supply of local seeds. The principle has been to limit transfer of seeds to 200 km. According to this study, it seems possible to permit 300-400 km transfer of seeds at the same height above the sea level, not including the timber line area.

The author’s observations indicate that the trees originating from seeds of Central Finland at 20-35 years age withstand damage caused by snow and pine blister rust as well as the local provenience. However, the seedlings seem to be more susceptible to snow blight. Spraying of 2-3% sulphurated lime in the autumn before the arrival of snow proved to be most effective way to prevent the damage.

Southern proveniences have been found to grow faster than the local proveniences in Northern Finland. The stands of Tuomarniemi (Central Finland) and Rovaniemi (Northern Finland) provenances had no distinct difference in the summerwood percentage, and the volume weight of the Tuomarniemi provenience was higher than the weight of the provenience of Rovaniemi. The Tuomarniemi stand also gave largest yield, but the difference was probably due to partly at age difference of the sample trees. The naturally regenerated local provenance showed the greatest volume weight.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, E-mail: gs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4673, category Article
M. T. Rogers. (1957). Ring-shadows. Silva Fennica vol. no. 93 article id 4673. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9120
Keywords: diameter increment; growth rings; research methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A picture of growth rings of a tree can be obtained on paper by placing it over a disc of a trunk or stump and rubbing it with a pencil. The ‘shadows’, while not yielding the complex data obtainable from the actual wood, do show the proportion of the growth rings composed of spring wood and the denser summer wood. It is possible to collect large amount of data by using an unexperienced staff cheaply and quickly, and the samples may be mailed at little expense. The method may be used to study the previous cuttings of a stand from stumps. The shadowing of tree rings is possible to do even from rather decayed stumps.

The article includes a Finnish abstract.

  • Rogers, E-mail: mr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4672, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1957). Lettoräme ja sen metsäojituskelpoisuus. Silva Fennica vol. no. 93 article id 4672. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9119
English title: Eutrophic pine bogs and their suitability for draining.
Original keywords: ojituskelpoisuus; kasvillisuus; suot; kasvu; suotyyppi; lettoräme
English keywords: vegetation; tree growth; peatlands; peatland type; fen-like pine swamp; drainability of peatlands; swamps
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There are about 155,000 ha of fen-like pine swamps (eutrophic pine bogs) in Finland, major part of which are situated in Northern Finland. In the classification system for drainability of peatlands, this type of peatlands had been placed in the first class. The study presents a new evaluation for the peatland type, based on vegetation and tree growth.

According to a previous study, the vegetation of fen-like pine swamps can be characterised by distinctive plant communities that seem to reflect the fertility and high pH of the underlying soil. In this study, the fen-like pine swamps were divided in two subtypes based on the vegetation: proper fen-like pine swamps and fen-like pine swamps with ericaceous shrubs. Both have distinctive vegetation, which is described in the article. The distribution of the subtypes seems to be different: fen-like pine swamps with ericaceous shrubs are more common in eastern parts of Northern Finland. The two subtypes could be divided in different drainability classes according to tree growth, proper fen-like pine swamps belonging to class 1 and fen-like pine swamps with ericaceous shrubs to class 4.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4652, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1956). Hakkuilla käsiteltyjen koivikoiden rakenteesta ja kasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 90 article id 4652. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9115
English title: On the structure and growth of birch stands treated with cutting.
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsänhoito; metsänarviointi; kasvu; koivu; metsikön rakenne; kasvututkimus
English keywords: forest management; Betula pendula; Betula; Betula pubescens; silver birch; fellings; increment; Betula verrucosa; growth and yield studies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study is continuation of the earlier structure and growth studies of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Forest Research Institute. The material represents birch stands (Betula verrucosa, now B. pendula, and B. Pubescens L.) in Southern Finland. The stands were treated with different fellings, and in regard to their silvicultural condition classified as good, satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Height of the trees, height of living crown, volume, increment and volume increment and development of stem diameter series was measured.

The most characteristic difference between the silviculturally good and poor stands was that the the annual increment of the good stands concentrated into large size trees, and the increment of unsatisfactory stands into small and inferior trees.

It is concluded that if the aim of stand treatment is to produce large and high quality volume increment, the most favourable stand volume of  birch stands, compared with naturally normal stand volume, seems to be 90-85% at the age of 41-55 years, and 80-70% at the age of 56-65 years. If growth of large size trees is aimed at, the maximum number of the dominant trees per hectares cannot be more than 400 at the age of 50-60 years.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4600, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1950). Vertailevia havaintoja hoidettujen ja luonnontilaisten männiköiden rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 68 article id 4600. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9091
English title: Comparative study on structure and development of managed and natural Scots pine stands.
Original keywords: hakkuut; mänty; Pinus sylvestris; harvennushakkuu; kasvupaikkatyyppi; harvennus; luonnometsä; alaharvennus; läpimitan kasvu; tilavuuskasvu; latvuskerros
English keywords: natural forest; Scots pine; thinnings; diameter growth; fellings; increment; thinning from below; forest type; crown storey; tree classification
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Forest Research Institute of Finland has established permanent sample plots to survey the effect of thinnings on the stands. This study compares the development of tended and natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on three different forest types: Oxalis-Myrtillus, Vaccinium and Calluna site type. The effect of heavy thinning from below (Oxalis-Myrtillus and Vaccinium site types) and increment felling (Calluna site type) was assessed by dividing the trees of the stands in tree classification classes according to their crown storey and defects.

The results show that thinning from below and increment thinning increase the proportion of trees in the 1st crown storey, which is already large in the natural stands. Also the diameter distribution is more even and the mean diameter higher after the thinnings.

In Scots pine stands in natural state, volume increment per stem is highest in the 1st crown storey and diminishes strongly towards the lower crown storeys. Thinnings increased the increment. The study indicates that many of the objectives of the intermediate cuttings, including promoting the growth of the best trees and improving the quality of the stand, have in general been achieved. Consequently, the thinnings give means to achieve the most valuable yield in the stand.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4576, category Article
Bo-Eric Blumenthal. (1942). Distribution and properties of aspen in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. no. 56 article id 4576. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9080
Keywords: Populus tremula; height growth; distribution; diameter growth; decay; forest site type; aspen
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Aspen (Populus tremula L.) is a common tree in Finland, and has been used, for instance, in matchstick industry. However, there has been little studies on its distribution and properties. In this study, 142 sample trees in different forest site types in Valtimo and Onkamo in Eastern Finland were measured in detail in 1935.

