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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'morphology'

Category : Article

article id 5626, category Article
Winfried Kurth, Branislav Sloboda. (1997). Growth grammars simulating trees – an extension of L-systems incorporating local variables and sensitivity. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5626.
Keywords: tree growth; competition; allocation; morphology; tree architecture; L-systems; sensitivity; tree structure
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The rule-based formal language of "stochastic sensitive growth grammars" was designed to describe algorithmically the changing morphology of forest trees during their lifetime under the impact of endogenous and exogenous factors, and to generate 3-D simulations of tree structures in a systematic manner. The description in the form of grammars allows the precise specification of structural models with functional components. These grammars (extended L-systems) can be interpreted by the software GROGRA (Growth grammar interpreter) yielding time series of attributed 3-D structures representing plants. With some recent extensions of the growth-grammar language (sensitive functions, local variables) it is possible to model environmental control of shoot growth and some simple allocation strategies, and to obtain typical competition effects in tree stands qualitatively in the model.

  • Kurth, E-mail: wk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Sloboda, E-mail: bs@mm.unknown
article id 5624, category Article
Hervé Sinoquet, Christophe Godin, Pierre Rivet. (1997). Assessment of the three-dimensional architecture of walnut trees using digitising. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5624.
Keywords: digitising; crown structure; tree architecture; Juglans regia; topology; geometry; shoot level; shoot morphology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method for the measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of trees was applied to describe two 20-year-old walnut trees, one of them is a timber tree while the other is a fruit tree. The method works at the shoot level and simultaneously describes the plant topology, the plant geometry and the shoot morphology. The method uses a 3D digitiser (3SPACE® FASTRAK®, Polhemus Inc.) associated with software DiplAmi designed for digitiser control and data acquisition management. Plant images may be reconstructed from the data set by using the ray tracing software POV-Ray. Visual comparison between photographs of the walnut trees and images synthesised from digitising was satisfactory. Distribution of basal shoot diameter, as well as leaf area and fruit distributions for both the timber and the fruit tree were non-uniformly distributed in the crown volume. Gradients were likely to be related to the light distribution within the tree. This is in agreement with previous experimental results on several tree species, and also with the predictions of tree architecture models based on light-vegetation interactions.

  • Sinoquet, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Godin, E-mail: cg@mm.unknown
  • Rivet, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
article id 5561, category Article
Jari Liski. (1995). Variation in soil organic carbon and thickness of soil horizons within a boreal forest stand – effect of trees and implications for sampling. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 4 article id 5561.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; soil carbon; spatial variation; soil formation; soil morphology; tree effects; soil sampling; geostatics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Spatial variation in the density of soil organic carbon (kg/m2) and the thickness of soil horizons (F/H, E) were investigated in a 6 m x 8 m area in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland for designing an effective sampling for the C density and studying the effect of trees on the variation. The horizon thickness of the podzolized soil were measured on a total of 126 soil cores (50 cm deep) and the C density of the organic F/H and 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm and 20–40 cm mineral soil layers was analysed.

The C density varied 3–5 fold within the layers and the coefficients of variation ranged from 22 % to 40%. Considering the gain in confidence per sample, 8–10 samples were suggested for estimating the mean C density in the F/H and 0–40 cm layers, although about 30 samples are needed for 10% confidence in the mean. The C densities and horizon thicknesses were spatially dependent within the distances of 1–8 m, the spatial dependence accounting for 43–86% of the total variance. The F/H layer was thicker and contained more C within 1–3 m radius from trees. In the 10–20 cm and 20–40 cm layers (B horizon) the C density also increased towards the trees, but more pronouncedly in the immediate vicinity of the stems. Because the spatial patterning of the E horizon thickness was similar, the increase was attributed to stemflow and precipitation of organic compounds in the podzol B horizon.

  • Liski, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4808, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Antti Oksanen. (1969). Morfologiset, gravimetriset ja fotometriset tunnukset männyn taimien juuristojen kuvaajina. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4808.
English title: Morphological, gravimetric, and photometric characteristics in describing of the root systems of pine transplants.
Original keywords: mänty; Pinus sylvestris; juuristo; taimet; mittausmenetelmät; juurten pinta-ala; morfologia
English keywords: Scots pine; seedlings; root system; surface area of the root system; morphology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This project studied the value of various shoot and root-system characteristics as indicators of plantability of transplants. Correlation and regression analysis was used to compare these characteristics. The study material consisted of two-year Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) transplants that had grown in a plastic greenhouse for the first year and then been transplanted in the open. The seedlings had been transplanted in the field without treatment or with the roots cut to a length of 8 cm. A part was transplanted without treatment into plastic pails. A gravimetric and photometric method was used to obtain a description of the surface area of the root systems.

