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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'Scots pine'

Category: Article

article id 5609, category Article
Matti Maltamo. (1997). Comparing basal area diameter distributions estimated by tree species and for the entire growing stock in a mixed stand. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5609. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8510
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; dbh distribution; parameter prediction; Weibull distributions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to compare the Weibull distributions estimated for the entire growing stock of a stand and separately for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in describing the basal area diameter distributions in mixed stands. The material for this study was obtained by measuring 553 stands located in eastern Finland. The parameters of the Weibull distribution were estimated using the method of maximum likelihood. The models for these parameters were derived using regression analysis. Also, some parameter models from previous studies were compared with the measured distribution. The obtained distributions were compared using the diameter sums of the entire growing stock, diameter sums by tree species and of the sawtimber part of the growing stock. The results showed that far more accurate results were obtained when the distributions were formed using parameter models separately for the different tree species than when using parameter models for the entire growing stock. This was already true when considering the entire growing stock of the stand and especially when the results were examined by tree species. When the models for the entire growing stock were applied by tree species in relation to basal areas, the results obtained were overestimates for Norway spruce and underestimates for Scots pine. The models from earlier studies, where parameter models were estimated separately for tree species from the National Forest Inventory data, showed good fits also in regard to the data of this study.

  • Maltamo, E-mail: mm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5608, category Article
Harri Mäkinen. (1997). Possibilities of competition indices to describe competitive differences between Scots pine families. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5608. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8509
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; tree breeding; stand density; tree improvement; competition indices
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Possibilities of distance-independent and -dependent competition indices to describe the competition stress of an individual tree was studied in Southern Finland. Five half-sib open-pollinated families and one check lot of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was used as study material in order to analyse competitive interactions of crown form and stand density variation. Almost all competition indices correlated strongly with radial increment. Thus distance-independent indices were adequate to describe competition in young row plantations, where distance effects between trees were implicitly eliminated. Correlations between indices and height increment were not significant. Along with the increase in competition, the width and length of the crown and the diameter increment of the stem of some narrow-crowned families decreased slowly compared to wide-crowned families.

  • Mäkinen, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5605, category Article
Matti Haapanen, Marja-Leena Annala, Pirkko Velling. (1997). Progeny trial estimates of genetic parameters for growth and quality traits in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5605. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8506
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; wood quality; genetic correlation; heritability; progeny testing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Estimates of individual heritability and genetic correlation are presented for a set of 10 growth and quality traits based on data from 16 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) progeny trials in Finland. Seven of the traits (tree height, stem diameter, crown width, Pilodyn value, branch diameter, branch angle and branch number) were objectively measured, whereas three traits (stem straightness, branching score and overall score) were assessed visually. The genetic correlations were mostly moderate or low, and favourable from the tree breeder's point of view. All variables related to tree size correlated relatively strongly and positively. Tree height exhibited a more favourable genetic relationship with the crown form traits than diameter, the latter showing positive correlation with branch diameter. Except for the slight negative correlation between branch angle and branch diameter, the branching traits were not notably correlated. The pilodyn value was positively correlated with stem diameter, reflecting negative correlation between diameter growth and wood density. The highest genetic correlations occurred among the two visually evaluated quality scores and branch diameter. All of the heritabilities were less than 0.4. Overall score, Pilodyn, branch angle, branching score and tree height showed the highest heritability.

  • Haapanen, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Annala, E-mail: ma@mm.unknown
  • Velling, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown
article id 5599, category Article
Vadim V. Gorshkov, Irene J. Bakkal. (1996). Species richness and structure variations of Scots pine forest communities during the period from 5 to 210 years after fire. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5599. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9244
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; biodiversity; succession; Scots pine; forest ecology; Russian Federation; fire ecology; postfire recovery
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Postfire recovery of species diversity (including a number of species, entropy of species relative coverage (Shannon index of species diversity) was studied in lichen and green moss site types of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. The results obtained indicate the difference in the dynamics of characteristics of biodiversity of forest components during postfire recovery. The stabilization of separate components of forest community varies in time from 5–15 to 120–140 years after the fire. Characteristics of the dwarf shrub and herb stratum recovered and stabilized 5–15 years after fire, while the complete stabilization of characteristics of moss-lichen cover is observed in community with fire ages of 90–140 years. Species richness of tree stratum recovered 120–140 years after fire. Time of complete stabilization of species richness of the community was estimated 120–140 years after fire. The size of the area over which characteristics of the biodiversity were estimated effected the mean values and, in most cases, the character of variation of studied characteristics. Over an area of 1 x 1 m dynamics of characteristics of species diversity coincide in forests of the studied types. Regardless of forest type within the area of 100 m2 species richness recovered 30 years after the fire (i.e. 3–5 times earlier than the establishment of the complete stabilization of the forest structure). That means that floristic composition of the forest remained unchanged from 30 to 210 years after the fire.

  • Gorshkov, E-mail: vg@mm.unknown (email)
  • Bakkal, E-mail: ib@mm.unknown
article id 5588, category Article
Vadim V. Gorshkov, Irene J. Bakkal, Natalie I. Stavrova. (1996). Postfire recovery of forest litter in Scots pine forests in two different regions of boreal zone. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5588. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9233
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; boreal forests; Scots pine; Kola peninsula; Russian Federation; fire ecology; forest litter; Western Siberia; postfire recovery
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Investigations carried out in the Kola peninsula (northern taiga) and in the South-western part of Western Siberia (southern taiga and forest-steppe) revealed identical course of the postfire restoration process of forest litter thickness in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests. Despite the differences in mean annual temperature (2°C) and other climatic characteristics the recovery time for thickness of forest litter in both regions amounts to 90–100 years after fire in pine forests of lichen site type and 120–140 years – in green moss type; the thickness of forest litter therewith corresponds 3–4 cm and 7–8 cm respectively. That mean that within the natural borders of pine forests, communities of a specific type possess uniform characteristics of restoration. On the basis of empirical data, it appears that the predicted increase of mean annual temperature of earth surface by (2°C) will not bring changes into the character of postfire recovery of forest litter thickness. It was shown that during the period of the recovery, which spans about 90 years after fire in pine forests of lichen and green moss-lichen site types and 140 years in ones of green moss site types, the rate of increasing of carbon store in the forest litter averaged 0.6 t ha-1 year-1, 0.1 t ha-1 year-1 and 0.2 t ha-1 year-1, respectively.

  • Gorshkov, E-mail: vg@mm.unknown (email)
  • Bakkal, E-mail: ib@mm.unknown
  • Stavrova, E-mail: ns@mm.unknown
article id 5583, category Article
Ilkka Leinonen, Heikki Hänninen, Tapani Repo. (1996). Testing of frost hardiness models for Pinus sylvestris in natural conditions and in elevated temperature. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5583. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9228
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; climate change; frost hardiness; Scots pine; temperature; dynamic models; photoperiod; climatic warming
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Two dynamic models predicting the development of frost hardiness of Finnish Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were tested with frost hardiness data obtained from trees growing in the natural conditions of Finland and from an experiment simulating the predicted climatic warming. The input variables were temperature in the first model, and temperature and night length in the second. The model parameters were fixed on the basis of previous independent studies. The results suggested that the model which included temperature and photoperiod as input variables was more accurate than the model using temperature as the only input variable to predict the development of frost hardiness in different environmental conditions. Further requirements for developing the frost hardiness models are discussed.

  • Leinonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hänninen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown
  • Repo, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
article id 5580, category Article
Virpi Palomäki, Toini Holopainen, Seppo Kellomäki, Kaisa Laitinen. (1996). First-year results on the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 concentrations on needle ultrastructure and gas exchange responses of Scots pine saplings. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5580. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9225
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; climate change; Scots pine; CO2; ozone; needle ultrastructure; gas exhange
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effects of realistically elevated O3 and CO2 concentrations on the needle ultrastructure and photosynthesis of ca. 20-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings were studied during one growth period in open-top field chambers situated on a natural pine heath at Mekrijärvi, in eastern Finland. The experiment included six different treatments: chamberless control, filtered air, ambient air and elevated O3, CO2 and O3 + CO2. Significant increases in the size of chloroplast and starch grains were recorded in the current-year needles of the saplings exposed to elevated CO2 These responses were especially clear in the saplings exposed to elevated O3 + CO2 concentrations. These treatments also delayed the winter hardening process in cells. In the shoots treated with O3, CO2 and combined O3 + CO2 the Pmax was decreased on average by 50% (ambient CO2) and 40% (700 ppm CO2). Photosynthetic efficiency was decreased by 60% in all the treated shoots measured under ambient condition and by 30% in the CO2 and O3 + CO2 treated shoots under 700 ppm. The effect of all the treatments on photosynthesis was depressive which was probably related to evident accumulation of starch in the chloroplasts of the pines treated with CO2 and combined O3 + CO2. But in O3 treated pines, which did not accumulate starch in comparison to pines subjected to ambient air conditions, some injuries may be already present in the photosynthetic machinery.

  • Palomäki, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Holopainen, E-mail: th@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Laitinen, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown
article id 5578, category Article
Mika Aurela, Tuomas Laurila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen. (1996). Measurements of O3, CO2 and H2O fluxes over a Scots pine stand in eastern Finland by the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5578. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9223
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; CO2; ecosystem; eddy covariance technique; net carbon balance; ozone deposition; rnicrometeorology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The eddy covariance technique is a novel micrometeorological method that enables the determination of the atmosphere-biosphere exchange rate of gases such as ozone and carbon dioxide on an ecosystem scale. This paper describes the technique and presents results from the first direct measurements of turbulent fluxes of O3, CO2 and H2O above a forest in Finland. The measurements were performed during 15 July-5 August 1994 above a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand near the Mekrijärvi research station in Eastern Finland.

The expected diurnal cycles were observed in the atmospheric fluxes of O3, CO2 and H2O. The data analysis includes interpretation of the O3 flux in terms of the dry deposition velocity and evaluation the dependency of the net CO2 flux on radiation. The eddy covariance method and the established measurement system has proved suitable for providing high-resolution data for studying ozone deposition to a forest as well as the net carbon balance and related physiological processes of an ecosystem.

  • Aurela, E-mail: ma@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laurila, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown
  • Tuovinen, E-mail: jt@mm.unknown
article id 5527, category Article
Leena Finér. (1994). Variation in needle nutrient concentrations in the crown of Scots pine on peatland. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 5527. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9161
Keywords: Scots pine; crown; conifer needles; leaf age; plant analysis; nutrient content
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Variation in needle nutrient concentrations with age and vertical location in the crown was studied in three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on peat soils in Eastern Finland. The concentrations of N, P, Fe and Zn decreased down the crown and those of Ca and Mn increased. Potassium and magnesium concentration patterns differed between sites.

Potassium and Mg concentrations were highest in the current needles at all heights in the crown, iron and manganese concentrations were highest in the oldest needles. The concentrations of N, P and Zn did not vary with needle age.

  • Finér, E-mail: lf@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5506, category Article
Risto Heikkilä, Sauli Härkönen. (1993). Moose (Alces alces L.) browsing in young Scots pine stands in relation to the characteristics of their winter habitats. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 2 article id 5506. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15667
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; deciduous trees; Scots pine; Alces alces; mixed forests; landscape ecology; moose; feeding behaviour; carrying capacity; browsing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Moose (Alces alces L.) browsing was studied in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands mixed with deciduous trees in high-density winter ranges. The proportional use of twig biomass decreased as the availability increased. The total as well as proportional biomass consumption were higher on the moist than on the dry type of forest. The per tree consumption of pine was higher on the moist type, where the availability of pine was lower. Deciduous trees were more consumed on the moist type, where their availability was relatively high. The consumption of pine saplings increased as the availability of birch increased. Pine stem breakages were most numerous when birch occurred as overgrowth above pine and at high birch densities. The availability of other deciduous tree species did not correlate with browsing intensity of Scots pine. Moose browsing had seriously inhibited the development of Scots pines in 6% of the stands, over 60% of available biomass having been removed. Rowan and aspen were commonly over-browsed and their height growth was inhibited, which occurred rarely by birch. There was no difference in the proportion of young stands in forest areas with high and low moose density. A high proportion of peatland forests was found to indicate relatively good feeding habitats in the high-density areas.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heikkilä, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Härkönen, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown
article id 5495, category Article
Hannu Salminen, Martti Varmola. (1993). Influence of initial spacing and planting design on the development of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5495. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15656
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; yield; Scots pine; planting; spacing; quality
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations carrying 35 plots with initial spacings from 800 to 5,000 plants/ha were studied. Planting designs varied from a square to a rectangle with 5-metre row distance, the plant-to-plant distance being 0.8 metres. At current dominant height of 6 m, rectangularity had no effect on height, diameter, or volume growth of trees. Slight ovality of stems was observed in rectangular plots but the differences in the cross-wise mean diameters were very small, not over 1.1 mm in terms of plot-wise means. The diameter of the thickest living branch of a tree was linearly dependent of the dbh. The branches were clearly thicker between the planting rows at under 1,600 stems/ha stand density. A non-square planting pattern is a conceivable alternative when the line corridors suitable for mechanized silvicultural operations are preferred.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Salminen, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Varmola, E-mail: mv@mm.unknown
article id 5494, category Article
Jari Nieppola. (1993). Site classification in Pinus sylvestris L. forests in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5494. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15655
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; forest soils; Southern Finland; forest types; site classification; TWINSPAN
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

It was examined whether the present site classification method, and especially its applicability to site productivity estimation, could be improved in upland Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Southern Finland by developing a classification key based on Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN), and/or by inclusion of soil texture, stoniness and the humus layer depth more closely in the classification method. TWINSPAN clusters (TW) explained 71%, and forest site types (FST) 64% of the variation in site index (SI) (H100). When soil texture (TEXT) was added to the regression model, the explanatory power increased to 82% (SI = TW + TW * TEXT) and to 80% (SI = FST + FST * TEXT), respectively. Soil texture alone explained 69% of the variation in site index. The influence of stoniness on site index was significant (P <0.05) on sorted medium sand soils and on medium and fine sand moraine soils. The thickness of the humus layer (2–6 cm) was not significantly (P=0.1) related to site index.

It is suggested that the proposed TWINSPAN classification cannot replace the present forest site type system in Scots pine stands in Southern Finland. However, the TWINSPAN key may be used to aid the identification of forest types. The observation of dominant soil texture within each forest type is recommended.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Nieppola, E-mail: jn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5486, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi, Risto Heikkilä, Seppo Repo. (1992). Pine tar in preventing moose browsing. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5486. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15647
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Alces alces; repellent; moose; browsing damage; control
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The efficacy of pine tar as a moose (Alces alces L.) contact repellent was tested in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands suffering from moose damage in Southern Finland during the winter 1981–82. Application of tar to shoots by spraying protected the trees satisfactorily throughout the winter.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heikkilä, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown
  • Repo, E-mail: sr@mm.unknown
article id 5478, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Marja Kolström. (1992). Computations on the management of seedling stands of Scots pine under the influence of changing climate in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5478. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15639
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; forest management; models; Betula pendula; Scots pine; silver birch; simulation; climatic change; seedling stands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Model computations on the management of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the seedling stage showed that a rising temperature due to the suggested climate change could increase the competition capacity of birch species (Betula pendula) more than Scots pine, whose growth could even decline during the course of a rise in temperature. A temperature rise could, thus, bring the time of removal of birches forward when aiming at Scots pine timber stands composed of these tree species. The increasing proportion of birches makes the removal of birches even more urgent and emphasizes the need for careful management of Scots pine stands under rising temperatures. The first thinning of Scots pine is generally brought forward; this is particularly the case when wide spacing is applied in planting. A furthrer rise in temperature magnifies the above patterns by reducing further the competitive capacity of Scots pine in relation to birches.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kolström, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5443, category Article
Raimo Silvennoinen, Rauno Hämäläinen, Kaarlo Nygrén, Kim von Weissenberg. (1991). Spectroradiometric characteristics of Scots pine and intensity of moose browsing. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5443. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15597
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Alces alces; aerial photography; moose; spectral analysis; reflectance; multispectral photography; browsing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The light reflected from the crowns of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clones was measured spectroradiometrically during and after growing season. Standard deviations of the spectra of pine clones showing differences in moose browsing intensity were compared. A new algorithm was developed for predicting the browsing intensity of moose (Alces alces).