According to the results, during the first 10 years aspens height growth is fastest of the Finnish tree species surpassing, for instance, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula sp.) . The diameter growth is similar to Scots pine up to the age of 50 years, after which the growth of aspen exceeds Scots pine. Branchless portion of the stem compared to the height of the tree increases until it reaches about 50% of the height of the tree. In poorer sites aspen is prone to decay.

Aspen regenerates easily both by root shoots and seeds. If root shoots are left to grow, the mother tree should be free of decay. In general, seedlings are of better quality. Good quality aspen stands require thinning and a rich forest type. If an old aspen stand has decay, the trees should be ring-barked and the site regenerated with a new tree species.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Blumenthal, E-mail: bb@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4551, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1939). Metsikön kasvun arvioiminen. Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4551. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13958
English title: Assessment of forest growth.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; jatkokoulutus; kasvutaulukot; metsänarvionti; kasvu
English keywords: forest growth; forest mensuration; forest education; growth and yield tables; professional development courses; increment
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes different methods of assessing tree growth.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4534, category Article
Martti Tertti. (1938). Hakkausalan raivaamisesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4534. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13943
English title: Clearing of a felling area.
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsänraivaus; hakkuuala; metsänuudistaminen; raivaus; alikasvos
English keywords: regeneration; fellings; forest education; professional development courses; cutting area; clearing of felling areas; undergrowth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development coursesarranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administrationespecially in regional levelThe education was arranged by Forest Service. 
This presentation describes clearing of felling areas. 

  • Tertti, E-mail: mt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4446, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1927). Methods for preparing yield tables. Silva Fennica vol. no. 5 article id 4446. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8394
Keywords: growth and yield table; forest site class; quality class; fertility; growth series
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a review on methods used in Central Europe and in Finland to construct growth and yield tables, and on their defects and advantages. One of the main defects of growth and yield tables prepared previously in Central Europe is that the site quality classes for different tree species have been formed independently and using different principles. Thus, the yields of different tree species on a similar site can’t be compared. In addition, the quality classes of this kind of growth and yield tables and growth series are artificial.

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now Finnish Society of Forest Sciences) started to prepare new yield tables for the most important tree species in Finland in 1916. The new yield tables aimed to improve the yield tables made in Central Europe in two aspects. Firstly, the quality of the site of each sample plot was assessed on the spot and independently from the standing crop. Thus the sample plots of each site class in setting up the growth series can be treated as independent groups. Consequently, the quality classes are be the same for all tree species. Secondly, mathematical-statistical methods were used to determine which of the stands that belong to the same quality class belong also to the same growth series.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4443, category Article
Oskari Jalmari Lukkala. (1927). What points of view have to be taken into consideration, when draining swamp lands for afforestation. Silva Fennica vol. no. 4 article id 4443. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8391
Keywords: peatland; drained peatlands; draining; drainability; growth capacity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Draining of peatlands requires careful planning because of its costs. Only peatlands that have sufficient growth capacity in future should be drained. The future growth capacity can be estimated based on peatland type, the botanical composition of the peat layers and the quality of the surface peat layer of the swamp.

Also the draining methods should be cost effective. To keep the amount of drains low, the drain network and drain lines should be planned so that each drain has high drain effectivity. Most of the peatlands drained in Finland have been forested. Especially the young trees regain soon their growth when the peat begins to dry. It is recommended to leave the young trees, but most profitable to harvest the older forests in the drained area. Practical experiences have shown that even drained open peatlands can be naturally regenerated. Natural regeneration is almost guaranteed to succeed on peatlands, which have seed trees.

A summary in Finnish is included in the PDF.

  • Lukkala, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4441, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1927). Preparation of growth and yield tables. Silva Fennica vol. no. 4 article id 4441. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8389
Keywords: stand growth; forest site type; growth and yield tables; site quality class; stem frequency distribution series
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

One of the difficulties in constructing growth and yield tables has been to determine which of the sample plots growing the same tree species and belonging to the same forest site type, with reference to the quality of stands, have to be included in the same growth series.

New growth and yield tables for the most important tree species were constructed in Finland in 1916–1919, using new principles that aim at avoiding some of the common weaknesses. There were two main differences to the earlier work. First, the site quality class (forest site type) was determined for each sample plot when the sample plot was measured, independently of the stand occupying the site. In this way it was possible to treat the sample plots of each site as an independent group from the beginning, and so that the quality classes were the same for all the tree species. Second, mathematic-statistical methods were used to deduct the so-called stem frequency distribution series, when studying which of the sample plots of the same quality class belong to the same growth series. They represent the average number of stems of the different diameter classes. A more detailed description of the method used to create the growth and yield tables is published in Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 15.

In the PDF is included a summary in Finnish.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7170, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1967). Luonnonnormaalien metsiköiden kehityksestä Kainuussa ja sen lähiympäristössä. Silva Fennica vol. 81 no. 5 article id 7170. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7170
English title: The development of natural normal forest stands in southeastern Northern Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsätyypit; mänty; kasvu; tuotos; luonnonnormaalit metsät; Kainuu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; yield; Scots pine; northern Finland; growth; forest types; natural stands; natural normal stands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Examination of stands developed under natural conditions can be used to provide basis for comparison for study of the development and yield of stands treated with intermediate fellings. In Finland, the first investigation and the yield and the structure of natural normal stands were published in 1920. This investigation on development and yield of the natural forests of Kainuu in southeastern Northern Finland is based on 92 sample plots on three forest types; Empetrum-Vaccinium type (EVT), Empetrum-Calluna type (ECT) and Vaccinium-Myrtillus type (VMT).

The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample plots represented variation of age classes for construction of mean development series. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) of the region are so old that development series could be obtained only for dominant trees based on stem analysis.

