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Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 | 2022

Category: Editorial

article id 10790, category Editorial
Henrik Heräjärvi. (2022). What do engineered wood products and Ford Model T have in common? Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 article id 10790. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10790
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  • Heräjärvi, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@luke.fi (email)

Category: Research article

article id 10755, category Research article
Rikard Jonsson, Lotta Woxblom, Rolf Björheden, Eva-Maria Nordström, Bosko Blagojevic, Ola Lindroos. (2022). Analysis of decision-making processes for strategic technology investments in Swedish large-scale forestry. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 article id 10755. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10755
Keywords: information needs; qualitative analysis; harwarder; forest technology development; semi-structured interviews; unstructured decision processes
Highlights: When making development decisions, respondents representing six relatively large users of forest technology aimed to maximize economic criteria without falling below threshold values for criteria such as operator well-being, soil rutting, and wood value; Collaboration between users, manufacturers, and researchers was found to be important; Decision-making could be improved by using tools such as problem-structuring methods, simulations, and optimization.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Technological development gives forest companies opportunities to maintain competitiveness in the highly cost-sensitive market for forest products. However, no previous studies have examined the technological development decisions made by forest companies or the support tools used when making them. We therefore aimed to describe and analyze 1) the processes used when making such decisions, 2) the associated decision situations, and 3) the use of and need for decision support tools in these processes, with a harwarder concept as case. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with respondents from six forestry organizations. Two theoretical frameworks were used to analyze the interviews, one for unstructured decision processes and one for decision situations. The respondents’ descriptions of their decision processes were consistent with those observed in other industries, and it was shown that decision-making could potentially be improved by investing more resources into diagnosing the problem at hand. The main objective in decision-making was to maximize economic criteria while satisfying threshold requirements relating to criteria such as operator well-being, soil rutting, and wood value. When facing large uncertainties, interviewees preferred to gather data through operational trials and/or scientific studies. If confronted with large uncertainties that could not be reduced, they proceeded with development only if the potential gains exceeded the estimated uncertainties, and implemented innovations in a stepwise manner. These results indicate a need for greater use of existing decision-support tools such as problem-structuring methods to enable more precise diagnoses, simulations to better understand new innovations, and optimization to better evaluate their theoretical large-scale potential.

  • Jonsson, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: rikard.jonsson@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Woxblom, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: lotta.woxblom@skogforsk.se
  • Björheden, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: rolf.bjorheden@skogforsk.se
  • Nordström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail: eva-maria.nordstrom@slu.se
  • Blagojevic, University of Novi Sad, Department of Water Management, Trg D. Obradovica 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia E-mail: bosko.blagojevic@polj.edu.rs
  • Lindroos, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail: ola.lindroos@slu.se
article id 10754, category Research article
Robert E. Tatina, Brice B. Hanberry. (2022). Historical forests of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA, determined using General Land Office surveys. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 article id 10754. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10754
Keywords: fire; Ponderosa pine; settlement; ecological reference; Government Land Office; GLO; range of variation
Highlights: Based on the U.S. General Land Office survey, the historical (1878–1915) Black Hills landscape in southwestern South Dakota, USA, was relatively open; Historical survey points with trees had lesser tree densities than current forest plots; Ponderosa pine has become less dominant as fire-sensitive species have increased; This study provides another line of evidence of a changed forest structure.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forests in the western United States generally have increased in tree density since Euro-American settlement, particularly through increases in fire-sensitive species, such as spruces, firs, and junipers. Like most areas, the Black Hills region in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming was logged for forest products and underwent agricultural conversion before historical forests were documented. To supplement historical reconstructions and accounts, we compared tree composition and densities (diameters ≥12.7 cm at 1.37 m above ground height) from historical General Land Office (GLO) records (years 1878 to 1915) and current Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) tree surveys (years 2011 to 2016) in the Black Hills Highlands of South Dakota. For composition, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson & C. Lawson) decreased from 95% to 86% of all trees, with a consequent increase specifically of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) from 1.5% to 6.7% of all trees. Ponderosa pine currently is smaller in mean diameter by 7.4 cm, while white spruce is larger in mean diameter by 2.4 cm than historically. When the 35% of historical survey points without recorded trees were excluded, historical tree densities indicated an overall forested structure of savannas and open woodlands with tree densities ranging from 66 trees ha–1 to 162 trees ha–1. However, historical forests of the Black Hills incorporated dense stands. Tree densities have increased two- to more than four-fold, to 311 trees ha–1 currently. These comparisons provide another source of information, paralleling changes documented in surface fire-dependent pine and oak forests throughout the United States, of transitions in forest composition and structure since Euro-American settlement.