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Silvennoinen, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hämäläinen, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown
  • Nygrén, E-mail: kn@mm.unknown
  • Weissenberg, E-mail: kw@mm.unknown
article id 5391, category Article
Jukka Pietilä. (1989). Shape of Scots pine knots close to the stem pith. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5391. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15549
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; branch diameter; branch angle; knot diameter; knot shape
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The shape of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) knots close to the pith of butt logs was investigated. 1,100 knots were split in a vertical direction, and their shape was measured. Knot diameter and branch angle were calculated at a distance of 40 mm from the pith of the stem. The mean diameter of all the knots in the material was 14 mm, and the branch angle 70°. Regression analysis was used to devise a formula for predicting branch angle on the basis of knot diameter. Knot size and branch angle were negatively correlated. Especially the shape of larger knots was curved. Knots achieved their maximum diameter at distance of 4–5 cm from the stem pith. The branch wood was almost completely situated above the formation point of the branch.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pietilä, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5389, category Article
Jyrki Tomminen, Matti Nuorteva, Markku Pulkkinen, Jouni Väkevä. (1989). Occurrence of the nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus Mamiya & Enda 1979 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5389. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15547
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; Finland; wood; Bursaphelenchua xylophilus; Bursaphelenchus mucronatus; nematodes; Monochamus galloprovincialis; Monochamus sutor
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A survey was conducted in Finland in 1988 to determine whether the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus Mamiya & Enda 1979 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) or the closely related species B. mucronatus would occur in Finnish forests. Dead or dying standing trees and timber of two conicer species, Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. (Norway spruce) were analysed for the presence of these nematodes. Monochamus spp. pine sawyers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) were also collected and inspected for the presence of dispersal fourth juvenile stages (dauerlarva) of the nematodes. The species B. xylophilus was not found, but B. mucronatus appeared to be widespread in the country. Individuals of this nematode were found both from Scots pine and Norway spruce. Adults of two Monochamus species were found, M. galloprovincialis and M. sutor. Only two of the examined beetles of the former species had dauerlarvae in their body.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Tomminen, E-mail: jt@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown
  • Pulkkinen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown
  • Väkevä, E-mail: jv@mm.unknown
article id 5378, category Article
Jukka Pietilä. (1989). Factors affecting the healing-over of pruned Scots pine knots. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5378. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15535
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; pruning; knots; healing-over; resin tap length
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The material of the study consisted of 21 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees that had been pruned in the 1930’s and 1940’s. The butt log of the pruned stems was peeled into veneer from which the length and shape of the resin taps were determined. The length of the resin tap was affected in the first place by the knot diameter and the height of the knot along the stem. The length of the resin tap was about 1.5-fold that of the knot diameter. With an increase in the height above the ground of a knot, its length decreases. The resin taps were particularly long on poor sites and in the butt end of the stems, however, the variation in tap length was large both within and between the individual tree stands. The shape of the resin taps is presented in this study by diameter classes. The resin taps studied in the work were longer than those measured in other works. This may be due to the fact that the knots were uncovered by peeling instead of sawing.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pietilä, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5364, category Article
Urban Bergsten. (1988). Invigoration and IDS-sedimentation of Pinus sylvestris seeds from northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5364. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15521
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; germination; Scots pine; northern Finland; seed quality; elimination of non-productive seeds; invigoration of seeds
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Northern Finland as well as in Northern Sweden there is a shortage of high-quality Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds, mostly due to unsuitable temperatures during the development and maturation of cones and seeds. Methods have been developed for elimination of non-productive seeds and for invigoration of seeds. In the present work, these methods were tested on poorly developed seed lot from Rovaniemi, Northern Finland (66°15’–66°30’; 180 m a.s.l.). The seeds were conditioned using the following treatments:

1. PREVAC method (5 min, 97 kPa below atmospheric pressures) for removal of mechanically damaged seeds (7%)

2. Invigoration using incubation at controlled moisture content (30% f.w) and continuous air supply, for 14 days at 5°C.

3. Additional water supply for 16 hours at 5°C.

4. Drying in dehumidified air until a near maximum difference in density between viable and dead seeds was obtained

5. Separation in a sedimentation flume to achieve a gradient of fractions of different germination rate and capacity.

The treatments resulted in an improvement of germination percentage from 33 to about 95% and a reduction in mean germination time from 8.8 days to 6 days if the control and the best fractions (32% seeds) were compared.

  • Bergsten, E-mail: ub@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5361, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1988). Interactions among herbivores in three polluted pine stands. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5361. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15518
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Finland; Harjavalta; air pollution; insect pests; herbivores
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Succession of insect attacks on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied in heavily, moderately and slightly polluted pine stands within a three-kilometre distance from a prominent emission source in Western Finland. The total number of pest species was highest in the moderately polluted stand, but unlike other herbivores, aphids were also abundant in the heavily polluted stands. A few positive but no negative interactions were detected between herbivores, which suggests that insect species may benefit from a previous occurrence of other species in the same tree.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 5360, category Article
Risto Rikala, Pasi Puttonen. (1988). Maan lämpötilan vaikutus kuivuusrasitukseen perustuvassa taimien laatutestissä. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5360. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15517
English title: Effect of soil temperature in drought exposure-based test of seedling quality.
Keywords: Scots pine; soil temperature; root growth; seedling growth; shoot growth; drought; planting shock; desiccation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of root exposure on the shoot and root development of Pinus sylvestris (L.) seedlings was studied at two soil temperatures. Roots of bare-rooted three-year-old seedlings were exposed to the temperature of 32°C at relative humidity of 50–40% for 85, 155 and 270 minutes which corresponds to accumulated water pressure deficit of 24, 47 and 91 mbar·h, respectively. Thereafter, seedlings were grown for 65 days at the soil temperatures of 12 and 23°C. Drought exposures inhibited new root initiation, delayed shoot elongation, and reduced shoot and needle growth. The stronger the exposure the larger the proportion of needles from the lower part of current shoot that remained undeveloped. Low soil temperature increased the effect of exposures so that needle elongation and initiation of new root tips of seedlings in cold soil with the longest exposure were inhibited totally. Root growth assessments made in warm soil may overestimate the acclimation potential of planted seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Rikala, E-mail: rr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Puttonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 5357, category Article
Heikki Hänninen, Paavo Pelkonen. (1988). Effects of temperature on dormancy release in Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5357. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15514
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; bud burst; dormancy release; annual cycle of development; chilling requirement; rest period; simulation model
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Models concerning the effects of temperature on dormancy release in woody plants were tested using two-year old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Chilling experiments suggest that the rest period has a distinct end point. Before the attainment of this end point high temperatures do not promote bud development towards dormancy release, and after it further chilling does not affect the subsequent bud development. A new hypothesis of dormancy release is suggested on the basis of a comparison between present and earlier findings. No difference in the proportion of growth commencing seedlings were detected between the forcing temperatures of 17°C and 22°C. The rest break of 50% of Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings required six and eight weeks of chilling, respectively. Great variation in the chilling requirement was found, especially for Scots pine.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hänninen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pelkonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 5312, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Siementuotannon vaikutus kuusen ja männyn vuotuiseen kasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5312. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15469
English title: Effect of seed production on the annual growth of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; Lappi; siemensato; sädekasvu; kesäpuu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; Finland; latewood; Lapland; radial growth; seed crop
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study material consisted of 13 rather old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 17 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands located in different parts of Finland. In each stand the seed crops, radial growth and amount of latewood were measured during a period of about ten years. Seed production reduces the radial growth of spruce and pine in the year of seed maturing. In Southern and Central Finland also the proportion of latewood is reduced. Seed production accounts for about 14% of the variation in radial growth of a spruce stand growing in Lapland, and 27% in other parts of Finland. In pine stands the seed crop explains 19% of the variation in radial growth in Lapland, and only 7% in the rest of Finland. In spruce stands an average seed crop reduces radial growth by 14% in Lapland and 5% in the rest of the country. An abundant seed production causes a reduction of about 20%. In southern parts of Finland, the proportion of latewood is reduced by 5% in an average seed year and by 24% in a good seed year. In pine stands an average seed crop decreases the width of annual ring by 5%, and a good seed crop by 15%. Outside Lapland, also the proportion of latewood is reduced: in an average seed year by 5%, and in a good seed year by 16%. The reduction in volume growth of spruce stands due to an average seed crop was estimated to be about 10% in Lapland, and 6% in other parts of Finland. A prolific seed production causes a reduction of 20%. In old pine stands the reduction is 5% in an average seed year, and 15% in a good seed year.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5311, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Kuusen ja männyn siemensadon ennustemalli. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5311. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15468
English title: Model for predicting the seed crop of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; luontainen uudistaminen; Lappi; siemensato; lämpötila; kukinnan aloitus; ennustemalli
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; natural regeneration; Scots pine; Finland; Lapland; predictive modelling; seed crop; flowering initiation; influence of temperature
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The seed crop of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is predicted with the help of mean monthly temperatures during May–August one and two years before the flowering year. The prediction models were made separately for Lapland and for the rest of Finland. The models are based on 10-year periods of seed crop measurements and climatic data. The total number of time series was 59.

In Lapland, Norway spruce flowered abundantly and produced an abundant seed crop after warm July–August and two years after cool July–August. In other parts of Finland, warm June and July produced a good flowering year, especially if these months were cool two years before the flowering year.

In Lapland, Scots pine flowered abundantly if the whole previous growing season was warm. Elsewhere in Finland, a cool June preceded prolific flowering in the coming year if the rest of the growing season was considerably warmer than the average.

The prediction models explained 37–49 % of the variation in the size of the seed crop. The occurrence of good and poor seed years was usually predicted correctly. Using the presented models, the prediction of the seed crop is obtainable 1.5 year for Norway spruce and 2.5 year for Scots pine before the year of seed fall.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5303, category Article
Hannu Raitio. (1987). Neulasvuosikertojen merkitys neulasanalyysin tulkinnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5303. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15460
English title: The significance of the number of needle year classes of Scots pine in interpreting needle analysis results.
Original keywords: mänty; ravinnepitoisuus; neulasvuosikerta; neulasanalyysi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; nitrogen; Scots pine; phosphorus; needle analysis; potassium; magnesium; needle year classes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study deals with significance of the number of needle year classes in estimating the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium status of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plants on the basis of needle analysis. Due to the nutrient retranslocation deficiencies in these nutrients are best determined by analysing separately the needles of the topmost branch whorls possessing one, two or three needle year classes. The concentrations of those nutrients which are not scarce will then increase as needle year classes decrease. In cases of deficiency, on the other hand, the content of the nutrient concerned will remain the same or decrease. Only severe deficiencies are revealed by the examination of the nutrient concentrations of only the youngest or the oldest needles.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Raitio, E-mail: hr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5302, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Heikki Hänninen, Taneli Kolström, Ahti Kotisaari, Timo Pukkala. (1987). A tentative model for describing the effects of some regenerative process on the properties of natural seedling stands. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5302. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15459
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; natural regeneration; Scots pine; modelling; stand density; seed crop; seed dispersal; parent tree
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of the size of seed crop, dispersal of seeds and the early development of seedlings on the density and spatial distribution of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands are evaluated on the basis of theoretical models. The models include (i) number and spatial distribution of parent trees on the regeneration area, (ii) size of annual seed crop, (iii) seed dispersal from a particular parent tree, (iv) germination of the seeds (germination percentage), (v) death of ageing seedlings after the establishment process, and (vi) height growth of the seedlings.

As expected, stand density and spatial distribution varied within a large range in relation to the density of the parent trees and the distance from them. The simulations also showed that natural seedling stands can be expected to be heterogenous due to the geometry of seed dispersal, emphasizing the frequency of young and small trees. The properties of the seedling stands were, however, greatly dependent on the density of the parent trees and the length of the regeneration period.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hänninen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown
  • Kolström, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
  • Kotisaari, E-mail: ak@mm.unknown
  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5276, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1986). Parasitization in Petrova resinella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) galls in relation to industrial air pollutants. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5276. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15455
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; insect damages; air pollution; Petrova resinella; gall stage; parasites
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Paratization of Petrova resinella L. in the gall stage was studied in the surrounding of Harjavalta, south-western Finland, in relation to industrial air pollution. Of the studied 283 galls, 28% produced a moth, 52% of the larvae/pupae were paratisized, and 20% were empty or contained a dead larva. The proportion of paratisized galls did not depend on the distance from emission sources of industrial air pollutants.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 5275, category Article
Pirkko Velling, Gérard Nepveu. (1986). Männyn puuaineen laadun ja tuotoksen vaihtelu suomalaisessa provenienssikoesarjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5275. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15454
English title: Variation of wood quality and yield in a Finnish series of provenance trials on Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; kasvupaikka; alkuperä; puuaineen tiheys; maantieteellinen vaihtelu; kuitusaanto
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; wood density; geographical variation; increment cores; fibre yield
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the origin of seeds and the location of cultivation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on certain properties particularly important to the pulp industry. The research material consisted of six parallel trials of the same 12 provenances. Increment cores were taken of a total of 1,267 sample trees, 19 years old. The location of the trial site generally affected the properties to a larger extent than the origin of the seed. The effect of the variation of wood density and fibre yield on the cultivation values of the provenances was only a few percentages on average, however, at most the effect was nearly 10%. Eastern Finnish provenances adapted well to western Finnish conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish and French.

  • Velling, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nepveu, E-mail: gn@mm.unknown
article id 5267, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Mänty- ja kuusirunkojen arvosuhteet. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5267. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15446
English title: Value relations of Scots pine and Norway spruce stems.
Original keywords: kuusi; paperiteollisuus; mänty; sahatavara; sahateollisuus; raaka-aine; rungon koko
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; simulation; pulping; sawn goods; sawmill industry; pulp industry; raw material; stem size
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A mathematical model was developed for determining the value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stems on the basis of sawing and pulping. The model was based on selling prices of sawn goods, pulp and other products as well as processing costs. Sawing was applied to large-dimension parts of stems and pulping to other parts and small stems. Bark and other residues were burned. The quality of pine stems was described by the distance of the lowest dead branch. In spruce only stem size affected the quality-

According to the results, the size of stem affects considerably the value of pine stems and clearly that of spruce stems. The main reason is an increase in the productivity of frame sawing as the stem size increases. In pine another factor is the higher price of sawn goods. The effect of pulp price increases as the stem size decreases. Even in large sized stems the effect of pulp was notable as the value of chips and saw dust was determined on the basis of product values in export. The competition ability of mechanical pulp was greatly affected by the price of electricity.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5266, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Malli männyn, kuusen ja koivun puuaineen oksaisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5266. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15445
English title: Model of knottiness of wood material in pine, spruce and birch.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; oksaisuus; rauduskoivu; hieskoivu; simulointi; aihion poikkileikkaus; puutavaran laatu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; birch; Betula; Picea abies; Scots pine; simulation; knots; timber quality; knottiness
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A computer model was developed for predicting knottiness of wood material of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp). The prediction included location of knots, their size and quality, i.e. if they are dead or living knots. The model suits best for tree species where branches are born at the base of shoots, in Finland such tree species is Scots pine.

The usefulness of the model was tested in the prediction of knots in wooden elements of joinery industry. According to the results, the shape of cross section affects the surface quality of elements. Especially useful is a quadratic cross section as it increases the probability to get a knotless surface.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5265, category Article
J. Ross, S. Kellomäki, P. Oker-Blom, V. Ross, L. Vilikainen. (1986). Architecture of Scots pine crown. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5265. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15444
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; needle dimensions; shoot structure; phytometrical regressions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Dimensions (length, width and thickness) of needles in crowns of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were found to be related linearly to each other. Similarly, the needle area was linearly correlated with the needle biomass. In the lower crown, needle length was linearly correlated with the length of the shoot, but in the upper crown needle length did not vary according to any regular pattern. Needle density was negatively correlated with shoot length. In the lower crown the needle density varied 20–40 cm-1 and in the upper crown 15– 20 cm-1. The increasing angle of aging needles seemed to be characteristic for Scots pine shoots.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Ross, E-mail: jr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Oker-Blom, E-mail: po@mm.unknown
  • Ross, E-mail: vr@mm.unknown
  • Vilikainen, E-mail: lv@mm.unknown
article id 5262, category Article
Markku Nygren. (1986). Männyn siementen syyskeräys. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5262. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15441
English title: Autumn harvested Scots pine seeds: the effect of cone storage and germination conditions on germination capacity.
Original keywords: mänty; itävyys; dormanssi; siemenkeräys; lepotila; käpyjen varastointi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; germination capacity; seed dormancy; cone storage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Six seed collections were made in September–December 1984 in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland. The seeds were germinated immediately after the cone collection and three photoperiods (0.8 and 24 hours) were used in germination tests.

The seeds collected in September and October possessed relative dormancy, i.e. they did not germinate in darkness and at 10°C. Later in November and December the seeds were capable to germinate in darkness and at low temperature also. The gradual change in germination capacity is attributed to chilling temperatures in natural environments or in cone storage.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nygren, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5256, category Article
Outi Muona, Raimo Hiltunen, Erkki Morén, D. V. Shaw. (1986). Analysis of monoterpene variation in natural stands and plustrees of Pinus sylvestris in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5256. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15435
Original keywords: mänty; alkuperä; pluspuut; monoterpeenit; luonnonpopulaatiot
English keywords: Scots pine; progeny; plus trees; monoterpenes; geographical variation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Variation of monoterpene composition of Pinus sylvestris L. was studied in Southern, Central and Northern Finland using data from both natural stands and plus trees. The natural stands were analysed using different techniques and for fewer terpenes than the plus trees.