The average development of Scots pine stand on EMT type within the region is on average more rapid and the yield in cubic volume quantitatively larger and structurally better than that on ECT type. Self-thinning during the early decades of EVT is slower. The pine stands are denser in the age of 70 in Kainuu compared to Central Northern Finland, but the development and yield are similar.

The development, yield and structure of natural Norway spruce stand on VMT proved considerably inferior to the average level of pine stands on EVT, and to a major part on ECT. The mixed pines on spruce sample plots have developed better than spruces of equal age. Spruce stands on VMT in the area developed markedly better than Geranium-Dryopteris-Myrtillus (GDMT) in Central Northern Finland.

It seems that a spruce stand seems to require more fertile site type in north than in the southern part of Finland. These fertile types are relative rare in the north. In the region, the best results are received with pine. As a rule, also the yield of birch (Betula sp.) is poor in the region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7166, category Article
J. E. Hårdh. (1966). Trials with carbon dioxide, light and growth substances on forest tree plants. Silva Fennica vol. 81 no. 1 article id 7166. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7166
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Betula pendula; Picea abies; Scots pine; silver birch; seedlings; carbon dioxide; growth hormones; growth studies; tree nursery; Norway sprce
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Growth-promoting effects of enhanced caron dioxide levels upon forest tree seedlings grown in plastic houses was studied in 1964 and 1965 in the Forest Breeding Foundation in Haapastensyrjä near Loppi in Southern Finland. In both years more vigorous height and weight growth, and development of root system was achieved when the CO2 concentration was increased to 0.2% than in the normal conditions (CO2 0.03%). The CO2 concentration was increased by burning propane in the plastic houses. Burning continued for four hours per day either at 8–10 and 14–16 a clock or 6–10 a clock. Growth was not affected by the time of the treatment, and it was equally high in 0.1% and 0.2% concentrations.

Treatment of the seedlings with 100–200 ppm gibberellic acid (GA) increased the height growth of healthy, well-rooted seedlings. Treatment with a concentrated (600 ppm) dosage, as well as treatment with a combination of GA and 1-naphtyl acetic acid (NAA) caused serious defects in grafts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). GA treatments did not induce flower formation in pine. Red light during the night seemed to enhance growth of grafts of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hårdh, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7157, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Kustaa Seppälä. (1965). Regionality in stand increment and its dependence on the temperature factor on drained swamps. Silva Fennica vol. 78 no. 4 article id 7157. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7157
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; drained peatlands; Scots pine; growth; increment; regional increment; stand quality
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this work was to study, on the basis of material published earlier (Heikurainen 1959), the effect of temperature on stand increment, to find out if there is any differences between Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and to study the effect of site quality on the relationship between stand increment and temperature. The calculations were based on data collected from 396 sample plots on drained peatlands in different parts of Finland.

There seemed to be no differences due to tree species or site quality in the relative amounts of growth under different climatic conditions. Thus, differences in the absolute growth between poor and fertile sites are noticeably smaller in Northern Finland than in Southern Finland. The author suggests that this implies that the lasting maximal increase of growth which can be produced, for instance, by using soil-improving agents must be less in unfavourable conditions than in favourable.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Seppälä, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown
article id 7155, category Article
Bo Högnäs. (1966). Investigations on forest types and stand development in Åland in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 78 no. 2 article id 7155. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7155
Keywords: Finland; volume growth; coniferous forests; vegetation analysis; forest type; Åland; Ahvenanmaa
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study is to clarify the forest types in pure coniferous stands in Åland in Finland, to study them in a biological light and account for the production of the stands on respective sites. The flora of the forest types in Åland has been described in an earlier study, but as the plant associations have not been described it has often been difficult to determine the correct types in field work. Sample plots were chosen in coniferous forests with maximum 20% of other species. The vegetation analysis was limited to determine composition of species, projected coverage and the frequency of species. In addition, cubic volume and growth of the growing stock was calculated for the stands.

The results of the study showed that site type and fertility correspond to each other nearly without exception only on normal moraines, if only the ground vegetation is used as a criterion for the type. The general occurense of soils of different qualities makes it necessary to determine, besides forest type, other characteristics in the stands, preferably the dominant height. The total production of coniferous forests with great probability is smaller in Åland than in mainland Finland. The results can be applied also to Åboland’s archipelago, where the milieu of the coniferous forests is similar.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Högnäs, E-mail: bh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7147, category Article
S. A. Wilde, J. G. Iyer. (1963). Effect of natural subirrigation on the uptake of nutrients by forest plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 76 no. 7 article id 7147. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7147
Keywords: Pinus radiata; growth; fertility; forest site; ground water table; United States
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Result of a survey of soils supporting forest plantations in Wisconsin in the United States indicated a close correlation between the levels of fertility of non-phreatic, coarse-textured soils and the growth of red pine (Pinus resinosa Roezl) stands aged from 15 to 32. This relationship, however was not observed in plantations established on deep-gley soils, underlain at a depth of 3–9 fl by ground water.

The survey encountered 20 red pine plantations on soils underlain by a deep ground water table accessible to tree roots thorough their contact with gley horizon or with extended capillary fringe. The average growth of the stands was 80 cubic feet/acre (5.6 m3/ha) at the age of 22 years. Thus, mensuration analysis suggested that the soils are the choice grounds for forestry enterprise. However, the analysis of soil samples showed that in many instances the soils are extremely low in mineral colloids, organic matter and nutrients. Many of the sites would be regarded as critically deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

The following hypothesis are suggested to explain this discrepancy:

a) The moisture content of coarse-textured non-phreatic soils remain near the wilting point during a large apart of the growing season with subsequent reduction of transpiration and uptake of nutrients. If a capillary fringe provides a supply of water for the root system, trees may derive an adequate supply of salts and exchangeable ions from comparatively infertile substrata.

b) The suitably located ground water provides adequate aeration of the surface soil layers which is not impeded by capillary fringe, increasing activity of mycorrhiza, and a mycotrophic uptake of nutrients from unweathered minerals.

c) The above effects of natural subirrigation should change the concept of soil fertility based on mere chemical analysis. The time during which the roots are engaged in active absorption appears to be of equal importance as the concentration of nutrients in available form.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Wilde, E-mail: sw@mm.unknown (email)
  • Iyer, E-mail: ji@mm.unknown
article id 7138, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela, Pekka Kilkki. (1963). Multiple regression of increment percentage on other characteristics in Scots pine stands. Silva Fennica vol. 75 no. 4 article id 7138. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7138
Keywords: regression analysis; methods; growth studies; yield studies; increment functions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of this study has been to discover some of the basic principles on which an increment for a large forest area might be forecast. Because the stands in a large forest area vary considerably in density and are subject to different kinds of treatment, the main interest falls on the stand characteristics which determine the increment percentage in such forest conditions as these. The material used in the study has been published earlier, it consisted of sample plots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands (Nyyssönen 1954).