  • Tatina, Department of Biological Sciences, Dakota Wesleyan University, Mitchell, SD 57301 USA E-mail: rotatina@dwu.edu (email)
  • Hanberry, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Rapid City, SD 57702 USA E-mail: brice.hanberry@usda.gov
article id 10732, category Research article
Ana Aza, A. Maarit I. Kallio, Timo Pukkala, Ari Hietala, Terje Gobakken, Rasmus Astrup. (2022). Species selection in areas subjected to risk of root and butt rot: applying Precision forestry in Norway. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 article id 10732. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10732
Keywords: Norway spruce; Scots pine; growth modelling; precision forestry; root and butt rot severity; tree species selection
Highlights: We present the best species to plant on previously spruce-dominated sites with different site indexes and rot levels; We recommend planting Norway spruce on low-rot sites, Scots pine on higher-rot sites, and allowing natural regeneration on low site indexes; We demonstrate the Precision forestry method for determining the optimal tree species in heterogenous stands; In the case study, the method increased net present value by approximately 6% on average.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Norway’s most common tree species, Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce), is often infected with Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen and Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.. Because Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) is less susceptible to rot, it is worth considering if converting rot-infested spruce stands to pine improves economic performance. We examined the economically optimal choice between planting Norway spruce and Scots pine for previously spruce-dominated clear-cut sites of different site indexes with initial rot levels varying from 0% to 100% of stumps on the site. While it is optimal to continue to plant Norway spruce in regions with low rot levels, shifting to Scots pine pays off when rot levels get higher. The threshold rot level for changing from Norway spruce to Scots pine increases with the site index. We present a case study demonstrating a practical method (“Precision forestry”) for determining the tree species in a stand at the pixel level when the stand is heterogeneous both in site indexes and rot levels. This method is consistent with the concept of Precision forestry, which aims to plan and execute site-specific forest management activities to improve the quality of wood products while minimising waste, increasing profits, and maintaining environmental quality. The material for the study includes data on rot levels and site indexes in 71 clear-cut stands. Compared to planting the entire stand with a single species, pixel-level optimised species selection increases the net present value in almost every stand, with average increase of approximately 6%.