There were large differences between areas in the proportion of 3-carene in trees from natural stands, as has been discussed by previous authors. The proportion of 3-carene is bimodally distributed and believed to be controlled by a single gene with large effect. For this reason, we stratified our samples into high carene (>10%) and low carene (<10%) groups. Univariate analysis did not reveal any additional differences between natural populations in different zones for components other than 3-carene. In plus trees, several components showed significant differences, but the proportion of 3-carene did not differ between areas. Multivariate discrimination analysis did not distinguish between areas for natural stands. However, for the plus trees discriminant analysis allowed us to discriminate between the zones relatively efficiently. The proportion of correct classification was greater than 64% using the best methods. The central zone was most distinct, and 80% of its trees were correctly classified. Broad generalizations are not possible due to the limitations imposed by our data. Our analysis of phenotypic variation does not support the suggestion that plus trees selected from the north represent a southern type.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Muona, E-mail: om@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hiltunen, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown
  • Morén, E-mail: em@mm.unknown
  • Shaw, E-mail: ds@mm.unknown
article id 5252, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1985). On repeated browsing of Scots pine saplings by moose (Alces alces). Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5252. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15431
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Finland; Alces alces; moose; seedling damages; browsing damage; elks
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The size, nutrient contents and terpene composition of needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings untouched and repeatedly browsed by the moose (Alces alces L.) were compared. Material was collected from a 14-years old and 2.5 m high pine stand in Bromarv, Southern Finland. The average length and fresh and dry weight of the needles were measured, and nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu) was determined.

The needles of repeatedly browsed pines became long and robust. There was, however, no difference between the dry matter percentage between the needles. The average nitrogen content was higher in the rebrowsed trees. Nitrogen content is, however, not directly correlated with the palatability of pine needles. Even phosphorus and boron content were higher in the damaged trees. No difference was found in Ca, K, Mg and Cu contents of the browsed and control pine saplings.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5251, category Article
Markku Halinen. (1985). Männyn nuoruusvaiheen kasvunopeuden vaikutus sahatavaran laatuun. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5251. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15430
English title: The effect of the growth rate of young Scots pine on the quality of sawn goods.
Original keywords: mänty; kasvunopeus; sahatavaran laatu; tukin koko; nuoruusvaihe
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; ring width; diameter growth; sawlogs; quality of timber; sawn goods; early growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Totally 653 battens and planks sawn from butt logsof Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were chosen from 3 saw mills. The sawn goods were sorted according to normal sorting principles. In order to determine growth rate in the youth, the mean value of the average ring width was measured at the butt end at various distances from the pith.

The average ring width increased as the quality of the sawn goods decreased. The difference between the quality classes in ring width was measured between 2 and 4 cm from the pith. As the size of sawn goods, and, simultaneously, the log size increased, the average ring width increased in a given quality class. Research reinforced previous results, in which slow diameter growth of young Scots pines has been shown to reflect the good quality of sawn goods.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halinen, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5246, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Markku Halinen. (1985). Mäntysahatukkien minimivaatimusten täsmentäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5246. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15425
English title: Reappraisal of minimum requirements of Scots pine saw logs.
Original keywords: mänty; sahatavara; oksaisuus; laatuvaatimukset; kuivien oksien läpimitta; mäntysahatukki
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; saw logs; sawlog quality; knottiness; quality classification; sawn goods; diameter of dry knots
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A test sawing was made of 807 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs of varying size and quality. The most important knot characteristic affecting the value of sawn goods was the diameter of the thickest dry knot. The new minimum requirements for pine logs were proposed on the basis of top diameter of the log and the diameter of the thickest dry and living knot.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Halinen, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown
article id 5243, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1985). Maan kunnostus männyn viljelyssä Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5243. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15422
English title: Soil preparation in reforestation of Scots pine in Lapland.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; kulotus; maanmuokkaus; Lappi; laikutus; lautasauraus; uudistustavat; hajakylvö
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; soil preparation; Scots pine; planting; regeneration methods; scalping; prescribed burning; disc ploughing; broadcast sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study deals with the interaction of various soil preparation and reforestation methods. The most favourable time of the year for broadcast sowing and the effect of stabilization after soil preparation on restocking were studied as special problems.

Prescribed burning, scalping and disc ploughing made a better combination with sowing than planting, and ploughing better combination with planting than sowing. The longer the period was between sowing and germination the fewer seedlings emerged. The best stocking was clearly resulted with sowing in June. Stabilization of soil after preparation had a negative effect on reforestation results.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pohjola, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5237, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Laine. (1985). Duration of the height growth response of young pine stands to NPK-fertilization on oligotrophic pine bogs in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5237. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15416
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; drained peatlands; Scots pine; Finland; climate; growth; degree days
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This is the latest report in a series of publications from an on-going investigation which is concerned with the influence of different fertilization treatments and ditch spacings on the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings and transplants growing on nutrient drained poor bogs in different parts of Finland. This paper concentrates on duration of the growth response to NPK-fertilization on the experimental plots. The experiment was established and the treatments performed in 1965–66.

The results show that climate, expressed as effective temperature sum (dd°C, threshold +5°C) has a clear influence on the duration of the fertilization effect. In Southern Finland (>1,200 dd°C), the duration was at least 15 years. In Central Finland (1,200–1,000 dd°C), it appears to be almost 10 years, and in Northern Finland (<1,000 dd°C), slightly shorter. The amount of fertilizer applied clearly influenced the duration of the fertilization effect. The dosage of 500 kg/ha (N 14, P 7.8, K 8.3 per cent) had, on average, a shorter duration than the greater dosages of 1,000 and 1,500 kg/ha. However, there was no clear difference between the latter two dosages.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laine, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
article id 5226, category Article
Antti Uotila. (1985). Männynversosyövän leviämisestä tautipesäkettä ympäröiviin terveisiin mäntyihin. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5226. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15405
English title: The spreading of Ascocalyx abietina to healthy Scots pines in the vicinity of diseased trees.
Original keywords: mänty; taudinkestävyys; sienitaudit; torjunta; surmakka; versosurma; alkuperät
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Gremmeniella abietina; pathogen resistance; pathogens; Ascocalyx abietina; proveniences; sanitation cuttings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ascocalyx abietina (now Gremmeniella abietina Lagerb.) infects Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by means of ascospores or conidia. Ascospores are dispersed by the wind, while the conidia are splash dispersed. The infection rate is positively correlated with the number of inocula. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which G. abietina spreads to the trees surrounding the diseased trees and to find the correct time to perform sanitation cutting.

The results were obtained from Ascocalyx-inventory carried out in a Scots pine progeny test at Loppi, Southern Finland. Three Siberian provenances were totally destroyed, while the Finnish progenies remained relatively healthy. The two rows adjacent to the destroyed plots were inventoried separately.

There were 29.7% more diseased or dead trees in the two adjacent rows than in the rest of the same plots. The difference was statistically significant. The trees had probably been infected by conidia, because the effect of the destroyed plot only extended to the adjacent two rows. Furthermore, pycnidia had mainly developed on the dead shoots.

On the basis of the life cycle of the fungus and the results, the correct time to carry out sanitation cutting is the first winter after the disease symptoms have appeared. If it is done later, the disease could be spread and bark beetles (Tomicus spp.) could propagate in dying trees. Susceptible provenances may spread the disease to surrounding resistant trees owing to the increasing number of spores.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Uotila, E-mail: au@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5218, category Article
Jouni Suoheimo. (1984). Isokorvakärsäkkään aikuisten esiintyminen ja merkitys männyn luontaiselle uudistamiselle Pohjois-Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5218. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15397
English title: The occurrence of Otiorrhynchus nodosus and its significance for the natural regeneration of Scots pine in Lapland.
Original keywords: hyönteistuhot; mänty; luontainen uudistaminen; taimituhot; Pohjois-Lappi; isokorvakärsäkäs
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; natural regeneration; Scots pine; insect damage; seedling damages; weevils; occurrence
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of Otiorrhynchus nodosus Müller weevils and their significance for the natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study was carried out during summer 1982 at Inari in northern Lapland.

There were two sample plots, one situated in a Scots pine seed-tree area and the other, the control sample plot, in an area with a coverage of mountain birch (Betula pubescens subsp. tortuosa, now subsp. czerepanovii). A total of 177 Otiorhynchus weevils were caught. Movement of the weevils reached its climax in July. There were 86% more individuals in the seed-tree area than in the mountain birch area. No damage to the pine germlings or seedlings was not observed, although the situation could be different during the peaks of the veewil populations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suoheimo, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5213, category Article
Bo Långström. (1984). Windthrown Scots pines as brood material for Tomicus piniperda and T. minor. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5213. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15392
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; bark beetles; Scots pine; wind damages; breeding; Sweden; Tomicus piniperda; Tomicus minor; insect damage; egg galleries
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the 1980 and 1981, windthrown and felled Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were examined at 8 localities in Sweden. The number and length of egg galleries as well as the number of exit holes of Tomicus piniperda (L.) and T. minor (Hart.) were recorded on sample sections (30 m in length) distributed at 3 m intervals on the 37 fallen pine stems, which were successfully colonized by the beetles. In addition, 78 uprooted pines were surveyed in 6 localities. Most trees were attacked by T. piniperda, but only a few by T. minor. Successful colonization often resulted in the production of several thousand beetles per tree, the maximum being approximately 1,800. The attack density of T. piniperda seldom exceeded 200 egg galleries/m3 bark area, and the brood production usually remained below 1,000 beetles/m3. Much higher figures were obtained or T. minor. In T. piniperda, the rate of reproduction (i.e. the number of exit holes /egg gallery) decreased rapidly with increasing attack density, whereas T. minor seemed to be less sensitive to intraspecific competition.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Långström, E-mail: bl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5207, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1984). Havaintoja puuston kasvatustiheyden vaikutuksesta mäntyjen oksikkuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5207. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15386
English title: Observations on the influence of stand density on branchiness of young Scots pines.
Original keywords: mänty; oksikkuus; oksan läpimitta; metsikön tiheys; kasvatustiheys; kuolleet oksat; elävät oksat
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; stand density; branchiness; branch diameter
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study based on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of varying density showed that number of living branches per whorl and total number of living branches per tree were negatively correlated with stand density. On the contrary, the number of dead branches increased with increasing stand density. The diameter of living and dead branches decreased with increasing stand density. Consequently, the branchiness, i.e. the share of the branch cross-sectional area from the surface area of the stem, decreased in dense stands compared with the thin stands. At the densest stands the branchiness, however, levelled of indicating a greater decrease of the radial growth at stems than at branches. The 2/3 power law described relatively well the relationship between stand density and mean squared branch diameter of living branches.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5204, category Article
Pirkko Velling, P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1984). Harvest index in a progeny test of Scots pine with reference to the model of selection. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5204. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15383
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; yield; Scots pine; tree breeding; heritability; harvest index; progeny test
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Harvest index and number of associated traits were measured in a 16-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) progeny test based on full-sib families. It was found that harvest index is a highly heritable trait and that a number of yield components are positively correlated with it. It is suggested that harvest index and tree ideotypes should be the basis of selection in cultivated trees. It is emphasized that an integrated approach to tree improvement including silviculture, soil science, industrial and economic constraints and tree breeding is a prerequisite for maximal response.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Velling, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown (email)
  • Tigerstedt, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown
article id 5198, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Laine, Jarmo Lepola. (1983). Lannoitus- ja sarkaleveyskokeita karujen rämeiden uudistamisessa ja taimikoiden kasvatuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5198. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15181
English title: Fertilization and ditch spacing experiments concerned with regeneration and growth of young Scots pine stands on nutrient poor pine bogs.
Original keywords: mänty; luontainen uudistaminen; istutus; uudistaminen; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; taimikot; pituuskasvu; sarkaleveys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; regeneration; natural regeneration; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; planting; ditch spacing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effects of variations in the intensity of drainage and NPK fertilization on the natural regeneration and planting results and the subsequent development of seedling stands under various climatic conditions on drained nutrient poor pine bogs was investigated in a 16-year-old study.

Comparison of height development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands on drained peatlands to that of pine stands growing in mineral soil sites show that in Southern Finland the most efficient forest improvement measures (10 m ditch spacing and 1,000 kg/ha NPK-fertilization) resulted in growth that corresponds a to a height index of a stand in a Vaccinium type site. Less efficient treatment (30 m ditch spacing and no fertilizer) resulted in growth corresponding the development of young stand in a Calluna type site. In Northern Finland the effect of fertilization on height growth was almost negligible. This is possibly due to a decrease in the nitrogen mobilization from south to north of Finland. Thus, it seems evident that fertilization of young Scots pine stands on nutrient poor drained peatlands can be recommended only in the southern part of the country.

The effect of ditch spacing is same in the whole country. The narrower the spacing the better the height growth. In the south planted stands thrive better than naturally regenerated stands, but the situation is reversed in the north.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laine, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
  • Lepola, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
article id 5197, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Erkki Annila, Eero Terho. (1983). Effect of nitrogen fertilization and insecticides on the population density of pine bark bug, Aradus cinnamomeus (Heteroptera, Aradidae). Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5197. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15180
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; Scots pine; height growth; insecticides; insect damages; prevention; nitrogen fertilization; Aradus cinnamomeus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of nitrogen fertilization and two insecticides on the occurrence of the plant pine bark bug, Aradus cinnamomeus Panzer, was investigated in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland. Three years after the treatment the bug density was lowest in the trees treated with lindane or dimethoate. However, in spite of the increasing height growth of the trees, they did not grow significantly faster than the control trees. Nitrogen fertilization increased both bug density and the height growth of the trees. Thus, the value of nitrogen fertilization against Aradus cinnamomeus remains obscure.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Annila, E-mail: ea@mm.unknown
  • Terho, E-mail: et@mm.unknown
article id 5195, category Article
Matti Rousi. (1983). Susceptibility of pine to mammalian herbivores in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5195. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15178
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; Scots pine; Alces alces; moose; forest damage; seedling damages; arctic hare; Lepus timidus; root vole; Microtus oeconomus; bank vole; Microtus agrestis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An inventory of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) graft collection in Kolari (67°15’ N, 23°45’ S) showed that severe damage by arctic hare (Lepus timidus L.), root and bank vole (Microtus oeconomus Pallas and M. agrestis L.) and moose (Alces alces L.) was done to grafts in size and in rather poor condition. Furthermore, the damage by arctic hare was dependent on the dry matter content of the needles. Another inventory in a fertilization experiment in a pine pole-stage forest showed that nitrogen fertilization increased the damage by arctic hare. On the basis of the present results, an assumption was made that the formation of repellent substances against herbivorous mammals is connected with wintering process of northern pines.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Rousi, E-mail: mr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5193, category Article
Juhani Jokinen, Antti Häkkinen, Reijo Karjalainen, Kari Markkanen, Tapani Säynätkari. (1983). Effects of air pollution on Scots pine needles. I. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5193. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15176
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; air pollution; sulphur dioxide; peroxidase activity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of meteorological factors, the total sulphur content of the needles, and SO2 concentration in the ambient air on total peroxidase activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles was investigated in material obtained from Southern Finland. The correlation between temperature and total peroxidase activity was highest during the most active growing period. Linear correlation between relative humidity and total peroxidase activity appears to be low. The correlation between atmospheric SO2 concentration and total peroxidase activity was also low and varied inconsistently. The detected low association between the sulphur dioxide pollutant and the total peroxidase activity was assumed to be related to the sensitivity of peroxidase activity, many eco-physiological factors and to the genetic variation in conifers. It is difficult to separate a response due to this pollutant from environmental and genetic factors in a complex coniferous forest. Using total peroxidase activity as a routine indicator of air pollution seems to be unsuitable because of the large sample size required in order to obtain a reliable measurement of the pollutant’s effect under low pollution levels.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jokinen, E-mail: jj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Häkkinen, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown
  • Karjalainen, E-mail: rk@mm.unknown
  • Markkanen, E-mail: km@mm.unknown
  • Säynätkari, E-mail: ts@mm.unknown
article id 5189, category Article
Anneli Viherä, Seppo Kellomäki. (1983). Havaintoja nuorten mäntyjen latvusten hienorakenteesta ja kasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5189. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15172
English title: Observations on structure and growth of crowns of young Scots pines.
Original keywords: mänty; versot; neulaset; biomassa; oksat; latvus; latvuksen rakenne; valaistusolot
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; biomass; needles; Scots pine; branches; crown; light conditions; shoots; structure of the crown
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A study based on four young Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed that the number of needle-covered shoots per crown volume unit was independent on tree position representing a constant value of 600–700 shoots/m3. This was true, even though the total shoot number decreased with deteriorating tree position. In tree crown there were fourth-order shoots in good light conditions but only first- and second-order-shoots, when light conditions were poor. The length of shoots decreased in accordance with increasing order of the shoot.