Increment functions are of great importance in the increment forecast for cutting budget. Because 60-80% of the variation in the increment percentage can be explained by stand characteristics in circumstances where the age of the stand is 40-130 years and the volume vary with a coefficient of variation 0.6-0.7, regression equations for increment percentage may be based on a number of sample plots smaller than in a growing stock inventory in the same conditions. It is possible to get accurate results with relatively small number of sample plots. Furthermore, the smaller amount of increment sample plots makes it possible to develop measurement techniques.

The increment functions enable study of increment as a biological process. However, conclusions about biological process on the basis of regression equations should be made with caution. Still, regression analysis is a powerful tool in yield studies.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown
article id 7114, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1960). Metsiköiden routa- ja lumisuhteista. Silva Fennica vol. 71 no. 5 article id 7114. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7114
English title: Snow cover and ground frost in Finnish forests.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; lumipeite; lumi; routa; lehtipuut; kasvuolosuhteet
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; deciduous trees; Picea abies; Scots pine; snow; growth conditions; snow cover; ground frost
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Snow cover and ground frost was studied in 29 forest stands in Southern and Central Finland in 1957–1959. The tree species influenced greatly accumulation of snow on the forest floor. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) retains snow in its crown. In addition, snow and water falling from the branches compress the snow cover under the trees, and the ground freezes deeper because of the shallow snow cover. In the spring, the dense crown prevents rain and radiation reaching the ground, which remains cold longer. However, ground frost may protect spruce, which has a weak root system, from wind damages.

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has similar, but milder, effects on snow cover within the forest. The crowns of pine seedlings and young trees pass snow easily, but later the crowns intercept it considerably. The lower branches are, however, high up and the snow is evenly spread on the ground. The deciduous trees intercept little snow and in the spring the snow smelts and the frozen soil thaws early. The snow conditions of deciduous forests are, however, changed by a spruce undergrowth.

It can be assumed that the unfavourable conditions in spruce forests can be alleviated by thinning. Also, mixture of pine and deciduous trees can transform the conditions more favourable in the spruce stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7112, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1960). Etelä-Suomen kylvömänniköiden rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Silva Fennica vol. 71 no. 3 article id 7112. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7112
English title: Structure and development of Scots pine stands established by sowing in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: kylvö; kasvu; tuottokyky; uudistaminen; tuotto; kylvömännikkö
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; yield; Scots pine; growth; sowing; increment; yield potential
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Southern Finland Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is mainly sown on Vaccinium and Myrtillus-type sites. The material for the study was collected by measuring sample plots in pure, even-aged pine stand that had been sown. The sample stands had been thinned from below.

The volume of the stands was roughly the same as that of repeatedly thinned pine stands. The cubic volume of sown pine stands is 65–90%, varying according to age, of that of natural-normal pine stands. The current annual volume increment of stands on Myrtillus-type was 8–9 m3/ha at age of 20–30 years. The peak was reached at age of 35 years with 9 m3/ha, in the following years the increment is about 8 m3/ha until the age of 60 years. On Vaccinium type sites increment reaches 6–7 m3 level at age of 30 years, and attains the peak of 7 m3/ha at the age of 45 years. Annual increment was in young and middle-aged Myrtillus-type stands about 10% greater, and on Vaccinium-type stands 15–20% greater than in natural-normal pine stands.

The total volume increment in 70 years old Myrtillus-type stands was 580 m3/ha over bark, and in 80 years old Vaccinium-type stands 520 m3/ha. The total removal on Myrtillus-type sites totalled nearly 350 m3/ha in sown pine stands up to 70 years of age, and 280 m3/ha on Vaccinium-type stands. The total yield in sawn timber per hectare rises up to 6,300 cubic ft in a 70 years old stand on Myrtillus-type stands, and 5,300 cubic ft in Vaccinium-type stands. In conclusion, the volume and increment development of managed pine stands established by sowing up to 70–80 years of age is largely the same as in repeatedly thinned pine stands, but the structure and yield offer greater advantages. The investigation demonstrates that, in the case of Scots pine, sowing is an advantageous method of regeneration. Sowing is an advantage especially in the cases where natural regeneration is uncertain and slow.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7475, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1958). Liberation of nitrogen from alder leaf litter. Silva Fennica vol. 67 no. 1 article id 7475. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7475
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; seedling growth; seedlings; litter; alder; soil improvement; Alnus sp.
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Litters of different plant species vary greatly in regard to their nutrient content and other properties. The aim of the study was to compare different litters from the standpoint of their value as soil fertilizer. In an experiment Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were grown in pot cultures in which known amounts of different litters had been mixed with the soil. The tested litters were Pinus sylvestris (L.), Larix sibirica (Ledeb.), Betula sp., Populus tremula (L.), Alnus incana (L.) Moench, A. glutinosa (L.) (Gaertn.), Sorbus aucuparia (L.), Tilia cordata (Mill.), Acer platanoides (L.), Corylus avellana (L.), Eupteris aquilina (L.), and Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin.

