Current issue: 57(2)
Under compilation: 57(3)
Article presents some rare cone formations found from a small spruce in region of Punkaharju, Finland. In this case all the scales have developed into perfect, green needle leaves. Instead of a normal scale of a cone there are formations of buds that on the basal part of a cone resemble a normal bud, and hence develop into a branch. On the upper part of the cone formation the bud develops into scale of a cone.
The morphological form of the cones has been interpreted many ways. These anomalies resemble earlier observations and hence support the former theory of inflorescence. According the theory, the scales and scales of a cone are separate leaves, the scale corresponding to one leaf, the scale of a cone corresponding to two leaves. A cone is hence rather to be compared with a branching inflorescence than only one flower.
The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
The effects of wood ash fertilisation on tree nutrition and growth on forested peatlands has been studied using loose ash, but in practice, ash fertilisation is done almost exclusively with granulated ash. In this study, the effects of granulated ash and loose ash (both 5 Mg ha–1) on the growth and nutrition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands were compared between a nitrogen-poor and a nitrogen-rich site over 15 years. On the nitrogen-rich site, wood ash application was also compared with commercial PK fertilisation. On the nitrogen-rich site, mean stand volume growth increase over unfertilised control treatment during the 15 year study period using granulated ash and commercial PK fertiliser was of the same magnitude (on average, 2.2–2.3 m3 ha–1 a–1). However, when loose ash was used growth increase over control was higher (3.7 m3 ha–1 a–1). On the nitrogen-poor site, the mean growth increase gained by loose or granulated ash (1.4–1.5 m3 ha–1 a–1) over the unfertilised control treatment was not significant. Fertilisation with loose ash or PK increased foliar P, K and B concentrations already in the first or second growing season, following fertilisation on both sites. Granulated ash increased foliar P concentrations on the nitrogen-rich site less than loose ash. After an initial increase, foliar P, K and B concentrations decreased at the end of study period. On the nitrogen-poor site, foliar P concentrations were below the deficiency limit by the end of the study period.