The share of the needle biomass and growth increased, when the shoot order increased. Similarly, the share of needles increased with deteriorating tree position. This was especially true in the upper crown. On the other hand, the share of the crown from the total biomass and growth increased with improving tree position. The percentage of crown system of a dominant tree in a sparse stand was 64% of that of biomass and 83% of that of growth. The corresponding values for a suppressed tree in a dense stand were 36% and 35%. The growth of wood, bark and needles in crown systems was linearly correlated with prevailing light conditions around the branch. It is evident that the tree position and light condition within the stand control the wood, bark and needle growth in the crown system and their interrelationships.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Viherä, E-mail: av@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5188, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Vuosina 1970-1972 Lappiin perustetun aurattujen alueiden viljelykokeen tulokset. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5188. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15171
English title: Results from the reforestation experiment on ploughed sites established in Finnish Lapland during 1970–1972.
Original keywords: kuusi; kylvö; mänty; istutus; maanmuokkaus; Lappi; uudistaminen; kuolleisuus; rauduskoivu; siperianlehtikuusi; auraus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Betula pendula; Picea abies; regeneration; soil preparation; Scots pine; silver birch; planting; ploughing; Lapland; mortality; Siberian larch; sowing; Larix sibirica
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of the study was to compare different reforestation methods on ploughed areas in Finnish Lapland. Four species were compared: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.). The experiments were established in different parts of Lapland on different types of sites in 1970–72.

In Scots pine there was a difference of 15 percentage points in survival of seedlings between the best and worst methods of regeneration. Containerized seedlings and paper pot seedlings had the best survival rates. In Norway spruce the respective difference between sowing and planting was about 20 percentage points. In favour of planting. The survival rate can be increased by about 20 percentage points by selecting the right tree species. The average height varied from 25 cm (the sowed Norway spruce) to 179 cm (the planted silver birch) after 10 growing seasons. The birch was planted at the most fertile sites only. The longer time passed from the afforestation the clearer was the effect of the local growing conditions on the development of the seedlings. The elevation of the site was one factor seemed to influence the success of the seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pohjola, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5187, category Article
Fuhe Luo. (1983). Determination of stem value. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5187. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15170
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; modelling; pulpwood; saw log; stem value; taper curve model; bark model; cubic spline interpolation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A dynamic programming approach toward stem value estimation for standing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees was developed. The determination of the saw log value was based on the sawing pattern and on the final products composition. The combination of taper curve models and bark models providing taper curves both over bark and under bark, which constituted the basis of the optimum stem scaling. A computer program was developed to determine the optimum log sequence of the stem aiming at maximizing the value of the final products. To examine the reliability of the computation system, 445 Scots pine sample trees from 29 stands were used as a test material. The stem values of sample trees were calculated in two ways: 1) with 12 measured diameters, and 2) with 12 estimated diameters derived from measured tree characteristics. In both cases the values of the intermediate diameters were calculated via cubic spline interpolation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Luo, E-mail: fl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5185, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1983). Männyn oksien murtolujuus. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5185. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15101
English title: Strength of Scots pine branches.
Original keywords: mänty; oksikkuus; oksat; lujuus; karsiutuminen; puun tiheys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; strength; basic density; branches; self-pruning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Empirical measurements showed that the strength of a dead branch of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was related to the second power of the branch diameter and the third power of the basic density of branch wood. The same factors affected also the strength of living branches. Especially, the contribution of wood density was important. The significance of the results is discussed considering the natural process of self-pruning and its effect on the branchiness of the stem.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5171, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pauline Oker-Blom. (1983). Canopy structure and light climate in a young Scots pine stand. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5171. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15086
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; canopy; needle biomass; crown; needle area; light condition; within-stand light regime
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The needle area distribution and crown structure of a young planted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand are described. The crown structure and crown shape showed apparent regularity in crown structure regardless of stand dynamics. Similarly, the shoot structure and individual needle area showed regularity in the number of needles per branch and shoot length unit, and consequent phytoarea density inside the needle cylinder. Also, the shoot area and needle area distributions were found to show a regular distribution of needle biomass throughout the crown, also inside the crown, in the dominant trees. In the suppressed trees the needle biomass was located in the upper crown and on the surface area of the crown. Estimates of the canopy needle area and distributions are given. The results were applied in calculations of the within-stand light regime. The results correlated well with the empirical results.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Oker-Blom, E-mail: po@mm.unknown
article id 5169, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pasi Puttonen, Heikki Tamminen, Carl Johan Westman. (1982). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on photosynthesis and growth in young Scots pines. Preliminary results. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5169. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15084
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; Scots pine; stem growth; nitrogen fertilization; needle area; photosynthetic rate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Application of nitrogen at levels of 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 resulted in increases of 35, 18 and 12% in the photosynthetic rate in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The number of buds, degree of branching, and needle size were positively related to the amount of nitrogen applied. A 10–40% increase in the average needle area was found. A positive correlation was found between total photosynthesis and stem growth.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Puttonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
  • Tamminen, E-mail: ht@mm.unknown
  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown
article id 5168, category Article
Kari Heliövaara. (1982). The pine bark bug, Aradus cinnamomeus (Heteroptera, Aradidae) and the height growth rate of young Scots pines. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5168. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15083
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; height growth; insect damages; Aradus cinnamomeus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Relationships between densities of pine bark bug, Aradus cinnamomeus Panzer and the height growth of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied in several habitats, including a highly infested area in Southern Finland. The slower the growth of the pines was, the greater was the height up to which bugs were found. On the average, maximum bug density was noted at a height corresponding to a fifth of the height of the tree. In stands restocked by natural generation, the greatest bug densities were noted in pines about three metres high and over twenty years old. Bug densities in trees whose height growth had been decelerating for five years were twice those in trees whose growth was accelerating. A significant negative correlation was found between the bug density and the last-year height increment.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5157, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Vesa Aro-Heinilä, Seppo Kellomäki. (1982). Lannoituksen ja kastelun vaikutus männikön pintakasvillisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5157. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15072
English title: Effect of fertilization and irrigation on the ground vegetation of a Scots pine stand.
Original keywords: mänty; lannoitus; kastelu; aluskasvillisuus; peittävyys; heinät; varvut; kanerva
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; irrigation; Scots pine; ground vegetation; dwarf shrubs; grasses; Calluna vulgaris
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on a site of the Vaccinium type in Southern Finland was fertilized with nitrogen-rich NPK fertilizer at a level of 150 kg pure nitrogen per hectare. The sample plots were also irrigated during four growing seasons. The total amount of irrigation during this period was 1,200 mm. Fertilization alone increased the coverage of grasses and dwarf shrubs. The culmination of the increase occurred during the second growing season after the start of the treatment. The rapid effect of irrigation on the coverage of ground vegetation was not so strong as that of fertilization. It was concluded on the basis of the developed growth model that the coverage of dwarf shrubs, especially Calluna vulgaris, was, however, increased with the fertilization treatment for a prolonged period. Fertilization and irrigation had no visible effect on the coverage of lichens and mosses.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mälkönen, E-mail: em@mm.unknown (email)
  • Aro-Heinilä, E-mail: va@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5153, category Article
T. Raunemaa, R. Erkinjuntti, M. Gerlander, A. Hautojärvi, K. Kaisla, H.-S. Katainen. (1981). Multielement analysis of treated pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5153. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15380
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; photosynthesis; Scots pine; roots; air pollution; acid rain; environmental impact; acid deposition; elemental concentrations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A comparison study concerning the effects of acid rain on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings has been performed. Two different X-ray fluorescence methods, PIXE and IXRF, were employed to produce multielement analyses of the samples. Seedlings were treated for 3 months with watering of pH=7 or pH=3 liquids on the needles and on the roots. One year and two years old needles of the seedlings were inspected for changes in photosynthetic rate as well as for changes in elemental concentrations.

Twelve elements from Si to Zn were compared in the samples. The PIXE results show that the amounts of most of these elements in the needles of the seedlings grown in sand increase, when treated with acid water. This growth is clearer when the roots are treated with acid water. The elemental concentrations of the needles in the seedlings grown in soil on the other hand decrease slightly.

  • Raunemaa, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Erkinjuntti, E-mail: re@mm.unknown
  • Gerlander, E-mail: mg@mm.unknown
  • Hautojärvi, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown
  • Kaisla, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Katainen, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown
article id 5148, category Article
A. Hautojärvi, S. Ahonen, R. Erkinjuntti, H.-S. Katainen, T. Lappalainen, T. Raunemaa. (1981). Surface concentration of sulphur on Scots pine needles. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5148. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15375
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; Finland; coal; air pollution; measurement methods; environmental impact; sulphur; power plant; sulphate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method to determine sulphur as sulphate has been applied to search for surface concentration of sulphate sulphur on needle samples. The method is based on reducing sulphates as volatile hydrogen sulphide gas by using hydriodic acid. The hydrogen sulphide gas is swept with nitrogen into an absorbent solution. Sulphide ion concentration in solution is then measured using ion selective electrodes.

The method was applied on one to four years old needle samples collected from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at 0.9 to 15.9 km distances from a 1,064 MW coal-fired power plant in Southern Finland. Surface sulphate values found in the samples closer than 4 km to the power plant were 50 to 100% higher than a nearly constant background level. No significant variation of values with needle age was found. The advantages of the method compares to other methods for sulphur determination are speed, reasonable sensitivity and low detection limit.

  • Hautojärvi, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ahonen, E-mail: sa@mm.unknown
  • Erkinjuntti, E-mail: re@mm.unknown
  • Katainen, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown
  • Lappalainen, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown
  • Raunemaa, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
article id 5146, category Article
J. N. Cape, D. Fowler. (1981). Changes in epicuticular wax of Pinus sylvestris exposed to polluted air. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5146. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15373
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; damage; air pollution; environmental impact; sulphur dioxide; foliage; epicuticular vax; cuticular transpiration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to study structural changes in epicuticular vax of Pinus sylvestris L. with time. Changes in the contact angle of water droplets and in cuticular transpiration were also measured. By using material from a polluted and an unpolluted site it was shown that the ageing process occurs faster on polluted air, leading to greater cuticular transpiration and smaller contact angles at polluted sites.

  • Cape, E-mail: jc@mm.unknown (email)
  • Fowler, E-mail: df@mm.unknown
article id 5145, category Article
Torleif Bramryd. (1981). Environmental effects of heavy metals distributed from power plants. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5145. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15372
Keywords: Finland; coal; mosses; air pollution; environmental impact; heavy metals; indicator plants; energy production; power plant; Scots pine needles; bioindicator
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Increased prices on oil have resulted in the search for alternative energy sources, e.g. coal, peat, biomass, different types of waste. Combustion especially of waste, coal and peat emits large quantities of air pollutants such as heavy metals but also harmful organic substances. Heavy metals are not easily separated from the smoke, and the concentrations are often high in the emissions even with advanced fly-ash separators.

Ecological investigations carried out around a coal burning power plant in Finland using mosses and pine needles as parameters are presented in the paper. Increased concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu and V have been found near the plant. Often a clear gradient was found with increased concentrations at decreased distance from the power plant.

  • Bramryd, E-mail: tb@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5139, category Article
Boguslaw Molski, Andrzej Bytnerowicz, Wojciech Dmuchowski. (1981). Content of sulphur and fluorine compounds in Scots pine needles as an indicator of air pollution in Poland. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5139. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15366
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; inventory; Poland; air pollution; sulphur; soluble fluorides; Warsaw; Plock; chemical analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Our preliminary findings indicate that the content of total sulphur and soluble fluorides in needles of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) reflects the degree of air pollution with sulphur and fluorine compounds. A project for a map of air pollution in Poland, based on chemical analysis of Scots pine needles, is presented. Results of the total sulphur and soluble fluoride content in 2-year old needles from 15- to 25-year-old trees should yield a picture of air pollution with sulphur and fluorine compounds. The first stage will involve the preparation of a map of the area between the Warsaw and Plock agglomerations. This area will be divided into 10 squares with side dimension of 25 km each. Samples will be taken at 5 different sites in each square and also approximately every 5 km along a straight line between these towns.

  • Molski, E-mail: bm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Bytnerowicz, E-mail: ab@mm.unknown
  • Dmuchowski, E-mail: wd@mm.unknown
article id 5138, category Article
K. Kvist, C. Jakobsson. (1981). Vegetation injury occurring after winter at a fertilizer factory. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5138. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15365
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; nitrogen; needles; Scots pine; Sweden; emissions; air pollution; sulphur; fertilizer plant; fluorine
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Air pollution injury to vegetation often occurs near a fertilizer factory in Central Sweden. The causing incidence often occurs in the winter and the symptoms appear when metabolism starts in the spring. Deciduous and coniferous trees and bushes were injured in the spring of 1979. Samples of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were analysed for sulphur, total fluorine and nitrogen content, some of them for nitrate and ammonium. All the compounds showed elevated levels, clearly connected with the degree of exposure of the sampling site. The levels were higher in the spring than later in the growing season, indicating involvement in metabolism or leaching. None of the compounds was significantly in excess, although, elevated to an extent to indicate the cause of injury. Most probably the nitrogen compounds were involved. The problems encountered in tracing the causing pollutant, when injury appeared long after the incidence, might be easier solved with regularly used technical monitoring and bioindicator technique.

  • Kvist, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Jakobsson, E-mail: cj@mm.unknown
article id 5136, category Article
Sirkka Soikkeli. (1981). The types of ultrastructural injuries in conifer needles of northern industrial environments. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5136. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15363
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; needles; Scots pine; emissions; air pollution; cell organelles; mesophyll
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ultrastructure of mesophyll of second-year green needles of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and Pinus sylvestris (L.) has been studied in several polluted areas in Finland since 1976 (Soikkeli and Tuovinen 1979, Soikkeli 1981a). Four different types of injuries have been found. The types differ with the origin of the material:

1) In needles collected from areas pollute by S-communds the types with reduced grana and/or the with lightening of plastogobuli with simultaneous accumulation of lipid-like material are observed.

2) In needles expose to fluorides (alone or in addition to other pollutants) the type with swollen and/or that with curled thylakoids are found. Both of the latter have also stretched envelopes. In each type of the injury three stages of cell disruption have been described: slight-medium, severe and very severe. On the slight-medium stage the injuries are usually found only in chloroplasts. On severe stage other organelles show injuries, too. In very severe injury all cell organelles are badly disorganized or they disappear completely. The most abundant injuries are usually in needles collected after their second winter. The severity of cell injury depends on the closeness of emission source or on the measured concentration of SO2.

  • Soikkeli, E-mail: ss@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5135, category Article
L. Skärby, C. Bengtson, C.-Å. Boström, P. Grennfelt, E. Troeng. (1981). Uptake of NOx in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5135. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15362
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; acidification; air pollution; environmental impact; sulphur oxide; nitrogen oxide
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Information on input of acidifying compounds like SO2 and NOx is necessary to understand effects of acidification. The uptake on NO and NO2 respectively was studied on seedlings and shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Experiments were conducted both in laboratory (NO and NO2 respectively) and in the field (NO2) under light and dark conditions. In all three cases there was a linear relationship between the uptake rate and the NOx-concentration. The uptake follows a diurnal pattern i.e. the uptake rate was strongly correlated with the stomatal movements. Uptake rates were converted to deposition rate and the results showed that field exposure with NO2 gave the higher deposition rate.

  • Skärby, E-mail: ls@mm.unknown (email)
  • Bengtson, E-mail: cb@mm.unknown
  • Boström, E-mail: cb@mm.unknown
  • Grennfelt, E-mail: pg@mm.unknown
  • Troeng, E-mail: et@mm.unknown
article id 5131, category Article
Risto Jalkanen, Satu Huttunen, Teija Väisänen. (1981). The wax structure of the developing needles of Pinus sylvestris progenies infected by Lophodermella sulcigena. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5131. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15188
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; disease resistance; pathogens; Lophodermella sulcigena; progenies; needle structure; stomatal cavity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The development of the stomatal area wax structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles was studied in flushing needles with a scanning electron microscope. The needles were obtained from eleven Finnish plus tree progenies. The needles were taken from trees that were either nearly uninfected or heavily infected by Lophodermella sulcigena (Rostr.) Höhn.