  • Aza, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, PO Box 5003, NO-1432, Ås, Norway ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6416-6697 E-mail: anfe@nmbu.no (email)
  • Kallio, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, PO Box 5003, NO-1432, Ås, Norway E-mail: maarit.kallio@nmbu.no
  • Pukkala, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: timo.pukkala@uef.fi
  • Hietala, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, PO Box 115, NO-1431 Ås, Norway E-mail: ari.hietala@nibio.no
  • Gobakken, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, PO Box 5003, NO-1432, Ås, Norway E-mail: terje.gobakken@nmbu.no
  • Astrup, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, PO Box 115, NO-1431 Ås, Norway E-mail: rasmus.astrup@nibio.no
article id 10712, category Research article
Kenneth Olofsson, Johan Holmgren. (2022). Co-registration of single tree maps and data captured by a moving sensor using stem diameter weighted linking. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 article id 10712. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10712
Keywords: airborne laser scanning; terrestrial laser scanning; field plot; mobile laser scanning; simultaneous location and mapping; stem map
Highlights: A stem diameter weighted linking algorithm for tree maps was introduced which improves linking accuracy; A new simultaneous location and mapping-based co-registration method for stem maps measured with moving sensors was introduced that operates with high linking accuracy.
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A new method for the co-registration of single tree data in forest stands and forest plots applicable to static as well as dynamic data capture is presented. This method consists of a stem diameter weighted linking algorithm that improves the linking accuracy when operating on diverse diameter stands with stem position errors in the single tree detectors. A co-registration quality metric threshold, QT, is also introduced which makes it possible to discriminate between correct and incorrect stem map co-registrations with high probability (>99%). These two features are combined to a simultaneous location and mapping-based co-registration method that operates with high linking accuracy and that can handle sensors with drifting errors and signal bias. A test with simulated data shows that the method has an 89.35% detection rate. The statistics of different settings in a simulation study are presented, where the effect of stem density and position errors were investigated. A test case with real sensor data from a forest stand shows that the average nearest neighbor distances decreased from 1.90 m to 0.51 m, which indicates the feasibility of this method.

  • Olofsson, Section of Forest Remote Sensing, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2836-2316 E-mail: kenneth.olofsson@slu.se (email)
  • Holmgren, Section of Forest Remote Sensing, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7112-8015 E-mail: johan.holmgren@slu.se
article id 10698, category Research article
Constança Camilo-Alves, Jose Antonio Nunes, Ana Patricia Poeiras, Joao Ribeiro, Cati Dinis, Joao M. Barroso, Margarida Vaz, Nuno Almeida-Ribeiro. (2022). Influence of water and nutrients on cork oak radial growth – looking for an efficient fertirrigation regime. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 article id 10698. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10698
Keywords: irrigation; mixed models; Quercus suber; climate–growth relationship; increments; stem radius
Highlights: Different summer fertirrigation treatments were tested on cork oaks over four years in a 1 ha plot; Radial growth, meteorological parameters and fertirrigation volume were measured every 15–30 days; During summer fertirrigated trees grew significantly more, independently of air vapor pressure deficit; Increments were linearly related with fertirrigation volume up to 140 m3 week–1.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The widespread cork oak (Quercus suber L.) mortality and reduced afforestation /regeneration are causing an overall reduction in cork production. To enhance trees’ growth and vitality, afforestation techniques using fertirrigation were tested. The main objective was the promotion of trees’ growth on new dense plantations using minimum water requirements until reaching productive forests. The experimental plot – Irricork – was installed in 2017 in a ≈1 ha stand with 14 years’ age cork oaks summer-fertirrigated since plantation. Four fertirrigation treatments were applied during fertirrigation campaigns. Radial growth, meteorological parameters and fertirrigation volume were measured every 15–30 days over four years. It was observed that weather, tree size, debarking and trees’ intra-competition had a significant effect on radial increments. Fertirrigation significantly enhanced growth during summer drought and decoupled increments from air vapor pressure deficit constraints. There was a linear relationship between trees’ radial increments and fertirrigation volume up to 140 m3 week–1. Above this value, increments were smoother. In conclusion, summer fertirrigation of 140 m3 week–1 efficiently enhanced the radial growth of trees with 50–75 circumference at breast height, under the particular edaphoclimatic conditions of the stand. This study showed to be, therefore, promising in the use of efficient fertirrigation the enhance cork oaks’ radial growth.