A striking difference was found between alder (Alnus sp.) leaf litter and all the other litters tested. The difference can be seen from the second growth season on, becaus the young seedling uses mainly the nutrients included in the seed. The leaf litter has mainly unfavourable effect on the growth of the pine seedlings. Only both alder species improve the growth. This is mainly due to the nitrogen content of alder leaves. Tree leaves and other forest litter are often composted in the forest nurseries. It seems that adding nitrogen to the compost is necessary, otherwise compost added to the soil may have a harmful effect on the seedlings. Alder, on the other hand, has nitrogen binding Actinomyces growing in symbiosis in its root nodules, and is able to utilize atmospheric nitrogen.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7473, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1957). Käenkaali-mustikkatyypin kuusikoiden kehityksestä Suomen lounaisosassa. Silva Fennica vol. 66 no. 3 article id 7473. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7473
English title: On the development of spruce forests of the Oxalis-Myrtillus site type in the south-west of Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; kuusikko; kasvu; hakkuuarvo; tilavuuskasvu; arvokasvu; kiertoaika; metsän puhdas tuotto
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; growth; volume growth; rotation; value growth; annual forest rent; net forest income
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this investigation was studied 1) Volume growth and yield of timber in managed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests under different rotations. 2) Value growth, net forest income and soil expectation value of managed forests under different rotations, and 3) The rotations of spruce forests managed on different rotation principles. The data was collected from Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests in South-West Finland.

Two developmental series of stands were constructed for the research, one of which were of better sites than the other. Sample plots were pure, even-aged spruce stands in well-managed forests. The stands had been thinned from below. The age varied from 25-30 years to the age of final cutting.

According to the study, in the artificially regenerated spruce stands the highest mean annual volume growth, 9.7 m3/ha, and also the highest net annual income of 14,50 Finnish marks/ha (calculated from average stumpages) was reached in rotation of 70 years. In the other managed spruce forests a mean annual volume growth of 6.6-8.8 m3/ha and the net annual income of 10,500-14,500 Finnish marks/ha were reached in the rotation of 70-100 years. The rotation for the maximum mean annual volume growth varied in the different series between 67-92 years. The maximum mean annual forest rent was only achieved in series B in a rotation of about 100 years, and in a naturally normal stand in a rotation of about 120 years. The intensity of thinnings and silviculture had a greater effect on value growth and on net income than on volume growth.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7439, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1954). Rämemänniköiden uudistamisesta paljaaksihakkausta käyttäen. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 27 article id 7439. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7439
English title: Regeneration of Scots pine stands of pine swamps through clear cutting.
Original keywords: männikkö; luontainen uudistuminen; mänty; suot; alikasvos; uudistaminen; räme; turvekangas; avohakkuu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; natural regeneration; drained peatlands; Scots pine; peatlands; seedlings; fellings; undergrowth; pine swamps; clear cutting
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Pine swamps are easily regenerated by natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Usually seeding felling is used, but also strip system or clear cutting and regeneration along stand edge has been suggested. This article discusses the regeneration by clear cutting and sparing the existing undergrowth. The article focuses on pine swamps to be drained and the ones in natural state.

Pine swamps in natural state usually have plenty of trees of smaller diameter classes, that can be trusted to form the future tree generation after the felling. This shortens the rotation by 20-30 years. The undergrowth has been shown to recover quickly. The method suits for regeneration of drained peatlands but could fit also for regeneration of pine swamps in natural state.

The seedlings in the pine swamps are mainly 1-5 years old, and the stock is changing. It seems that larger trees produce a wider selection of age groups, but the seedlings survive longer under smaller mother trees. Part of the younger generations of seedlings seem to be destroyed when the peatland is drained. Further studies are needed to investigate how the draining and felling are to be performed to spare the young seedlings.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7433, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1954). Nationwide surveys of forest resources and wood utilization in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 21 article id 7433. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7433
Keywords: forestry; National Forest Inventory; Finland; forest resources; wood utilization; forest balance; National Forest Survey; growth balance
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The first estimates on the forest resources of Finland were presented in the middle of the 1900th century. The first line survey was conducted in 1912 in Central Finland. In 1921-1923 a survey of the forests of the whole country was commenced. The method consisted in measurement of sample plots in conjunction with ocular estimation of all the stands within the range of the lines. The methods were further developed in the second National Forest Survey in 1936-1938, which payed special attention to the silvicultural condition of the forests, and the growth in the light of climatic variation. When 3.3 million ha of forests were ceded to the Soviet Union in the peace treaty of 1944, the results of the survey had to be recalculated. The next survey was conducted 1951-1953. In this survey, the recovery of stands on drained peatlands was studied. The results of the inventories show that forest resources of Finland had icreased since the 1936-1938 survey.

The first investigation of wood utilization in Finland was carried out in 1927, after the first National Forest Survey had provided information on the forest resources, and knowledge of the other side of the forest balance was desired. The most difficult part was to determine the domestic wood consumption of the rural population. This was accomplished by studying 1,337 sample farms. The second investigation was commenced in 1938, and third in 1954.

These two investigations have made it possible to determine the annual removal and annual growth, and by comparing these results, growth balance. A forest balance is an essential condition for judicious forestry.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7407, category Article
Olli Vaartaja. (1951). Alikasvosasemasta vapautettujen männyn taimistojen toipumisesta ja merkityksestä metsänhoidossa. Silva Fennica vol. 59 no. 3 article id 7407. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7407
English title: On the recovery of released Scots pine undergrowth and its silvicultural importance.
Original keywords: mänty; alikasvos; taimikko; kasvu; laatu; ylispuuhakkuu; ylispuut
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; seedlings; undergrowth; hold-overs; removal of hold-overs; felling of standards
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There are contrary opinions on the ability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings to withstand oppression by hold-overs and recover after their felling. The recovery potential of oppressed pine stands in Southern and Northern Finland was studied using two kinds of material, fully recovered Scots pine stands and stands recently released. The volume and volume increment of the stand were measured, and the health of the sample trees was determined.