No difference in the early developmental stages of stomatal vax structure were observed between the southern Finnish, central Finnish and northern Finnish progenies. The general structure differed in the stomatal cavity chamber size. The stomatal openings were larger in heavily infected trees than in healthy trees. This might have an influence on the mechanical penetration of the fungal hyphae.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jalkanen, E-mail: rj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Huttunen, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown
  • Väisänen, E-mail: tv@mm.unknown
article id 5129, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1981). Effects of gibberellins GA4 and GA7 on flowering in Scots pine grafts. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5129. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15186
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; flowering; growth hormones; gibberellic acid; male flowering; female flowering
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ethanolic sprays of GA4 or GA7 on 9-year old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grafts, repeated four times during the shoot elongation period, resulted in a statistically significant increase in female flowering one year after the treatment. Of the two compounds, GA4 seemed to be somewhat more efficient, yielding 47 female strobili/100 shoots vs. 36 and 6 strobili/100 shoots in GA7 and control treatments respectively. The mixture of GA4 and GA7 compounds was also applied and seemed to have an effect intermediary to those of the pure compounds. However, due to the limited amounts of material, none of the differences between the gibberellins could be statistically confirmed. Male flowering frequencies were also too low to allow any firm conclusions, but the numerical results suggested that the purified gibberellins may promote male and female flowering in different ways.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5128, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1981). Eräistä ojitetuilla soilla kasvaneen puun fysikaalisista ominaisuuksista. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5128. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15069
English title: Physical properties of wood growing on drained swamps.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; ojitetut suot; reaktiopuu; lujuus; puuaineen tiheys; vuosiluston leveys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; drained peatlands; Scots pine; density; compressive strength; growth rings; Norway spruce Picea abies; bending strength
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of the investigation was to determine the differences between timber grown on a peatland before and after draining, in respect of compressive strength parallel to the grain, static bending strength and density. In addition, the characteristics of boundary zone between the wood formed before, and after the draining with wider growth rings was studied. 41 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 22 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees were studied.

The compressive strength of pine usually decreased from the butt end upwards, but no trend was observed in spruce wood. In coniferous trees, wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining was slightly lighter than the close-ringed wood produced prior the draining. The density of pine as well as spruce increases as the width of the growth rings decrease up to a certain limit. The strength of the different kinds of wood seems to decrease from the butt end upwards.

In both species, the compressive strength parallel to the grain and the bending strength are lowest in such wood that contains exclusively wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining. Also, compressive and bending strength increase with decreasing width of the growth rings. The longitudinal shrinkage of compression wood in spruce was several times that of normal wood, and the bending strength was lower than that of normal wood particularly in spruce. The compressive strength parallel to the grain in dry condition was, however, higher than in normal wood both in pine and spruce.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, E-mail: po@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5123, category Article
Heljä-Sisko Katainen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Happaman veden vaikutus männyn taimiin. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5123. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15064
English title: Effect of foliar application of dilute sulphuric acid on Scots pine seedlings.
Original keywords: mänty; taimet; pituuskasvu; neulasvauriot; fotosynteesi; happamuus; hapan sade
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; Scots pine; height growth; acidity; seedlings; needle damages; acid rain
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Needle damages, transpiration, photosynthesis and needle and stem height growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings treated with dilute sulphuric acid were studied. The acidity of the solution was pH 3. Application of a dilute solution of sulphuric acid equivalent to the normal amount of precipitation occurring during the growing season damaged the surface of two-year-old needles but not that of the current-year needles. A reduction in the photosynthetic rate of 10–30% was observed compared with the untreated seedlings. Transpiration of the seedlings was not affected by the treatment. Needle growth and stem height growth of the seedlings growing on a substrate representing poor sandy soil were reduced. Increased needle growth and stem height growth were characteristic for the seedlings growing on substrate representing fertile moraine.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Katainen, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5122, category Article
H. Smolander, J. Kostamo, P. K. Räsänen. (1981). Maan tiiviyden vaikutus männyntaimien haihduntaan ja pituuskasvuun istutuksen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5122. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15063
English title: Effect of soil compaction on transpiration and height increment of planted Scots pine seedlings.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; metsämaa; maan rakenne; tiivistyminen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; forest soil; compactment
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of soil compaction on transpiration and height increment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings following planting out were investigated in a small-scale pot experiment. Compacted and loosely-packed fine sand and fine-sand moraine were used as the planting substrates. The compacted soils used corresponded to the normal type of soil to be found in tilled forest soils in Finland. The effect of soil compaction on seedling transpiration during water stress was also studied in a separate experiment.

Seedlings planted in compact soil had a higher rate of transpiration than those in loosely-packed soil. The recovery in transpiration, which started halfway through the growing season, was faster, however, in the seedlings planted in loosely-packed soil. Under conditions of water stress, the seedlings planted in compact fine-sand moraine started to reduce the transpiration rate at higher soil moisture values than those planted in loosely-packed soil. No corresponding difference was observed for fine sand. Compaction was not found to affect the overall height growth, but it did at certain time during the growing season.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Smolander, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kostamo, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown
  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
article id 5116, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pauline Oker-Blom. (1981). Specific needle area of Scots pine and its dependence on light conditions inside the canopy. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5116. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15057
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; crown; crown class; light conditions; needle area
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The specific needle area of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed a substantial within-tree and between-tree variation which was associated with the position of the tree and the position of the whorl as indicated by the prevailing crown and branch illumination. In suppressed trees the values of the specific needle area were three to four times those in dominating trees. A similar morphogenesis was discernible in comparison of the lower and the upper part of the crown. The mean specific needle area value for the whole stand was 184 cm2/g.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Oker-Blom, E-mail: po@mm.unknown
article id 5111, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Effect of the within-stand light conditions on the share of stem, branch and needle growth in a twenty-year-old Scots pine stand. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5111. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15052
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; growth; stand density; branches; stems; light conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The share of stem, branch and needle growth was dependent on the within-stand light regime in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. The share of needle growth increased at the expense of stem and branch growth in poor light conditions. In good light condition the share of branch wood increased substantially. The share of stem wood growth was greatest in moderate shading, emphasizing the role of an adequate stand density for growing high-quality timber. The basic density of the stem wood was considerably greater in suppressed trees than in dominating trees. The differences were related to the illumination of the crown system.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5110, category Article
Helena Lehtiö. (1981). Effect of air pollution on the volatile oil in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5110. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15051
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; needle damages; air pollution; monoterpene composition; volatile oil
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The amount of volatile oil and monoterpene composition in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were studied in trees growing near two factories and in the city of Kuopio, Central Finland. Trees in these locations are exposed principally to sulphur dioxide and fluoride emissions.

The amount of volatile oil increased with increasing injury class in the trees growing near the fertilizer factory. The amounts of volatile oil in trees near the pulp mill differed in the various injury classes. More oil was found in younger needles. The greatest differences in monoterpene composition were in the amounts of camphene, α-pinene, myrcene and tricyclene.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lehtiö, E-mail: hl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5092, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Markku Kanninen. (1980). Eco-physiological studies on young Scots pine stands. IV. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5092. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15033
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; height growth; radial growth; basic density; crown; photosynthate supply; light conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Crown and stem growth of young Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied in relation to photosynthate supply and light condition in a stand. The magnitude of needle and bud formation, and radial and height growth were to a great extent dependent on the photosynthate supply. However, in shaded conditions the growth of each characteristics was greater than expected on the basis of photosynthate supply. In the stem system this was especially apparent for height growth. Consequently, height growth was favoured at the expense of radial growth in shaded conditions. It also appeared that the basic density of wood was negatively related to both tree position and photosynthate supply.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5089, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1980). Alustavia mittaustuloksia kuivauksen ja liotuksen vaikutuksesta kuorellisen mänty- ja kuusipuutavaran kuoren paksuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5089. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15030
English title: Preliminary results of the effect of drying and soaking of the bark thickness of Scots pine and Norway spruce.
Original keywords: kuusi; puutavara; mänty; varastointi; kuori; runkopuu; paksuusmuutos; kuivuminen; liotus
English keywords: Norway spruce; Scots pine; storage; bark thickness; timber; dimensions; dryining; soaking
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

On the basis of a limited material, the drying of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) timber at room temperature decreased the thickness of the bark proportionally to the decrease in the moisture content. The decrease was the greatest in the middle portion of the trunk. In the spruce material, the decrease in bark thickness was exceeded by the shrinkage of the wood. During soaking, the bark thickness of both tree species decreased, too, contrary to the presupposed hypothesis. In both cases, the shrinkage was the greatest in the middle portion of the trunk. In the spruce material, the decrease in bark thickness was exceeded by the shrinkage of the wood. Possible explanation for the phenomenon is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5086, category Article
Jussi Meriluoto. (1980). MCPA- ja 2,4,5-T-herbisidien käyttökelpoisuus taimiston hoidossa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5086. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15027
English title: Applicability of MCPA- and 2,4,5-T-herbicides in sapling stand management.
Original keywords: mänty; koivu; herbisidit; taimikonhoito; haapa; vesakontorjunta
English keywords: Populus tremula; Pinus sylvestris; Betula; Scots pine; herbicides; herbicide; seedling stands; aspen; brushkiller; shrub clearance
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The applicability of MCPA- and 2,4,5-T-herbicides for use in the management of sapling stands and the possibilities of carrying out foliar spraying at an earlier date than at precent with smaller doses of the active ingredient were examined in this study. The results were obtained from foliage spraying experiments carried out in Central Finland in summer 1976. MCPA and 2,4,5-T were as effective as each other against deciduous tree species. However, MCPA was slightly more effective against aspen (Populus tremula L.) than 2,4,5-T. The spraying date had no effect on the mortality rate of aspen or birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.) There were only very slight differences between the results for different dosage levels. The damage caused to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was very slight. The temperature conditions prevailing during spraying affected spraying effectiveness in such way that the mortality rate decreased during cold period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Meriluoto, E-mail: jm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5081, category Article
Reijo Jokinen. (1980). Metsälannoituksella saatavan kasvunlisäyksen arviointi. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5081. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15022
English title: Estimation of growth response achieved through forest fertilization.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; lannoitus; typpilannoitus; metsikkötunnukset; kasvunlisäys; pohjapinta-ala
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; basal area; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; Scots pine; growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Dependence of the growth increase given by fertilization on different stand characteristics is examined in this article. The aim was to determine whether the volume growth increase can be accurately determined beforehand when fertilization is carried out on mineral soil sites at a dosage of 120 kg N/ha. The material consisted mostly on of mature stands ready for cutting, a total of 22 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 20 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands. Increase in basal area, height quality class and basal area of the stand were found to best explain the increment and its increase in the regression equations calculated for different types of fertilizer and the control level.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jokinen, E-mail: rj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5080, category Article
Annikki Mäkelä, Pertti Hari, Seppo Kellomäki. (1980). Eco-physiological studies on young Scots pine stands. III. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5080. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15021
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; biomass; Scots pine; canopy layer; wood formation; needle biomass; photosynthate allocation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The proportions of needle and wood in current-year shoots in crown systems of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees was studied. The proportion of needles out of the total shoot biomass increased according to the increasing number of the whorl counted from the apex. In the lower part of the crown system the needle biomass of newly-formed shoots was 50–60 fold compared to that of wood and bark biomass. In the upper part of the crown system the same ratio was 1–2. The variation in ratio between needle and wood biomass was whorl-specific and independent of tree class. The magnitude of the ratio was not related to the position of the tree in the stand nor to the prevailing light conditions within the state.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mäkelä, E-mail: am@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5079, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pertti Hari, Pirkko Ilonen, Markku Kanninen. (1980). Eco-physiological studies on young Scots pine stands. II. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5079. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15020
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; Scots pine; stand density; needle biomass; crown class; needle distribution
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The technique of double normalizing, i.e. normalizing the relative needle biomass and the length of the living crown system, is applied to the modelling of the distribution of needle biomass in the canopy of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The study based on the parameters of β-function shows that at the individual-tree level, the variance in needle distribution was not closely associated with any tree characteristics. A shift in the point of maximum needle biomass upwards unsuppressed trees was, however, evident. This was associated with an increase in the height of the trees. At the stand level, the stand mean height and stand density had an equal and a rather high potential for explaining the variance in the needle distribution. The normalized crowns are utilized in models for determining light extinction in the crown. A special technique for determining the amount of photosynthates available for growth in a particular tree is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Ilonen, E-mail: pi@mm.unknown
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5078, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pertti Hari. (1980). Eco-physiological studies on young Scots pine stands. I. Tree class as indicator of needle biomass, illumination and photosynthetic capacity of crown system. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5078. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15019
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; canopy; photosynthetic capacity; needle biomass; tree class
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The concept of tree class as indicated by dominant, codominant, intermediate and suppressed trees is analysed using empirical material representing 13 younger Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The relative needle biomass, i.e. the needle biomass related to the maximum needle biomass in the stand, was closely related to the relative height of the tree and independent of the stand characteristics. Furthermore, the relative illumination of the crown system was related to the relative height of the trees as well as the relative photosynthetic capacity and tree-to-tree variation in growth. When calculated per needle biomass unit it appeared that height growth, radial growth, needle growth and other growth parameters were the highest in the suppressed trees. The suppressed trees thus appear to be more efficient in utilizing available resources than other tree classes. The ecologic significance of the results is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
article id 5076, category Article
Veikko Koski. (1980). Minimivaatimukset männyn siemenviljelyksille Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5076. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15017
English title: Minimum requirements for seed orchards of Scots pine in Finland.
Original keywords: mänty; siemenviljelmät; kloonit; siemenviljely; laatuvaatimukset
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Finland; seed orchards; clones; requirements
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In order to be recorded in the national list of untested seed orchards, set by law, a seed orchard must attain certain objectives. It is impossible to define universal requirements for all categories of seed orchards of all species. The present paper suggests minimum requirements for a clonal region seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris L in Finland. The clonal composition as well as factors influencing on the mating pattern have been given precise numerical threshold values. To be approved the seed orchard must fulfil all the requirements at the same time. The goal is to control the genetic superiority of the forest reproductive material obtained from registered untested seed orchards.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Koski, E-mail: vk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5071, category Article
Martti Ryynänen. (1980). X-ray radiography of ageing Scots pine seeds. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5071. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15012
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; germination; Scots pine; storage; seeds; quality of seeds; X-ray radiography; X-ray contrast radiography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Soft X-ray radiation (Grenz rays) has been used in the X-ray radiography of seeds. It is based on the principle that the different parts of the seed absorb X-rays to a slightly varying extent. Empty seeds and empty regions in the seeds appears as dark areas on the film. X-ray radiography without staining and X-ray contrast radiography were compared to study the stored seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The results were compared with the results of germination in a Jacobsen germinator according to ISTA norms.

Normal X-ray radiography gave too good estimates of germinative capacity of the seeds, and was shown to suit only when it is used to study fully ripe seeds which have recently been collected in an undamaged condition. The results of X-ray contrast radiography when barium chloride was used as the stain, however, followed closely the germination results.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ryynänen, E-mail: mr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5070, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen, Stig Johansson. (1980). Flower induction by exogenous plant hormones in Scots pine and Norway spruce grafts. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5070. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15011
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; flowering; seed orchards; growth hormones; gibberellin; kloonit
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to establish whether hormone treatments would promote flowering in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) grafts under Finnish conditions. Also, an attempt was made to test the efficiency of hormones as well as the variation in response among different clones. Six Scots pine and six Norway spruce clones were selected in each seed orchard based on their flowering intensity, and treated with growth hormones (GA, NAA) of different dosages by spraying. Flowering was observed one year after the treatments.

None of the treated or untreated spruce grafts flowered. However, poor flowering in the natural stands indicated that the environmental conditions during the previous years did not favour flowering. On the other hand, a distinct increase in flowering in Scots pine was observed as a result of spraying with hormone solutions. Treatments with gibberellin had a distinct promoting effect both on male and female flowering in the Scots pine grafts, although the responses varied between the different hormones or clones. The relative effect was generally stronger in male flowering.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
  • Johansson, E-mail: sj@mm.unknown
article id 5069, category Article
Jouni Mikola. (1980). The effect of seed size and duration of growth on the height of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) provenances and progenies at the nursery stage. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5069. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15010
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; height growth; provenance; seed size; annual growth rhythm
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this paper the connection between seed weight and amount and duration of growth are studied at the progeny level within stands or climatically uniform areas, and at the provenance level within larger geographic areas. The material consists of materials of several experiments in the nursery of Maisala in Southern Finland in 1971–76. The origins of the plant material used in the different experiments ranged from progenies of individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees to provenance selections covering almost the whole natural range of these species.