  • Camilo-Alves, MED – Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development & CHANGE – Global Change and Sustainability Institute, Institute for Advanced Studies and Research, University of Evora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5156-172X E-mail: calves@uevora.pt (email)
  • Nunes, Department of Plant Science, School of Science and Technology, University of Evora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6144-3484 E-mail: jain@uevora.pt
  • Poeiras, MED – Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development & CHANGE – Global Change and Sustainability Institute, Institute for Advanced Studies and Research, University of Evora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6049-807X E-mail: apcp@uevora.pt
  • Ribeiro, Department of Plant Science, School of Science and Technology, University of Evora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7242-5866 E-mail: jmrpr@uevora.pt
  • Dinis, ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6984-1033 E-mail: dinis.cati@gmail.com
  • Barroso, MED – Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development & CHANGE – Global Change and Sustainability Institute, and Department of Plant Science, School of Science and Technology, University of Evora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0160-3845 E-mail: jmmb@uevora.pt
  • Vaz, MED – Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development & CHANGE – Global Change and Sustainability Institute, and Department of Biology, School of Science and Technology, University of Evora. Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3368-757X E-mail: mvaz@uevora.pt
  • Almeida-Ribeiro, ICT – Institute of Earth Sciences and Department of Plant Science, School of Science and Technology, University of Evora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0160-3845 E-mail: nmcar@uevora.pt
article id 10660, category Research article
Åsa Gustafsson, Jimmy Johansson. (2022). Identifying present drivers of product development and describing roles of identified actors primarily affecting the development of harvesters: a multiple-case study. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 article id 10660. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10660
Keywords: forest operations; logging contractor; industry driver; interview; softwood lumber supply chain
Highlights: Legislators, logging contractors, and expert and research organizations are present drivers of product development of harvesters; They appear to prioritize meeting legal regulations and lowering costs for logging contractors as they outline requirements for manufacturing harvesters.
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Forest operations involve several different actors. Each actor imposes their own requirements on the harvester in relation to their differing roles in the industry, whether they are concerned with the harvester itself, information, environmental concerns, etc. The manufacturers of harvesters need to meet the requirements imposed by multiple actors, among them logging contractors, whose survival depends on their harvesters. This paper aims to identify the present drivers of product development and describe the roles of the actors who have been identified as those currently affecting the development of harvesters. A multiple-case study of harvester manufacturers was conducted. In total, 4 cases were studied. Each case was comprised of five interviewees: two from each harvesting manufacturer, two logging contractors, and one dealer. Following 20 interviews and 3 validation interviews (with experts from both the industry and academia), the paper concludes that the present drivers of product development of harvesters are legislators, logging contractors, and expert and research organizations. Harvester manufacturers appear to develop harvesters aligned with requirements coming from both logging contractors and legislators. Logging contractors are the primary customers, and they prioritize requirements that reduce cost and improve work environments. Legislators, and expert and research organizations are supporting development in relation to current regulations.

  • Gustafsson, Department of Accounting and Logistics, Linnaeus University, Universitetsplatsen 1, 352 52 Växjö, Sweden E-mail: asa.gustafsson@lnu.se (email)
  • Johansson, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Linnaeus University, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden E-mail: jimmy.johansson@lnu.se

Category: Research note

article id 10765, category Research note
Girmantė Jurkšienė, Virgilijus Baliuckas, Donatas Naugžemys, Donatas Žvingila. (2022). Chloroplast DNA polymorphism and morphometric characteristics of Carpinus betulus in the Lithuania forests. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 article id 10765. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10765
Keywords: polymorphism; european hornbeam; intergenic spacer; involucres; migration refugia
Highlights: A 24 bp deletion was found in the chloroplast DNA region of two populations in the southeastern part of Lithuania; Morphometric differences in hornbeam involucre between the study populations were significant; The existence of two haplotypes of the chloroplast DNA region supports the hypothesis of two migration refugia in Carpinus betulus populations.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) is a medium-sized deciduous tree that spreads northeast of the middle of Lithuania. Carpinus betulus L. is a native tree in Poland, and its branch is migrated by two Pleistocene refugia. We hypothesised that its branches had spread to Lithuania. In this study, we selected 10 populations of hornbeam that were chosen from their distribution location. We sequenced the chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH of 70 individuals. We found 24 bp deletion in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) individuals of two populations in the southeastern part of Lithuania. In the seven forest populations, we examined the morphological variability of hornbeam seed involucres and nuts variations of 30 morphometric characteristics. Initial genetic population studies were conducted over a wider area; when differences were detected, morphological studies were conducted in the contact zone. Morphometric differences between the study populations were significant. The existence of two haplotypes of cpDNA supports the hypothesis of two migration refugia in C. betulus populations. This study contributes to significant novel knowledge about the morphological and cpDNA variability of European hornbeam populations in Lithuania and Europe.