The study showed that those released pine stands that had been in oppressed state very long (25-60 years) had recovered after clear-cutting. After the release the stands grew at first slowly, but after recovery at about the same rate as natural normal stands of a similar height. The smaller, younger, and less stunted the seedlings were when they were released, and the better the site, the faster was the recovery. At the base of released pine stands various defects was detected. When the trees were released, the defects decrease their technical value. A heavy partial cutting had generally a disadvantageous effect on the stand. Recovering seedlings were found clearly to hinder the development of younger seedlings nearby. This inhibition seemed to be a result of the rapid spread of the root system of released pine trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vaartaja, E-mail: ov@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7402, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1950). Alikasvoskuusten biologiaa. Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 2 article id 7402. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7402
English title: On the biology of undergrown Norway spruce.
Original keywords: kuusi; alikasvos; juuristo; uudistuminen; iänmääritys; latvus; toipumiskyky
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; regeneration; natural regeneration; age; crown; undergrowth; root system
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) invading sites is common in Finland. The species tends to establish itself as undergrowth, and takes over when it gets space to grow. To determine whether the undergrowth is suitable as the new generation requires knowledge on the biology of spruce undergrowth. One of the issues is determining the age of the stunted trees. In this investigation, 100 undergrown spruce trees, their crown and their root systems were studied. A method was developed to determine the age of the trees.

The root system of all trees in Vaccinium sites and of stunted trees in Myrtillius sites were superficial. The root systems of older spruces were purely of adventitious origin. The longer the period of stunting growth, the younger is the root system. In addition to acropetal and general adventitious ramification there is often adventitious branching of the roots of pathological causes. Mortality among the long roots is frequent.

A stunted tree has not the same ability as a viable tree to make use of already existing branches for building assimilating surface. When comparing trees with equally large assimilating surface, a stunted tree had greater sum of roots compared to a viable tree. The root system of a stunted undergrown spruce was very superficial compared with the other trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, E-mail: gs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7398, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1949). Männiköiden ja kuusikoiden juurisuhteista I. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 2 article id 7398. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7398
English title: On the horizontal roots in Scots pine and Norway spruce stands.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; juuristo; juurikilpailu; juuriston kasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; competition; root system; roots; root competition; growth of roots
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the investigation was to study the amount, quality and distribution by layers of depth of horizontal roots in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Southern Finland. The sample plots included stands on soil varying from sandy to stony, and stands of  varying ages from seedling stands to an old stand, in Myrtillus and Vaccinium type forests.

In a Norway spruce stand, the amount of roots increases rapidly and reaches its maximum, about 450 meters/m3, at an age of 100-110 years. In a Scots pine stand the maximum, about 370 m/m3, is reached earlier, at an age of 60-70 years. The root system of pine expands more rapidly than that of spruce. The total length of the horizontal root system of pine amounts to 1,000 m soon after 40 years of growth, of spruce at the age of 60. Later the situation changes, and at the age of 110 the root systems of both species are about the same size, but older trees of spruce have more extensive root system.

Majority of horizontal roots are under 1 mm in diameter. Of the horizontal roots of spruce stands the majority lie in the humus layer and in the topmost mineral soil stratum. Over half of horizontal spruce roots are, thus, at a maximum depth of 5 cm, while majority of the roots of Scots pine lie at maximum in depth of 10 cm. At the same layer grow also the roots of the ground vegetation, which may affect the competition between the species.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kalela, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7361, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1942). Siperian lehtikuusen kasvusta sekametsiköissä Evon valtionpuistossa. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 8 article id 7361. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7361
English title: Growth of Siberian larch in mixed stands in state forests of Evo in Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; tiheys; mänty; sekametsä; siperianlehtikuusi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; growth; mixed forests; Siberian larch; Larix sibirica
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Of the foreign tree species Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) has the biggest economical potential in Finland. In its natural distribution the species grows mostly in mixed stands in other areas than the core of its range in Siberia, where it grows also in pure stands. However, growth studies have given contradictory results about how Siberian larch can manage competition of different tree species in mixed stands. In this study two-year old Siberian larch seedlings were planted in areas previously sown with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The growth of the trees was measured when the stands were 50 years old.

It appears that the stands, about 3700 larch seedlings per hectare, have originally been too been too dense. In the two thinnings done in the area, larch has probably been favoured, which has resulted in varying mix of pine and spruce. In the 50-year old stands, Siberian larch has developed faster than Scots pine and Norway spruce. Contrary to some previous studies, the results show that Siberian larch can be grown also in mixed stands, but the growth will probably be slower than in pure stands. Best growth is achieved in pure stands that have been planted thinly enough.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7359, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1942). Muutamia kasvukokeita puuntaimilla. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 6 article id 7359. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7359
English title: Growth studies on tree seedlings.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; taimikasvatus; koivu; kilpailu; itäminen; kasvututkimukset
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; birch; Picea abies; Scots pine; competition; Betula sp.; growth studies; germinatio
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to investigate effect of growth conditions on germination and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Germination of seeds becomes markedly slower as the soil temperature decreases. It seems that low temperatures affect more Norway spruce than Scots pine. When temperature rises, the fresh weight of the seedlings increases more in pine seedlings than in spruce seedlings. Accordingly, lower temperatures affect less the weight growth of spruce seedling than that of pine seedlings.

An experiment testing how root competition affect germination showed that adjacent seedlings decrease germination of seeds more than shading with branches. The effect was strongest on pine and spruce seedlings when the shading tree species was fast growing birch (Betula sp.). On the other hand, shading affected most height growth of birch seedlings. Growing space can vary in relatively large range without it affecting greatly tree growth.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aaltonen, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7302, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1934). Karsimisesta ja sen metsänhoidollisesta merkityksestä. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 25 article id 7302. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7302
English title: The silvicultural influences of pruning.
Original keywords: puutavara; karsiminen; oksaton; vaneritukki; tukin laatu
English keywords: timber quality; tree growth; knottiness; value of timber
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Pruning growing trees influences tree growth and value of the wood and yield of timber of the stand. Pruning living branches create open wounds on the stems that can risk the growth of tree species that are vulnerable to injuries. For instance, pruning has been shown to cause decay in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), while Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) can quickly heal over the branch scars. Pruning of living branches reduces the crown, the effect of which remains small if only the lowest branches are pruned. Pruning of dry branches has little effect on the health of the tree. The main objective of pruning is to improve the quality of timber. Knottiness decreases strength and appearance of timber. Pruning increases the yield of knot-free sapwood, which is especially valuable in veneer timber. Pruning is, therefore, at present most suitable for birch and aspen which are used in veneer industry. In both species pruning should be directed mainly to dry branches.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7298, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1934). The development of a forest stand and the growth factors. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 21 article id 7298. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7298
Keywords: forest management; light; forest stand; growth factor; water
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Water and amount of light are the most important growth factors and the article discusses their relationship. It is knows that the more space is needed by a tree the worse the site is. The number of stems varies between tree species. Common understanding is that amount of light is decisive to self-thinning and regeneration of a stand. On a good site the adequacy of water may substitute the lack of light. However, the fertility of soil and moisture content is more important than light.