The effect of seed weight on plant height is strongest immediately after germination and subsequently decreases steadily, when the genetic growth properties of the plants themselves become effective. The effect is usually visible at least until the end of the 1st growing season. This relationship varies considerably depending on the material studied. The connections between the duration and the amount of height growth also proved to differ according to the nature of genetic variation. In wide selection of provenances, which show clear genetic differentiation in annual growth rhythm. The variation in the duration of growth accounts for most of the differences in total height growth. At the individual and family level or between provenances of a limited area, there seems to be no clear connection between the duration and the amount of growth. It seems that the duration of the annual growing period is a genetic property, which is not affected by seed weight.

The total height alone in 1-year old test material grown in a greenhouse had hardly any value in the forecasting of growth capacity. The growth differences were caused mainly by the variation in seed size and growth rate differences during the growing period.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, E-mail: jm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5067, category Article
Veikko Koski. (1980). On the variation of flowering and seed crop in mature stands of Pinus sylvestris L. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5067. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15008
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; flowering; capacity; periodicity; seed crop
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper discusses the variation of flowering and seed crop of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands based on literature published in Finland. According to the studies, the list of good seed years given by different authors do not completely match, and no essentially new about the periodicity of the seed crop or the causes of variation has been found. The difficulty in classification of the seed crops in different years in different stands and locations can be handled through the concept of capacity. It is suggested in the paper that to be able to compare the occurrence of good flowering and seed years of different stands and localities, a case exceeding 50% of the capacity is described as abundant, and a case exceeding 75% as very heavy.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koski, E-mail: vk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5066, category Article
J. P. Efimov. (1980). Some results on the regularities of seed crops in Scots pine seed orchards. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5066. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15007
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; tree breeding; seed orchards; Symposiums; Soviet Union; USSR; seed crop; cone yield
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Establishment of seed orchards to produce genetically improved seed started in the USSR in the 1960’s. The aim is that within 10–15 years the total seed production will reach 50% of the seed used. The paper describes seed production in seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the forest-steppe of the European part of the USSR. The orchards have been established either by grafting or by planting of seedlings originating from plus trees. The grafts begin flowering relatively early, however, only at the age of 8–10 years seed crops become relatively regular and abundant. The cone yield in young seed orchards have great variability, and the yield of cones varies between clones. Cone yield does not always correlate with a good seed yield. One of the reasons for high amount of empty seeds is the difference in the periods of flowering between the clones.

The seed crops can be improved by establishing optimal conditions for the growth of the trees. Also, when a seed orchard is founded, the peculiarities of the generative activities of the clones and their reactions to changes in the environmental conditions must be taken account by taking an individual and selective measure approach to improvement measures. The orchards can be established with clones for their genetic combining ability and their requirements for the stimulation of seed-bearing.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Efimov, E-mail: je@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5064, category Article
E. P. Prokazin. (1980). Geographic variation in forest trees. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5064. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15005
Keywords: Scots pine; tree breeding; seed orchards; forest research; Symposiums; Soviet Union; USSR; provenience experiments
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Planting of forest trees takes place in USSR on millions of hectares but without permanent forest seed bases having yet been established in every region of the country. Consequently, local seed does not suffice the need, and it is necessary to secure it from other geographical regions. To avoid negative consequences of seed transfer it is necessary to study geographic variation of the genetic characteristics of forest trees and construct scientifically based division into seed zones. Geographic transfer of seed can also be regarded as a breeding measure. A large research program is being carried out in the USSR on the subject. Most of the existing trials are provenience tests of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Over 2,000 hectares of new provenience experiments is to be established in near future.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Prokazin, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5063, category Article
Pirkko Velling. (1980). Variation in the density of wood of different Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) origins in provenance tests. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5063. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15004
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; basic density; provenience; Symposiums
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study concerned with variations in the density of the wood of different provenances in provenance test series of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) RH. Karst.), established in 1931. Increment cores were collected from 10 sample trees from each sample block. The density of the pine wood was noticeably higher than that of spruce. The basic density was in average 450 kg/m3 for Scots pine, and the variation between different origins was 3–9%, while the average basic density of spruce was under 400 kg/m3 and the variation 3–10%. Statistically significant differences were found between the mean basic densities of different provenances in all sub-experiments for spruce, but only in one pine sub-experiment. However, these differences were not due to the altitude or latitude of the place of the origin. Volume growth seems to be the dominant component in the formation of dry matter yield.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Velling, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5056, category Article
Liisa Nylund, Antti Haapanen, Seppo Kellomäki, Markku Nylund. (1980). Radial growth of Scots pine and soil conditions at some camping sites in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5056. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14997
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; ground vegetation; radial growth; trampling; soil compaction; recreation; camping areas
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was investigated in seven camping areas located in Southern Finland. Radial growth reduction of 20–40% were found. The magnitude of this reduction was related to the amount of damage in the trees, and the age of the trees. A loss of humus, exposure of the roots and soil compaction were associated with the use of area but not related to the reduction in growth.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nylund, E-mail: ln@mm.unknown (email)
  • Haapanen, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Nylund, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown
article id 5049, category Article
Pirkko Ilonen, Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). On distribution of growth in crown system of young Scots pine stands. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5049. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14906
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; light; Scots pine; needle; branching; terminal growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Branching and terminal growth of lateral shoots and needle growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is investigated as a function of the whorl’s position and age and prevailing light climate. Number of buds per whorl was linearly and positively related to the whorl’s position and prevailing light climate. The growing whorl’s number counting from the apex was associated with declining bud number. The terminal growth of lateral shoots increased exponentially within the values 0.6–1.0 of the whorls position. Under these values the terminal growth was negligible. The growing whorl’s number indicated curvlinear decrease in shoot growth respectively, and only negligible growth occurred when the whorl’s age exceeded 10 years. The shoot growth was linearly related to the prevailing light climate but differences between dominating and dominated trees were apparent. The distribution of needle growth in the crown system was similar to that of shoot growth.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ilonen, E-mail: pi@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5048, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). The effect of solar radiation and air temperature on basic density of Scots pine wood. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5048. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14905
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; Scots pine; temperature; basic density; solar radiation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of solar radiation and air temperature on the basic density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood has been investigated on the basis of material obtained from the literature. Solar radiation seemed to affect basic density during earlywood formation. Temperature had the greatest effect on basic density  in late summer. The varying effects of radiation and temperature seemed to be associated with the dynamics of the crown system of trees. Especially the capacity of the crown system to produce the amount of photosynthesis needed in tracheid growth is assumed to be of importance in controlling the variation in the basic density of Scots pine wood. Growth of thracheids from the point of view of photosynthate supply is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5034, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1979). Pinotilavuusmääräinen kuorintahäviö koneellisesti ladotuissa pinoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5034. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14891
English title: Barking loss of mechanically loaded piles.
Original keywords: kuitupuu; mänty; puutavaranmittaus; koivu; kuorinta; pinotilavuus
English keywords: birch; Scots pine; pulpwood; debarking; piled volume; stacked volume; barking loss
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this study the loose volume of 58 piles of pulpwood were measured before and after barking by rotary ring barker. The volume was 2,121 m3. A recommendation is made, based on the results of the study, concerning the barking loss from piled wood: for green Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood, 8.8% of the stacked volume; for seasoned pine pulpwood, 6.1% of the stacked volume; and 8.0% for birch (Betula sp.) pulpwood, green and seasoned. The amount of bark left on bolts was small for pine bolts, namely 0.33%, but quite large for birch bolts, 2.84% of the green weight.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5033, category Article
Tapani Haapanen, Pertti Hari, Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). Effect of fertilization and thinning on radial growth of Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5033. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14890
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; thinning; Scots pine; radial growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands at the age 30–40 years was measured retrospectively five years after the fertilizing and thinning of the stands. The abrupt effect of fertilizing was culminated 3–4 years after the treatment. The effect of thinning increased throughout the monitoring period. In stands that had been both thinned and fertilized, the effect of thinning was covered almost entirely by the effect of fertilizing, but fertilizing and thinning gave greater response than applying fertilizer or thinning only. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Haapanen, E-mail: th@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5026, category Article
Alpo Enivaara. (1979). Pyynikin harjumännikön uudistaminen ja elvyttäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5026. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14881
English title: Regeneration and improvement of the Scots pine forest of Pyynikki esker in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: mänty; uudistaminen; seminaarit; maankäyttö; harju; Pyynikki; taajamametsät
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; Scots pine; urban forests; seminar; MAB; natural park
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Pyynikki is a unique natural park in the centre of the city of Tampere in Southern Finland. Currently, the forest of Pyynikki is losing its vigour because of aging and environmental factors. In 1977 a policy was designed for the regrowth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest and improvement of the condition of the trees to avoid the situation that the whole pine forest (34 ha) would be regrown at one time. The period of regrowth of pine forest is 60 years. It is accomplished by cutting small openings, on which 4-year old potted pine saplings are planted. Birch will be planted only on two spots. The aim is that the forest scenery will be maintained as undamaged as possible. The condition of the growing forest will be improved by fertilization and thinning.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Enivaara, E-mail: ae@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5022, category Article
Jukka Selander, Paavo Kalo. (1979). Männyn taimen pihkan monoterpeenien vaikutuksista tuhonkestävyyteen tukkimiehentäitä, Hylobius abietis L. ( Coleoptera, Curculionidae) vastaan. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5022. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14876
English title: Evaluation of resistance of Scots pine seedlings against the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis L. in relation to their monoterpene composition.
Original keywords: hyönteistuhot; mänty; taimet; tukkimiehentäi; resistenssi; monoterpeeni
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Hylobius abietis; seedlings; insect damages; large pine weevil; monoterpenes; insect resistance
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings and damage caused by Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) were studied during a three-year period. Olfactory responses of H. abietis was studied in laboratory with several volatile oils isolated from different kinds of P. sylvestris seedlings. Resistance of seedlings against H. Abietis was evaluated in terms of their monoterpene composition. Three aspects of resistance (preference, antibiosis and tolerance) were evaluated separately. Seedling chemotype was found to be associated with these aspects of host resistance on only minor scale. Discussion was attached to a further search for host resistance arising from other properties and constituents of oleoresin. Height growth of the seedlings recovering from weevil damage was 86–91% compared to healthy seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Selander, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kalo, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown
article id 5019, category Article
Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen, Seppo Kellomäki, Olavi Luukkanen, Paavo Pelkonen, Raimo Salminen, Heikki Smolander. (1979). An automatic system for measurements of gas exchange and environmental factors in a forest stand, with special reference to measuring principles. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5019. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14873
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; Scots pine; environmental factors; ecology; transpiration; measurement tecniques; forest stand
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A system for measuring the net photosynthesis, transpiration and environmental factors within the canopy and ground cover vegetation is described. The system operates continuously throughout the growing season in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. A data-logging unit controls the system and carries out the measurements on the readings of the sensors of photosynthesis, transpiration, light intensity outside the canopy, light climate inside the assimilation chambers, and dry and wet temperatures from selected points. These measurements are shown digitally and automatically punched onto paper tape.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown
  • Pelkonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
  • Salminen, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown
  • Smolander, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown
article id 5018, category Article
Pertti Laakso, Olli Saikku. (1979). Havaintoja karsituista männyistä sorvatun viilun laadusta. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5018. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14872
English title: Observations on the quality of veneer from pruned Scots pine stems.
Original keywords: mänty; pystykarsinta; laatu; vaneri; viilu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; pruning; quality; veneer
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The material was obtained from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems which were pruned 27 years earlier up to the height of 5–6 m. Rotary cutting was made from 16 pruned stems and 3 unpruned ones. The length of bolts was 70 cm and the thickness of veneer 1.5 mm. The proportion of good quality veneer was 46% in pruned stems and 14% in the others. Veneer with exellent quality was obtained from pruned stems up to the height of tree meters, that is to say a little under the pruning line.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laakso, E-mail: pl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saikku, E-mail: os@mm.unknown
article id 5015, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). On geoclimatic variation in basic density of Scots pine wood. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5015. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14869
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; climate; temperature; density; rainfall
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of temperature and water supply in the basic density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood was studied on the basis of material obtained from the literature. On a monthly basis, the basic density increased with increasing mean temperature for June, July and August. The rainfall in these months had no detectable effect on the basic density except through the difference between rainfall and evaporation in July. On a yearly basis, the basic density increased with increasing mean temperature, temperature sum and length of growth period. The effect of water supply on the basic density was evident, and a linear relationship between basic density and annual rainfall was detected. The variation in basic density was, however, explained only partly by the chosen factors. Possible reasons for the poor explanatory power have been discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5002, category Article
Antti Haapanen, Pertti Siitonen. (1978). Kulojen esiintyminen Ulvinsalon luonnonpuistossa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5002. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14856
English title: Forest fires in Ulvinsalo strict nature reserve in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; metsäpalot; ekologia; Ulvinsalon luonnonpuisto; Kuhmo; palohistoria
English keywords: forest fires; Norway spruce; Scots pine; northern Finland; ecology; national park
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study is the first report of a larger project concerning fire ecology in the Finnish boreal forests. Modern forestry has never been practiced in the Ulvinsalo strict nature reserve (2,500 ha) in Northern Finland in the county of Kuhmo. Forest fires have been uncommon because of mosaic of mineral and peat soils. The forests are mostly Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) often as the oldest trees of a stand. Forest fires were dated by counting annual rings from cambium to the fire scar in pines. 73 stands covering 1,207 ha were surveyed, over 80% of which was on mineral soil.

50% of the area had burned at least once during the life time of the present pine trees. 48 different forest fires were found, the first being from the year 1712 and the latest from 1969. The average time elapsed between the fires was about 82±43 years, and range 18–219 years. It was assumed that the stands where no fire scars were found, had, however, regenerated after fires but no fires have occurred since after that. In latter part of the 19th century 21 forest fires were dated, in the other half centuries only 4–9. This may have been caused by the increased human activity in the late 1800’s. The fire rotation of the area is 280 years, and spruce is almost the only tree species, which can regenerate in the present situation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haapanen, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
  • Siitonen, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown
article id 4995, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Matti Saramäki, Martti Varmola. (1978). A simultaneous equation model to determine taper curve. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4995. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14849
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; diameter; mathematical models; taper curve
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A simultaneous equation model to determine taper curve for Scots pine is presented. The diameters at relative heights are endogenous variables and height an exogenous variable. Any equations may be substituted by the measured value of diameter. Solution of the system of equations yields 11 diameters at relative heights. Intermediate values are obtained by interpolation. Interpolation allows the use of diameters measured at absolute heights, too.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saramäki, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown
  • Varmola, E-mail: mv@mm.unknown
article id 4992, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi, Raimo Hiltunen. (1978). Monoterpenes in Scots pine in relation to browsing preference by moose (Alces alces L.). Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4992. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14846
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Alces alces; moose; moose damages; monoterpenes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Monoterpene hydrocarbon contents of needles in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plants both damaged and untouched by the moose (Alces alces L.) were compared in the study. The material was collected in an 8-year-old plantation in Central Finland. Needle samples were taken from the topmost shoot whorl of the plants in the middle of April, 1976. Only minor differences were found between the plant groups. Thus, terpenes in pine presumably play no important role in the browsing preference by moose.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hiltunen, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown
article id 4988, category Article
Irja Lehtonen. (1978). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4988. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14842
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand: IV The amount of phytomass and nutrients.
Original keywords: mänty; aluskasvillisuus; ravinteet; biomassa; ravinnekierto; kuiva-aine; runkopuu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; biomass; Scots pine; nutrients; ground vegetation; dry matter; stemwood
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The distribution of the dry matter and nutrients in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree stock growing on a Vaccinium type site, ground vegetation, and humus were determined in the study. The greatest part of the dry matter in the tree was found in the stemwood. The living branches, roots, bark, needles and dead branches decreasing order of magnitude made up the rest of the biomass. The trees contained over 90%, the field layer vegetation 3% and the bottom layer vegetation 2% of the dry matter in the tree stand. The tree stock contained 86–95% of the total amount nutrients in the stand. The field layer vegetation contained less nutrients than the bottom layer vegetation. Nitrogen, however, was an exception, the amount being approximately the same in both vegetation layers. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4983, category Article
Satu Huttunen. (1978). The effects of air pollution on provenances of Scots pine and Norway spruce in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4983. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14837
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Scots pine; provenance; northern Finland; mortality; seedlings; air pollution; Picea abes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The success of certain Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) provenances from Northern Finland was studied in a tree damage area occasioned by air pollution in the town of Oulu over the period of 1972-76. The pine strains from more northerly and easterly areas and the spruce strains from the immediate vicinity of the site itself were being observed to thrive best. The results point in a similar direction to those of other comparable experiments, except that the mortality rate amongst the saplings was exceptionally high and the proportion of healthy saplings in good condition was found to be unusually low. Structural properties suggestive of resistance to pollution were observable selectively in certain provenances, these including the xeromorphy of needles or thickness of the epidermis. The chief cause of mortality amongst the saplings was found to be the damage inflicted by pollution during the winter, while that arising in the summer months was relatively slight.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Huttunen, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4975, category Article
Irja Lehtonen. (1977). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4975. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14826
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand. III Variation in nutrient content of soil, vegetation and precipitation.
Original keywords: mänty; metsikkösadanta; runkovalunta; sademäärä; ravinteet; ravinnekierto
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; precipitation; stemflow; throughfall; nutrient cycle
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study is part of a project designed to elucidate the nutrient budget of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. Results of variation in the nutrient contents were compared with those obtained for the previous growing season.