The results show that the photometric value gives a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The greatest advantage offered by the method is the simplicity and rapidity of measurement. The gravimetric, and especially the titrimetric, measurement takes much more time per plant. Photometric measurement affects plantability little, and measured and planted transplants can be followed up in the field. In gravimetric measurements, it was found that fresh and dry weight of the plants were closely correlated.

Mycorrhizal frequency in the root systems gave a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The number of living roots-tips was also rather closely correlated with the surface area of the root system. The other morphological characteristics failed to serve as a satisfactory index for the surface area of root systems. The one closest correlated was the annual leader growth. The second best was stem diameter; the height of the plant, on the contrary, was rather poorly correlated with the other characteristics.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
  • Oksanen, E-mail: ao@mm.unknown

Category : Article

article id 7360, category Article
Viljo Kujala. (1942). Morphologic interpretation of a spruce cone based on fertilization. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 7 article id 7360.
Keywords: fertilization; spruce; morphology; cone
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Article presents some rare cone formations found from a small spruce in region of Punkaharju, Finland. In this case all the scales have developed into perfect, green needle leaves. Instead of a normal scale of a cone there are formations of buds that on the basal part of a cone resemble a normal bud, and hence develop into a branch. On the upper part of the cone formation the bud develops into scale of a cone.

The morphological form of the cones has been interpreted many ways. These anomalies resemble earlier observations and hence support the former theory of inflorescence. According the theory, the scales and scales of a cone are separate leaves, the scale corresponding to one leaf, the scale of a cone corresponding to two leaves. A cone is hence rather to be compared with a branching inflorescence than only one flower.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Kujala, E-mail: vk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7107, category Article
J. P. Norrlin. (1923). Adnotationes de Pilosellis Fennicis. I Notices on Pilosellae (Hieracia sp.) (hawkweed) in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 8 article id 7107.
Keywords: morphology; Hieracia; Pilosellae; Pilosellis; Pilosella officinarum; Hieracium pilosella
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article begins on the page 105/122 of the PDF file.

The article deals with the morphology of Hieracia sp. and their research, especially with Pilosella officinarum, also Hieracium pilosella. The article gives an overview of the most common, wide spread or otherwise remarkable forms of the genus of the Pilosella and reports, starting from the smallest areas, about the formula, distribution, abundance and occurrence of them.

The great amount of forms, their high variability and the tendency to hybridize make the definition of the varieties difficult.  However, the number of varieties in Finland is estimated to be between 150 and 200. The phenotype of the plant is also to some extent dependent on the site. The numerous forms that belong to the group of Piloselloideae can be divided in to groups: main species and intermediate forms. 

  • Norrlin, E-mail: jn@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 1056, category Research article
Katri Himanen, Markku Nygren. (2015). Seed soak-sorting prior to sowing affects the size and quality of 1.5-year-old containerized Picea abies seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 3 article id 1056.
Keywords: Norway spruce; seed treatment; seed radiography; seedling emergence; seedling morphology
Highlights: After soak-sorting all sunken seeds (bottom fraction) were full and viable, whereas floating seeds contained larvae-filled and immature seed; Seedlings originating from the bottom fraction were greater in height and diameter than control seedlings or those originating from the floating seeds; The proportion of saleable seedlings was four percentage points higher in the bottom fraction than in the other seedlings.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

We studied the effect of soak-sorting Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds on emergence, development and quality of container seedlings in two commercial seed lots. The seeds, separated by soaking into bottom and surface fractions, were sown in June, and the seedlings were grown during two growing seasons under typical Finnish nursery conditions. The first summer seedlings were grown in a greenhouse and outdoors for the second, full growing season. All sunken seeds were full and viable according to radiography, whereas the floating seeds contained 2% and 13% larvae-filled and 8% and 11% anatomically immature seeds, depending on the seed lot. Seedlings grown from the bottom fraction seed emerged 2.5–3.5 days earlier than seedlings of storage dry (i.e. control) seed. Height, diameter, and shoot and root dry mass of the seedlings were affected by soaking after both the first and second growing seasons. The largest seedlings originated from the bottom fraction. The proportion of saleable seedlings was four percentage points higher in the bottom fraction than in the other seedlings. The effects of soaking found in this study are more notable than as previously reported for Norway spruce seedlings. This suggests that soaking and soak-sorting may be most useful when the growing conditions are stressful, i.e. when seeds are sown in summer rather than 1-year-old seedling crops sown in spring under the climate conditions typical of Finland.

  • Himanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Nygren, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:
article id 41, category Research article
Ying Hou, Jintao Qu, Zukui Luo, Chao Zhang, Kaiyun Wang. (2011). Morphological mechanism of growth response in treeline species Minjiang fir to elevated CO2 and temperature. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 41.
Keywords: climate change; Abies faxoniana; crown architecture; leaf morphology; response ratio
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
To test whether and how morphological traits are linked with growth responses of plants to temperature and CO2 is important for understanding the mechanism underlying how plant growth will respond to global warming. In this study, using closed-top chambers to mimic future elevated CO2 and temperature, the growth response, morphological traits of Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana Wils.) and the relationship of the two were investigated after two years of exposure to the single and combined elevation of CO2 and temperature. The results showed that biomass of Minjiang fir was 21%, 31%, and 35% greater than the control in elevated CO2, elevated temperature and the combination of elevated CO2 and temperature treatments, respectively. Elevated CO2 and temperature significantly affected the morphology of Minjiang fir, and a few morphological traits were highly correlated with growth responses. Larger branch angles at the upper layer, crown volume, and relative crown length contributed to positive growth responses to elevated CO2, while decreased specific leaf area (SLA) constricted any further growth response. Leaf morphological traits were more closely correlated with the response ratio than crown did in the elevated temperature, while in the combination of elevated CO2 and temperature, crown was more correlated with the response ratio than the leaf morphological traits. Thus, our results indicate that morphological traits may contribute differently to growth responses under different experimental conditions.
  • Hou, Department of Life Sciences, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu, China E-mail:
  • Qu, Department of Life Sciences, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu, China E-mail:
  • Luo, School of Environment and Life Sciences, Kaili University, Kaili, China E-mail:
  • Zhang, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China, and University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Wang, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China, and University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
article id 493, category Research article
Göran Rune. (2003). Slits in container wall improve root structure and stem straightness of outplanted Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 493.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; solidwall container; slitwall container; root morphology; mechanical instability; stem straightness
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Root structure and basal sweep were measured on 6-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees at two sites with different soil fertility. Each site was planted with seedlings of identical origin after nursery cultivation in either solidwall container types with vertical ribs or in slitwall container types. Neither container design nor container volume affected tree height or stem diameter on the two sites. The transversal area of lateral roots was larger than the transversal area of bottom roots for the two container types at both sites. The proportion of bottom root transversal area to the total root transversal area was larger in the seedlings growing on the low fertility site than in those growing in the high fertility site for both container types. Seedlings cultivated in slitwall containers had a larger root area in proportion to stem diameter and had less root spiralling compared to the trees cultivated in solidwall containers. At the high fertility site, trees from the slitwall container type had straighter stem bases than seedlings grown in solidwall containers. At the low fertility site, differences in basal sweep formation were small between the container types. Reasons for this are discussed.
  • Rune, Dalarna University, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, SE-776 98 Garpenberg, Sweden E-mail: (email)
article id 498, category Research article
Slobodan B. Mickovski, A. Roland Ennos. (2003). Anchorage and asymmetry in the root system of Pinus peuce. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 498.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; eccentricity; root morphology; anchorage; asymmetry; Pinus peuce; clustering
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The relationship between the anchorage mechanics and root architecture of Pinus peuce was investigated by carrying out winching tests and examining excavated root systems of 20 mature trees. The root system was dominated by 6.1±1.3 lateral roots, more than 70% of the lateral root cross sectional area (CSA) being distributed in the uppermost 10 cm of soil. Anchorage strength was related to the size of the tree and CSA. The overturning moment of trees was proportional to the diameter at breast height (DBH) to the power of 1.6. The trees exhibited significant asymmetry in anchorage rigidity, but although there was clustering of lateral roots in a preferred direction the root asymmetry was not significantly correlated with the asymmetry in anchorage rigidity, suggesting that much of the anchorage is provided by tap and sinker roots, rather than the laterals. However, the major laterals showed dorsoventral eccentricity, the more eccentric ones being those that were distributed closer to the soil surface and which pointed perpendicular to the direction of greatest resistance. This suggests that this is a result of thigmomorphogenetic effects. These results are compared with those for the related P. sylvestris and suggest that the assimilation and anchorage characteristics of root systems are controlled independently of each other.
  • Mickovski, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, 3.614 Stopford Building, Manchester M13 9PT, UK E-mail:
  • Ennos, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, 3.614 Stopford Building, Manchester M13 9PT, UK E-mail: (email)

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