The question of the importance of light, soil fertility and water content, as well as their relationship is important when optimizing the forest management.       

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Aaltonen, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7245, category Article
Erik Lönnroth. (1929). Theoretical observations on volume growth and drain of a forest stand. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 32 article id 7245. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7245
Keywords: volume; forest growth; stand; natural drain
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In a natural state growing closed forest the amount of timber grows yearly. However, in the same time the timber volume also decreases when part of the trees die in the competition for light and other growth factors.

There are many interactive functions and characteristic that influence the growth and drain in a stand. These can be illustrated as mathematical models. The article discusses a set of models.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Lönnroth, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7231, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1929). Huomioita männyn ja kuusen pituuskehityksen "vuotuisesta" ja vuorokautisesta jaksosta. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 18 article id 7231. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7231
English title: Observations on annual and daily cycles in the height growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; taimet; lämpötila; pituuskasvu; kasvukausi; vuotuinen vaihtelu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; height growth; temperature; seedlings; growing seasons
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The height growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were observed in Korkeakoski and Evo in Southern Finland in 1925-1928. The growth was slow in the beginning of the growing season, increased after that to decrease again towards the end of the growing season. The height growth begun in May, reached the fastest growth rates in June, and ended in June-July. According to the earlier studies, the length of the height growth of Scots pine is dependent on the temperature of the previous summer. This study showed that warm temperatures of the same summer promote height growth, and low temperatures slow it down. Also the daily growth fluctuates, being highest during the afternoon and slowest during the early morning. The daily growth is dependent on temperature.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) begin the height growth in average 9 days later than Scots pine. Compared to pine, the speed of growth in spruce decreases slower towards the late summer.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hertz, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7228, category Article
Agnar Barth. (1929). Skjermforyngelsen i produksjonsökonomisk belysning. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 15 article id 7228. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7228
English title: Natural regeneration from the production economic point of view.
Keywords: yield; natural regeneration; Norway; volume growth; seed tree stands; economic result
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Natural regeneration has been studied so far mostly on the perspective of regeneration, while the production capacity of the seed crop stand has been of little interest in the earlier studies. This paper studied volume growth of the seed trees and the economic impact of this regeneration method both in a literature review and measuring sample stands consisting of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated stands and mixed forests in Norway.

It is concluded that in the most cases the seed tree stands give better pulpwood and timber yield than the stands in the average. The reason might be that the elite stems can better use their production capacity, and, thus, reach bigger and more valuable dimensions. Even though the growing stock diminishes in the seeding felling, the growth of the stand does not decrease or decreases only little. At the same time, the quality growth improves. In addition, the new tree regeneration is achieved usually without extra costs, and there is no unproductive time period in the stand.

  • Barth, E-mail: ab@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7209, category Article
Aarne Boman. (1927). Tutkimuksia männyn paksuuskasvun monivuotisista vaihteluista Suomen eri osista kerätyn aineiston perusteella. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 4 article id 7209. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7209
English title: Studies on annual variations of diameter growth of Scots pine in different parts of Finland.
Original keywords: suo; mänty; Pinus sylvestris; läpimitan kasvu; vuosilusto; auringonpilkut
English keywords: peatland; annual ring; growth ring; sunspots
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Discs were collected from sample trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in different types of peatlands and mineral soil sites in Kajaani, Rovaniemi, Kuusamo; Suojärvi, Pielisjärvi, Evo and Lokalahti in Finland. The growth ring series of the different areas reach as far as in the 1600th century in some sample plots. The diameter growth shows patterns that repeat in cycles of 7, 11, 21, 35 and 70 years. However, the cycles are not exactly equally long. The average lengths of the cycles are relatively similar both in peatlands and in mineral soil sites.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Boman, E-mail: ab@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7191, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1925). On the influence of trees to each other. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 1 article id 7191. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7191
Keywords: growth factor; tree; interactions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article discusses the growth factors, the influence of the seed tree to the seedlings and the relations of the trees within one age class in sense of growth of the trees and their effect for practical forest management.

The author concludes by noticing that there is a remarkable gap in knowledge about growth factors and more research is needed especially on the interactions of various growth factors. Earlier research on forests has not taken the characteristics of the site and its effect into account adequately. In addition to the observations in the nature, the individual growth factors and their interactions should be studied quantitatively.    

  • Aaltonen, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7094, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1923). Tutkimuksia ojitettujen turvemaiden metsänkasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 7094. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7094
English title: Studies on the growth of drained peatlands in Finland.
Original keywords: ojitus; mänty; Pinus sylvestris; läpimitan kasvu; pituuskasvu; turvekangas
English keywords: Scots pine; height growth; drained peatland; diameter growth; draining
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Only about 24,000 hectares of peatlands have been drained in the state lands by the 1921. The aim of this study was to define how much the growth of the trees in the drained peatland revives. Sample plots were measured in previously drained peatlands that had sufficient Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree stand. A stem analysis was performed to one of the sample trees. The evenness of the stands was dependent on how evenly the peatlands had dried when the stand was regenerated. Thus, the sample stands were not always fully stocked. However, they had capacity to develop towards evenly structured forests as the peatlands continued to dry further. The diameter and height growth of the dried peatlands have corresponded the similar stands in mineral soil sites. In trees that have grown stunted in the peatlands, the diameter growth seems to increase faster than the height growth. The volume growth is slightly smaller than in the similar mineral soil sites due to less favorable stem form. After the draining, the roots of the trees continued to grow from the old branches of root, but start then to form new roots. When the ground water level drops, the root layer grows deeper.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, E-mail: sm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7086, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1923). Observations on the root system of pine on marshy soils. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 11 article id 7086. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7086
Keywords: pine; peatlands; root growth; root system
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The data has been collected during 1919 and 1920 in different region of Finland. The studied peatlands varied from fuscum pine swamps to pine swamps and partly to better sedge pine swamps.