The potassium and calcium contents varied the greatest in the humus layer. However, in the bottom and field layer vegetation and needles the variation in the nitrogen content was the greatest. The nutrient contents of the needles were affected by the physiological stage of development, needle age and the position in the crown of the tree. The nutrient content of the rainfall increased in the order: free rainfall, throughfall, and stem flow.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lehtonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4970, category Article
Markku Mäkelä. (1977). Metsähakkeen tiheyden laskeminen. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4970. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14821
English title: Calculating the basic density of whole tree- and logging residue chips.
Original keywords: kuusi; tiheys; mänty; koivu; hake; metsähake; kokopuuhake; leppä
English keywords: Norway spruce; birch; Scots pine; basic density; alder; wood chips; logging residue; whole tree chips
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method is presented in this study for calculating the basic density of whole tree- and logging residue chips and the results of trial measurements on some commonly used chip sorts. The basic density of Scots pine whole tree chips was found to be 1–18 kg/m3 smaller than that of pine pulpwood of the same age. The basic density of Norway spruce whole tree chips was 4–22 kg/m3 greater than that of similar aged pulpwood. The basic density of birch whole tree chips was 4–16 kg/m3 and grey alder whole tree chips 7–24 kg/m3 greater than pulpwood of the same age. The basic density of conifer logging residue chips was considerably greater than that of pine and spruce whole tree ships.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mäkelä, E-mail: mm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4963, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1977). Männyn ja kuusen siementen gammasäteilyherkkyyteen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4963. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14814
English title: Factors affecting gamma-irradiation sensitivity of Scots pine and Norway spruce.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; alkuperä; itäminen; siemenet; säteilytys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; germination; Scots pine; progeny; seeds; radiation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study, comprising three experiments, aims to determine the effect of the geographical origin of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds, and the duration of the time lag between the moisture treatment and subsequent irradiation on the gamma-irradiation sensitivity of seeds.

The studies showed that the greater the irradiation dose seeds were subjected to the slower the rate of germination. In general, small radiation doses (250–1,000 rad) had a stimulating effect and the final germination percentage (36–40 days) increased. However, when the level was further increased, the germination percentage decreased. Air-dry and moistened seeds withstood irradiation better than others. In a study with moistened seeds from different geographical sources, pine and spruce seeds from Northern Finland were less able to withstand irradiation than those originating from the south.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4962, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1977). Ojitusalueiden hieskoivikoiden kasvatus taloudellisena vaihtoehtona. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4962. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14813
English title: The economics of growing downy birch stands on drained peatlands in Finland.
Original keywords: kannattavuus; mänty; metsän uudistaminen; ojitetut suot; hieskoivu; uudistamiskustannukset
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; Betula pubescens; Scots pine; downy birch; profitability
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to determine under what conditions and with what premises the growing of Betula pubescens Ehrh. is an economically competitive alternative to the growing of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in drained peatlands. The basic material consisted of all drainage projects in Ostrobothnia in Western Finland in 1937–38 and 1957–59, according to the archives of the Central Board of Forestry Tapio, including such areas that were at least moderately fertile and had birch dominated young stands or no tree cover. A total of 202 sample plots were measured.

According to the results, the discounted timber yield of the thinned B. pubescens stands is about 10% greater than that of untreated stands. The removing of birch seedlings and the subsequent growing of fully stocked Scots pine is more profitable than growing B. pubescens stands only if the establishment and subsequent development of the pine stand involve no costs. If the site in question is a fertile open drained peatland, establishment of a pine stand is obviously a better financial proposition than a naturally regenerated birch stand. However, if there is already a fully stocked young birch stand on the site, it is more economical to let it grow using a shortish rotation time.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Seppälä, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown
article id 4960, category Article
Juhani Sarasto, Kustaa Seppälä. (1977). Isojen varpujen hävittämisen vaikutus rämemännikön kehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4960. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14811
English title: The effect of dwarf-shrub vegetation supression on pine swamp tree stands.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; herbicides; shrubs; biological competition; fertilizers; herbisidit
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In most pine swamp stands on drained peatlands the dwarf-shrubs are rather important biomass producers. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of killing off the dwarf-shrub vegetation on the subsequent development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. The dwarf-shrub vegetation was killed by means of herbicides. The results show that by removing competition by the dwarf-shrub vegetation on drained pine swamps, it is possible to pass onto the trees at least some of the freed growth potential.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Sarasto, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
  • Seppälä, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown
article id 4958, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1977). Araukaarian ja männyn puuaineen ominaisuuksien vertailua. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4958. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14809
English title: Comparison of wood properties of Parana pine and Scots pine.
Original keywords: tiheys; mänty; puuaines; pihkatiehyet; araukaaria
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; wood; density; rays; Araucaria angustifolia; Panama pine
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to the available literature, the appearance of Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze) wood resembles that of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The anatomy is quite different, however. There are no resin canals and fusiform rays with resin canals in Parana pine. They are abundant in Scots pine, however. The basic density of Parana pine is higher. In both species the density increases from the pith outwards, the maximum being reached at the age of 100 years. Compression wood is more common in Parana pine than in Scots pine, and this makes the longitudinal shrinkage of Parana pine greater than that of Scots pine. Otherwise the shrinkage properties do not differ. The mechanical strength is of the same magnitude with the exception of hardness, where Parana pine is superior.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4956, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri, Paavo Pelkonen. (1976). Rooting of Scots pine needle fascicles with different growth substances and media. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4956. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14802
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; vegetative propagation; rooting; needle fascicles; Jacobsen’s germination apparatus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Needle fascicles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were rooted in a standard Jacobsen’s germination apparatus. The apparatus was found to be suitable for rooting at least on laboratory scale. The best rooting substrate was living Sphangnum, which remained sufficiently moist in the germination containers throughout the experiments. In a comparison of various growth substrate treatments, the best result was obtained with a combination of IAA (100 mg/l) and thiamine (5 mg/l). The rooting percentage using these growth substances with Sphagnum as the rooting medium was in the first experiment 30 and in the second 48.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pelkonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 4954, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Fertilization of Scots pine seedlings with different nitrogen fertilizer. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4954. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14800
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; kasvu; taimet; lannoitus; kuolleisuus; typpilannoitus; ammoniumsulfaatti
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; growth; mortality; seedlings; fertilizing; nitrogen fertilizers; ammonium sulphate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes an attempt to determine whether ammonium, nitrate and urea nitrogen are bound in peat used as a filling material in containerized seedling production, what is the effect of the nutrients on certain chemical properties in the peat, and what is the effect of the nitrogen fertilizers on the primary growth of containerized (paper-pot VH 608) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in connection with planting out. The seedlings were fertilized with ammonium sulphate, potassium nitrate and urea.

The results show that none of the fertilizers used were bound in the peat. The nitrogen content in the above ground part of the seedlings increased clearly. Fertilization with ammonium sulphate resulted in the greatest increment and this increase appears to be permanent. The wintering process was somewhat delayed by the fertilization. The seedling mortality rate for all the treatments has been quite appreciable. However, fertilization particularly with ammonium sulphate on the poorer of the two sites studied has had a positive effect on seedling survival. Furthermore, it appears that fertilizer treatments have decreased growth after planting, but in the case of ammonium sulphate this decrease has changed into a clear growth increment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4952, category Article
Irja Lehtonen, Seppo Kellomäki, Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4952. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14798
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand. II. Amount and quality of precipitation in a Scots pine stand at the pole stage.
Original keywords: mänty; metsikkösadanta; runkovalunta; sademäärä; ravinnekierto; happamuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; precipitation; stemflow; throughfall; acidity; nutrient budget
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study forms part of a project designed to elucidate the total nutrient budget of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Central Finland during the 1974 growing period. Precipitation has been divided up into precipitation, throughfall and stemflow.

The acidity of the rainwater was found to increase in the order – Precipitation, throughfall and stemflow. The electrolyte content of the rain water from throughfall and stemflow was higher than that of precipitation. The nutrient contents of precipitation were rather low. Throughfall and stemflow were found to leach some nutrient from the trees. This was most clear in the case of potassium. The total amounts of nutrients reaching the ground in throughfall were found to be smaller than those in precipitation. On the other hand, the amounts of potassium, calcium and magnesium in stemflow were clearly greater than those in precipitation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown
article id 4948, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Puun ja kuoren tiheys ja kosteus sekä kuoren osuus koivun, kuusen ja männyn oksissa. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4948. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14794
English title: Density and moisture content of wood and bark, and bark percentage in the branches of birch, Norway spruce and Scots pine.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; koivu; kosteus; kokopuuhaketus; oksat; kuori
English keywords: Norway spruce; birch; Scots pine; moisture content; bark; density; branches; total tree chipping
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the study the proportion of branch samples of various diameter were studied. The branches were taken from small trees to be harvested by total tree chipping method. The material consisted of 1,056 branch samples of birch (Betula verrucosa, now B. pendula Roth, and Betula pubescens Erhr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at intervals of 20 cm along each branch.

With exception of the basic density of bark, there was a relation between all the other properties which were studied and the diameter. Even when the effect of diameter was eliminated, in many cases the effect of the distance of the samples from the stem became apparent.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4946, category Article
I. Lehtonen, S. Kellomäki, C. J. Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4946. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14792
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand I. Seasonal variation in nutrient content of vegetation and soil.
Original keywords: mänty; metsäekologia; neulaset; aluskasvillisuus; ravinnekierto; ravinnepitoisuus; maa; kasvukausi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; ground vegetation; soil; soluble nutrients
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper deals with variation in the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content of vegetation and soil of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand of Vaccinium site type situated in Central Finland. The material consists of sequential samples representing soil, ground vegetation and trees taken during summer 1974.

The amount of soluble nutrients in the humus layer decreased in June when maximum growth of trees and dwarf shrubs occurred. The nutrient content of this layer subsequently began to increase towards the end of the growing period.

The variation in the nutrient content of the bottom and ground layers followed a similar pattern. Nitrogen content increases at the beginning of the summer. After this phase it started to decrease and reached its lowest values by the end of growing period. Phosphorus and potassium content increased throughout the growing period.

The nutrient content of the needles and wood were positively correlated with tree height and negatively with the age of material. The highest values for the nutrient content were for new cells.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown
article id 4940, category Article
Paavo Pelkonen, Heikki Smolander. (1976). Männyn kaasunvaihdon elpyminen talvilevon keskeytyessä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4940. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14786
English title: Increase in gas exchange rate in Scots pine by terminating the winter rest period.
Original keywords: mänty; fotosynteesi; aineenvaihdunta; haihdunta; talvilepo
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; net photosynthesis; winter dormancy; transpiration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The activation of CO2 exchange was monitored in two Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings transferred from the field to the laboratory in December. Gas exchange was monitored by an URAS I infrared gas analyser in a so-called open IRGA-system with trap type chambers. Transpiration was also measured at the same time by weighing the potted seedlings twice a day. The measuring period lasted eleven days. During the period, the level of both transpiration and net photosynthesis increased about ten times. Furthermore, it was found that the level of photosynthesis at high temperatures was relatively lower at the beginning than at the end of the measuring period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pelkonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Smolander, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown
article id 4938, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Mäntyrunkojen ydinsäteiden korkeus ja leveys. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4938. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14783
English title: Height and width of rays in Scots pine stems.
Original keywords: mänty; ydinsäteet; pihkatiehyet; puuaine; puun rakenne
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; xylem; fusiform rays; uniseriate rays; rays
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this study the width and height of 1,588 uniseriate and 454 fusiform rays were measured from tangential sections of four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trunks. The samples represented various height levels and distances from the pith. The average width of the uniseriate rays was 19.7 μm and that of the fusiform rays, 51.9 μm. The average height of the uniseriate rays was 215.7 μm and that of the fusiform rays 406.2 μm. Due to this difference in height, it may be possible to develop an automatic system for distinguishing between uniseriate end fusiform rays on the basis of their height.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4925, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Pohjoissuomalaisten mäntytukkien soikeus. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4925. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14767
English title: Ovalness of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; mänty; puutavaranmittaus; läpimitta; sahatukki
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; saw logs; northern Finland; diameter; timber scaling
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The material of this study consists of 1,080 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs measures in two saw mills in Northern Finland. The largest and the smallest top-diameter of each log was measured under bark. According to the results, the ovalness was rather small, 1 mm or 4.9% on average. On the other hand, only 14.3% of all logs showed a diameter difference smaller than 2%. The ovalness was larger than 10% in 5.8% of all logs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4924, category Article
Teklé Kapustinskaité. (1975). Puuston kasvu ja turpeen tuhkapitoisuus ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14766
English title: Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth in connection with drainage.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; ravinteisuus; puulajit; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; pituuskasvu; rauduskoivu; tervaleppä; Liettua; tuhkapitoisuus; hieskoivu; metsäsaarni
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; birch; Betula pendula; Picea abies; Betula pubescens; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; tree species; Alnus glutinosa; alder; ash content; fertility; Fraxinus exelsior; ash; Lithuania
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The ash content has been found to correlate with the fertility of peatlands. Relationship between height of 80-year-old stands and ash content of peat in topmost 30 cm layer was examined in Lithuanian conditions. On drained peatlands with ash content of peat from 3% to 8% pine stands increase in height. Ash content of peat being about 7% Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands on drained sites are found to be of equal height. Ash content of peat more than 8–9% has no significant effect on growth of pine or spruce stands. Birch (Betula verrucosa (B. Pendula Roth.) and Betula pubescens Erhrh.), stands are less sensitive to ash content of peat compared with other species. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) stands occurred in sites with ash content of peat more than 8–10%. The height of the stands become equal both in drained and undrained sites in the cases where ash content of peat is about 16–18%. Ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) stands attain high productivity on drained sites with ash content of peat about 20%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kapustinskaité, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4920, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1975). Turvetuotannosta vapautuvan maan metsittäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4920. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14776
English title: Afforestation of bogs after industrial exploitation of peat.
Original keywords: mänty; metsitys; lannoitus; suojapuusto; turvetuotanto; jälkikäyttö; tuhka; tervaleppä; suonpohja
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; afforestation; Scots pine; Alnus glutinosa; alder; peat production; after-use; ash
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Peat industry is rapidly expanding in Finland. Consequently, during next decades peat will be removed from thousands of hectares. Because timber production probably is the most rational use of this area after the peat production has ended, some experiments of afforestation of such areas have already been conducted. This article reports results of two experiments which were started in Kihniö, Western Finland, in 1953 and 1964.

In the first experiment fertilization with wood ash proved very effective whereas seeding and planting without fertilization resulted in almost complete failure. In the second experiment, interplanting with grey alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) greatly promoted the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The effect of slight fertilization lasted a few years only. The reasons for the remarkable effect of alder need further research. Although alder is known as a nitrogen-fixing plant, its beneficial effect was most clearly seen in the K and P contents of pine needles. Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi was beneficial but not necessary. Experiments hitherto show that afforestation of bogs after peat removal is possible although some additional measures like fertilization or interplanting with alder may be needed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4908, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1974). Sarkaleveyden ja naveroinnin vaikutus pohjavesipinnan syvyyteen ja männyntaimiston kehitykseen lyhytkortisella nevalla. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4908. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14752
English title: The effect of ditch spacing and furrowing on depth of ground water table and on development of a Scots pine plantation on small-sedge bog.
Original keywords: mänty; ojitetut suot; avosuot; pituuskasvu; sarkaleveys; naverointi; kuivatussyvyys; kuivatusteho
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; seedlings; open peatlands; drainage effect; ground water table; ditch spacing; furrowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results obtained from an investigation into the effect of ditch spacing, ditch depth and furrowing on ground water table and on development of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantation on open small-sedge bog in Central Finland (60° 50’ N; 24° 20’ E), drained in 1967. The area was planted in 1968 with 2+1 Scots pine transplants, and fertilized with Y fertilizer for peat soils. The seedlings were measured in 1972.