  • Jurkšienė, Institute of forestry, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Liepų str. 1 Girionys, LT-53101 Kaunas, Lithuania ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8210-6711 E-mail: girmante.jurksiene@lammc.lt (email)
  • Baliuckas, Institute of forestry, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Liepų str. 1 Girionys, LT-53101 Kaunas, Lithuania; Faculty of Forest Sciences and Ecology, Agriculture Academy, Vytautas Magnus University, K. Donelaičio g. 58, LT-44248 Kaunas, Lithuania E-mail: virgilijus.baliuckas@lammc.lt
  • Naugžemys, Botanical Garden of Vilnius University, Vilnius University, Kairėnų Str. 43, Vilnius 10239, Lithuania ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6744-5360 E-mail: genetikas@gmail.com
  • Žvingila, Department of Botany and Genetics, Institute of Biosciences, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio Av. 7, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7826-1815 E-mail: donatas.zvingila@gf.vu.lt
article id 10561, category Research note
Urszula Zajączkowska, Piotr Dąbrowski, Waldemar Kowalczuk, Grzegorz Tarwacki. (2022). Leaf photosynthetic capacity, trunk wood structure and stem xylem sap flow in 700-years old Quercus robur L.: a pilot study upon oak ‘Bartek’, a natural monument in Poland. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 article id 10561. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10561
Keywords: photosynthetic capacity; ‘Bartek’ oak; tree stem tomography; xylem sap flow
Highlights: Photosynthetic and hydraulic capacity of a 700-year-old Quercus robur is comparable to reference values from the literature measured in younger oak trees.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Physiological studies of long-lived trees are particularly important at this time, especially in light of the need for trees to adapt to global climate change. The results of the present studies were obtained on an approximately 700-year-old Quercus robur L. – the ‘Bartek’ oak. The tree has to adapt to changing climatic conditions, starting from the transition between the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age, up to the present time of rapid global climate change. Tomograph imaging showed decay of the tree trunk interior and revealed that undamaged wood forms a thin layer around the trunk perimeter. Two series of experiments were carried out to assess the physiological state of the tree. The first concerned measurements related to photosynthetic capacity: chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange (CO2 assimilation, transpiration), stomatal conductance and leaf water potential. The second series concerned xylem sap flow velocity and anatomical studies of stem wood. Photosynthetic capacity was within the limits reported for young healthy trees. The diurnal pattern of velocity of xylem sap flow was also typical for young vigorous trees and flow velocity correlated positively with solar radiation and negatively with air relative humidity. Anatomical observations of the outermost wood showed relatively narrow annuals rings with large diameter earlywood vessels. The results indicate that the veteran tree does not show signs of water stress probably due to a good balance of water flow and that leaf area of the canopy needs only the current ring of wood to feed transpiration of the canopy.

  • Zajączkowska, Department of Forest Botany, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, 159 Nowoursynowska Street, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7119-7547 E-mail: urszula_zajaczkowska@sggw.edu.pl (email)
  • Dąbrowski, Department of Environmental Development Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Warsaw, Poland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2867-8839 E-mail: piotr_dabrowski@sggw.edu.pl
  • Kowalczuk, Ekosystem Waldemar Kowalczuk Tomasz Kowalczuk, Otwock, Poland E-mail: ekosystem@ekosystem.waw.pl
  • Tarwacki, Forest Protection Department, Forest Research Institute, Sękocin Las, Poland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5979-7788 E-mail: G.Tarwacki@ibles.waw.pl

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