The study presents five different forms of root systems. The root growth of pine on peatlands seems to vary strongly from the root form on mineral soils. On the peatlands, where the ground water near to soil cover is, can the roots grow only near the soil surface where the conditions are suitable. For the pine typical tap root is in most cases absent or grows along the soil surface. Also the frost heaving, snow and characteristics of peat affect the root system.   

  • Kokkonen, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7077, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). On the relation between forest growth and timber consumption in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 7077. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7077
Keywords: forest growth; presentation; speech; timber consumption
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a presentation given by the author on occasion of visit from Austrian timber industry and foresters (August 17th 1923), and again for the German visitors (August 20th 1923) in Punkaharju, Finland. The speech deals with the question of the overuse of Finnish forest compared to their growth. The developments of slash-and-burn-culture and forest inventories are described. The results of the inventories show, though still in preliminary state, that there is no nationwide overuse in total, though there are some locations where the felling are bigger than growth. 

  • Cajander, E-mail: ac@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7049, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1920). Tutkimuksia sääsuhteiden vaikutuksesta männyn pituus- ja paksuuskasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 7049. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7049
English title: Studies on the effect of weather conditions on diameter and height growth of Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; Pinus sylvestris; läpimitan kasvu; pituuskasvu
English keywords: height growth; diameter growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The height and diameter growth measured from different Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Southern Finland was compared with meteorological information. The height growth benefits from warm weather in late summer in the previous year, and especially from high temperatures in June. Precipitation or the temperature in the same year did not affect the height growth. Diameter growth benefits from high temperatures in the spring of the same year, especially in April. High precipitation in the spring has in some cases negative impact on the diameter growth. The different combinations of precipitation and temperature can have variable effects on tree growth. In the diameter growth was seen a periodicity that coincides with sunspots.

  • Laitakari, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7041, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1920). Tutkimuksia metsätyyppien taksatoorisesta merkityksestä nojautuen etupäässä kotimaiseen kasvutaulujen laatimistyöhön. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 7041. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7041
English title: Studies on mensurational significance of forest site types as part of preparation of Finnish growth and yield tables.
Original keywords: metsätyypit; kasvupaikkatyypit; kasvu- ja tuotostaulukot
English keywords: tree growth; growth and yield tables; forest site types
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

New growth and yield tables were prepared for Southern Finland. To finalize the tables, it had to be determined whether the forest site types developed by Cajanus could be used in mensurational research.

Comparative study was performed in 1916-1919 to study the growth of the trees in different forest site types. Total of 467 sample sites were measured in Southern and Central Finland. All the forest site types were found to have a distinctive vegetation typical to the site. It can be concluded that the ground vegetation can be used to determine the forest site type. The growth of trees was different in different forest site types, yet similar within each site type. The forest site types are uniform, natural and easy to determine, and can thus be used to classify the forest stands and used in mensurational research and a basis to growth and yield tables.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7014, category Article
Raf. Björkenheim. (1919). Writings on knowledge on forest types in spruce forests of German “Mittelgebirge” (mountainous areas). Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 7014. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7014
Keywords: vegetation; height growth; spruce; German mittelgebirge; German uplands; forest site types
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The data has been collected in spruce forests in mountainous areas of Germany: Fichtelgebirge and Böhmerwald in Bavaria, Erzgebirge in Saxonia. The studied characteristics of the stand were: growth of the trees in height and diameter, and the ground vegetation. The stands were classified according Cajander’s forest site classification. The article presents the most common plants and other characteristics of every forest site type and studied stands. The relation of the height of the trees and their age is represented in diagrams for every forest type.

The presence of indicator plants is somewhat dependent on the stand age and crown coverage. The amount of species is lowest when the crown coverage is at the greatest.

As conclusion of the study it can be seen that the growth of the stand differentiates clearly depending on the forest site type, being greater at the more nutritious sites. Since the differently growing stands need different management, it would be natural to direct the management of the stand according the forest site type. 

  • Björkenheim, E-mail: rb@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7012, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1916). Mäntymetsikköjen valtapuitten kasvusta mustikka- ja kanervatyyppien kankailla Salmin kruununpuistossa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 7012. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7012
English title: The growth of the dominant trees in Scots pine forests of Myrtillus and Calluna typesailla Salmin kruununpuistossa.
Original keywords: kasvupaikkatyyppi; läpimitan kasvu; tilavuuskasvu; pituuskasvu
English keywords: diameter growth; volume growth; forest site type; site quality class; height growt
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Tree growth is one of the factors that have been used to determine the site quality. The aim of the study was to show that growth of single trees growing on a same forest site class are similar, but differ from trees growing on a different site type. To compare the tree growth, a stem analysis was performed to dominant trees in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands, measured in 15 Myrtillus type sample plots and in 15 Calluna type sample plots in state forests in Salmi, situated in north side of Lake Ladoga. The height growth when the tree was young was higher in the trees growing in the Myrtillus type than in the Calluna type. Also, the trees of same age are higher in Myrtillus type stand than in the Calluna type. In Calluna type, the height growth, however, evens out later in age than in the Myrtillus type. The volume growth of the trees begins to increase earlier in Myrtillus type, and is higher than in Calluna type. Similarly, the diameter growth in breast height is higher in the Myrtillus type.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7531, category Article
Werner Cajanus. (1914). The development of even-aged forests stands - a statistical study. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 7531. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7531
Keywords: forest valuation; forest mensuration; yield tables; growth tables
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study is to generate yield tables that enables calculating the stumpage values of the forests in different ages. The article investigates the diameter distribution of a stand at the breast height and their changes with the age of the stand.  In an even-aged stand the calculating of the stumpage value is based on height and breast height diameter. Hence the diameter distribution of a stand determines the stand volume, the stem frequency distribution series can be used as the basis of compiling the yield tables, in which the volume is the main factor.   

The study is based on spruce and pine mensuration data from Finland, pine stands from Prussia, and spruce stands from mountainous area of Switzerland. The article presents the characteristics of ste