The depth of the ground water table was greater, the narrower the ditch spacing. The water furrows shortened the duration of the high ground water and lowered the ground water table particularly in the case of ineffective drainage. The narrower the ditch spacing within the blocks, the higher were the young trees. On the other hand, the differences in the height of the trees between the ditch spacings were eliminated by the effect of the furrows.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4904, category Article
Sirkka Kupila-Ahvenniemi, Sirkka Hankonen, Seppo Sivonen. (1974). Kokeita röntgenmikroanalyysimenetelmän käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden alkuaineiden määrityksessä männyn silmuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4904. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14748
English title: Experiments on the determination of certain elements in the buds of Scots pine by means of the electron probe x-ray microanalysis.
Original keywords: mänty; menetelmät; silmut; röntgenmikroanalyysi; alkuaineanalyysi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; methods; buds; electron probe X-ray microanalysis; elementary analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An electron probe X-ray microanalyser was used to study the occurrence of phosphorus, sulphur and calcium in the bud apices of dormant Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The material was collected during the winter months (November–February), fixed in Carnoy’s fluid, dehydrated, and mounted in paraffin wax. Of the 10 μm longitudinal section, the ones containing the middle portion of the apices were glued to the specimen supports and vacuum coated with aluminium. Three parallel line analysis were run over the corpus and the uppermost portion of the pith. Results obtained so far suggest that no marked changes occur in the position and level of the three elements during the study period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kupila-Ahvenniemi, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hankonen, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown
  • Sivonen, E-mail: ss@mm.unknown
article id 4903, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1974). Esikokeita kinetiinin vaikutuksesta männyn hypokotyylien kallus- ja juurimuodostukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4903. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14747
English title: Effect of kinetin on the formation of callus and roots in hypocotyls of Scots pine; preliminary experiments.
Original keywords: mänty; sirkkataimi; solukkoviljely; kinetiini; IAA; kallus; juurimuodostus; hypokotyyli
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; tissueculture; germlings; hypocotyls; callus; root formation; kinetin; IAA
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

After 64 days of aseptic culture, germlings of Pinus Syvestris L. were cut at the middle of the hypocotyl and above the root. The upper and lower halves of the hypocotyls were transferred onto agar medium RM-196 of Linsmaier & Skoog (1964) including 2 mg/l IAA and 0.1, 1 or 10 mg/l kinetin, one or both halves being put in each vial. Callus growth and root formation was observed after 55 days.

The lower ends of basally cut seedlings generally formed callus tissue and 20% of them also formed roots from this callus. No roots and less callus growth were observed in the lower hypocotyle halves excised at both ends. In the latter hypocotyles callus growth was promoted by the presence in the same vial of a basally excised germling, including cotyledons and plumule. Increasing amounts of kinetin slightly enhanced callus formation of basally excised germlings but seemed to inhibit callus growth in hypocotyls excised at both ends and placed alone on the growth medium. The total amount of callus was greatest in hypocotyls which included intact cotyledons and plumule.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4902, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1974). Urealannoituksen vaikutus metsämaan kasveille käyttökelpoiseen typpimäärään. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4902. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14746
English title: Effect of urea application on nitrogen available for plants in forest soil.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; lannoitus; urea; typpilannoitus; kasveille käyttökelppoinen typpi
English keywords: Norway spruce; fertilization; Scots pine; urea; nitrogen fertilization; available nitrogen
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes a preliminary attempt to assess the long-term effect of urea application on the quantity of nitrogen available for plants in forest soil. The soil samples required for the study were collected from an experimental area which had been set up for investigations into both the single and joint effect on tree growth of two levels of each of urea and phosphorus application. The stand was a mixed forest of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) on Myrtillus type site with an average volume of 217.5 m3/ha.

According to the results, the nitrogen available for plants of the humus layer was significantly higher in fertilized than in unfertilized plots as late as four years after application. In terms of absolute values, the quantities were extremely small, only 3–4% of the amounts applied. In comparison with these results it was interesting to notice that urea application seemed to increase the C/N ratio.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4899, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1974). Näkökohta tyvi- ja latvaläpimitan keskiarvoon perustuvasta mäntypölkkyjen kuutioinnista. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4899. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14743
English title: Note on the volume based on the mean of butt and top diameters of Scots pine bolts.
Original keywords: kuitupuu; mänty; puutavaranmittaus; kapeneminen; tyviläpimitta; latvaläpimitta; kiintotilavuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; pulpwood; timber scaling; tapering; butt diameter; top diameter; volume determination
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this paper the use of butt and top diameters of pulpwood bolts for volume determination is analysed. The study is based on the taper data of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems. According to the results, the use of the mean of butt and top diameters in the volume determination under Finnish condition causes a positive error in small stems. If the stems are so big that the butt portions of the stems can be used as saw logs, the remaining top bolts, used as pulpwood, are estimated to be smaller than they are in reality. Accordingly, there is a negative error.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4897, category Article
A. V. Chudnyi. (1974). Metsäpuiden populaatiorakenteen tutkimusmenetelmistä. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4897. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14741
English title: Investigation methods in forest tree population studies.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänjalostus; taudinkestävyys; männyntyvitervastauti; Neuvostoliitto; terpeenit
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; tree breeding; Heterobasidion annosum; disease resistance; terpenes; Soviet Union
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

From the tree breeder’s point of view, an investigation of the chemical compounds in a tree population is worthwhile, if sufficiently high correlations exist between the chemical composition and any economical important characteristics. In Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations, such a correlation seems to exist between a high α-pinene and a low Δ3-carene content on the one hand, and the poor resistance to Fomitopsis annosa Fr. (now Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.) but a rapid development during the first half of the life cycle on the other hand. Detailed investigation on the terpene contents in pine populations were conducted at 121 locations throughout the Soviet Union. As a result, the range of this species was divided into zones, each of which was characterized by a distinct terpene composition pattern. In continuing selection and breeding work, the terpene contents are being used as indicators when the variation of economically important characteristics of Scots pine populations is studied.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Chudnyi, E-mail: ac@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4889, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1973). Turvepuristeet ja männyn kylvö. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4889. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14727
English title: Use of peat briquettes in seeding of Scots pine.
Original keywords: kylvö; mänty; itäminen; kasvualustat; turve; turvebriketti; vakoruutukylvö
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; germination; Scots pine; peat; sowing; seeding; band-sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to assess, through field experiments, the possibilities of using peat briquettes in the seeding of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Finland. The briquettes were dug into the soil in the middle of patches of mineral soil. The seeds were covered by a 2-5 mm layer of mineral soil. The seedings were inventoried in the three following autumns.

According to the results, the briquettes were clearly inferior to the control, which was ordinary drill seeding. This was mainly due to the fact that no rain was received after the seeding, and that the third summer from seeding was extremely dry. Abundant germination was observed during the second summer after seeding in both briquette seeding and the control. During more rainy summers the result might have been better.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4888, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1973). Havaintoja kuusen vapaapölytysjälkeläistöjen ja männyn metsikköalkuperien CO2-aineenvaihdunnasta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4888. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14726
English title: Observations on CO2 exchange in open pollinated progenies of Norway spruce and provenances of Scots pine.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; metsänjalostus; pluspuu; fotosynteesi; geneettinen muuntelu; pimeähengitys; yhteyttämisteho
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; tree breeding; photosynthesis capacity; genetic variance; dark respiration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Photosynthesis and dark respiration in five families of autochtonous Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and in seedlings from twenty Finnish stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were investigated in constant environmental conditions. Values of CO2 exchange were compared with the height growth and weight of seedlings in Norway spruce and with the weight alone in Scots pine. No statistically significant differences were found in CO2 exchange among progenies or stands. Photosynthetic efficiency and photosynthetic capacity showed a positive correlation both in spruce and in pine. Growth and net photosynthetic capacity were linearly and positively correlated in pine. Spruce and a higher light compensation point than pine. The use of an open IRGA system with several simultaneous measurements and the trap-type cuvette construction in genetic work are discussed.

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  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4881, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1973). Harvennuksen vaikutus lumi- ja routasuhteisiin nuoressa turvemaan männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4881. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14717
English title: The effect of thinning on the snow cover and soil frost conditions in a young Scots pine stand on drained peatland.
Original keywords: mänty; harvennushakkuu; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; lumi; lumen syvyys; routa; lumen vesiarvo
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; soil frost; thinning; drained peatlands; Scots pine; snow cover; depth of snow; water equivalent of snow
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results obtained from an investigation into the effect of thinning of different intensity and fertilization on the depth and water equivalent of the snow cover as well as on the depth of the soil frost in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on drained peatland in Central Finland. Thinnings and fertilization was carried out in 1968, and the snow cover was followed in the winters 1970/71 and 1971/72.

Only extremely heavy thinnings (60% of the volume) seemed to increase the depth and water equivalent of the snow cover. The indirect effect of fertilization on the snow cover was insignificant. In the clear-cut sample plot of the study, soil frost was either not found at all or the depths of the frozen soil layer was smaller than in the other plots. When deciding the silvicultural measures to be taken in the case of tree stands growing on drained peatlands, there seems to be reason to avoid radical thinnings. Otherwise, the favourable influence of the trees on a site on its water relationships will be diminished.

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  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4879, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1973). Mäntyrunkojen ydinsäteiden määrä ja koko. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4879. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14713
English title: Amount and size of rays in Scots pine stems.
Original keywords: mänty; runko; puuaines; ydinsäteet; pihkatiehyet; pihka
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; structure of wood; fusiform rays; uniseriate rays; resin canal; pitch
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The material consists of four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems from which 757 samples were taken from various heights and distances from the pith. According to the results, the number of rays and their sizes are greater at the stump level than higher up in the stem. The size increases, and the number decreases on moving from the pith outwards. However, there are differences between stems as regards the variation model. The ratio between the number of fusiform rays and that of uniseriate rays seems to be lower than anticipated earlier, about 1:40–1:50. The average proportion of ray volume varied from 5.6% to 7.3%.

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  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4877, category Article
Pertti Laatikainen. (1973). Jyrsinturve ja kuorihumus männyn kylvötaimien kasvualustoina muovihuoneessa. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4877. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14707
English title: Milled peat and milled bark as substrate for Scots pine seedlings in greenhouses.
Original keywords: mänty; taimitarha; taimituotanto; lannoitus; kasvualustat; kasvihuoneviljely; kuorihumus; turve
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; nursery; Scots pine; substrate; tree seedlings; greenhouse cultivation; milled peat; milled bark
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to compare the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings sown on substrates off milled peat and milled bark. Mille peat, ordinary milled bark, milled inner bark waste, and a mixture of milled peat and milled bark in the ratio of 1:1, were all compared in the plastic greenhouse. In addition, two fertilization applications were used with milled park: ordinary surface fertilization and double surface fertilization. The germination and development were measured twice during the summer.

It is concluded that milled bark seems to be a rather useful substrate for use in plastic greenhouses, as long as its special requirements are taken into consideration. In the first measurement, there were no differences between the treatments, in the second measurements seedlings growing on a mixture of peat and bark were slightly more developed than the others. Growth of the seedlings was slightly better in ordinary milled bark. Double surface fertilization increased disease and mortality compared to ordinary fertilization.

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  • Laatikainen, E-mail: pl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4872, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1972). Kuusen ja männyn sydänpuuosuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4872. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14679
English title: The proportion of heartwood in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).
Original keywords: kuusi; kuitupuu; mänty; sydänpuu; läpimitta
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; diameter; heartwood; pulpwood; Pinus sylvestri
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study deals with the variation in the proportion of heartwood  in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) both within and between stems as examined on the basis of literature. Special attention is paid to an application, in which on the basis of the diameter of pulpwood bolts, efforts are made to predict the proportion of heartwood in the total volume of bolts. It is shown that the method, even when based on homogenous material of 564 Norway spruce and Scots pine bolts, easily leads to wrong conclusions concerning the proportion of heartwood.

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  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4869, category Article
Ole Oskarsson, P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1972). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet II. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4869. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14672
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding II. Selection differences and genetic gains in selected seed stands of Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänjalostus; tilavuuskasvu; valintahyöty; siemenkeräysmetsät; fenotyyppi; kuutiokasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; volume growth; genetic gain; forest tree breeding; seed stands; phenotype
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) selected seed stands. To obtain highest possible accuracy, the estimations are based on a large statistical material comprising 197 separate seed stands. It is concluded that the genetic gain of volume growth ranges between 7.4–15.0%. Unwanted pollen contaminations may, however, in the worst case halve this genetic gain.

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  • Oskarsson, E-mail: oo@mm.unknown (email)
  • Tigerstedt, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown
article id 4868, category Article
Mikko Tormilainen. (1972). Havaintoja Oitin siemenviljelyksen mäntykloonien kukinnasta ja käpysadosta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4868. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14671
English title: Studies of flowering and cone crop in a seed orchard of Scots pine.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; mänty; kloonit; siemenviljelmä; siemenviljely; kukinta; käpysato; geneettinen vaihtelu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; flowering; genetic variation; seed orchards; clones; Southern Finland; cone production
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Male and female flowering, cone crop, and some vegetative characteristics were studied in grafts 10 to 16 years of age in a clonal seed orchard of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Genetic variation was found between clones in flowering as well as in cone production. Clone evaluation resulted in similar classifications of clones in different years. A regression analysis showed that crown size clearly increased but previous height growth slightly decreased flowering and cone production. The percentage of pollinated female strobili did not differ between clones.

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  • Tormilainen, E-mail: mt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4860, category Article
Pentti Erjala, Jussi Saramäki. (1972). Astiakoemenetelmä suotyyppien lannoitustarpeen määrityksessä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4860. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14663
English title: Determination of the need for fertilizer application of drained peat soils with the pot method.
Original keywords: mänty; suotyyppi; turvemaat; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; ravinteiden puute; lannoitustarve
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; drained peatlands; Scots pine; nutrient deficiency; peatland type; need for fertilizers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The possibilities of using a pot method to determine the need for fertilizer application were studied. Seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were grown in peat samples that had cylindrical shape with a diameter of 25 cm and height of 35 cm. The samples represented three different peatland types, and were fertilized with two levels of phosphorus, potash and nitrogen. Two transplants were planted per pot. The development of the seedlings was followed for three years.

Phosphorus seemed to be of greatest importance for the growth of the seedlings, but nitrogen was also required in the poorest peatland type. Potash did not give statistically significant results. NPK application gave the best response. The usability of the method was studied by following the development of the roots. It seemed that the diameter of the pots was too small and restricted the growth of the root systems.

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  • Erjala, E-mail: pe@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saramäki, E-mail: js@mm.unknown
article id 4859, category Article
Eljas Pohtila. (1972). Istutuskuoppaan annetun kuparihienofosfaatin vaikutus männyn ja kuusen taimien elossapysymiseen ja pituuskasvuun eräällä kulotetulla ja auratulla uudistusalalla Koillis-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4859. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14662
English title: Effect of fine-grounded copper rock phosphate placed in the planting hole on the survival and height growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce in a burnt and furrowed reforestation are in northeast Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; metsänviljely; taimet; lannoitus; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu; fosforilannoitus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; Scots pine; height growth; planting; phosphorus; mortality; copper; seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results of a fertilization experiment, in which transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were fertilized with various doses of fine-ground copper rock phosphate (33% P2O5, 4% Cu) placed direct in the planting hole. The experiment was made in northeast Finland on a clear-cut, burnt-over and furrowed moraine heath. The fertilization increased especially the survival and condition of the Scots pines and increased to some extent also the height growth of the plants. The spruce survived better than the pines.

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  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4856, category Article
Pekka Rautiainen. (1971). Ympäristö- ja perintötekijöiden vaikutus männyn ilmiasuun Pohjois-Karjalan piirimetsälautakunnan siemenviljelyksessä Tohmajärvellä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4856. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14658
English title: The effect of environmental and genetical factors on the phenotype of Scots pine in a seed orchard in North Karelia.
Original keywords: mänty; oksikkuus; Suomi; periytyvyys; pituuskasvu; fenotyppi; heritabiliteetti; siemenviljelmä; Tohmajärvi; oksakulma
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; height growth; heritability; branchiness; fenotyyppi; seed orchard; angle of branching
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study material included 600 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grafts from the Tohmajärvi seed orchard in Eastern Finland. Their broad sense heritability for the height growth was 0.92, for the number of branches 0.87 and for the angle of branching 0.84. Grafts from Central Finland had cones more often than the southern ones, the frequencies being 26.3% and 11.2%. It seems that dominance plays a significant role in the genetical variation of this seed orchard and that height growth is probably more rewarding breeding characteristic than quality, the difference being small, however.

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  • Rautiainen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4854, category Article
G. M. Kozubov. (1971). Elektronimikroskooppisia tutkimuksia männyn ja kuusen kukka-aiheiden kehityksestä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4854. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14656
English title: Electron microscopic studies in the development of strobile primordia of Scots pine and Norway spruce.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; elektronimikroskopia; kasvianatomia; kasvifysiologia; kukka
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; electron microscopy; plant anatomy; plant physiology; flower; strobile primordia
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This article is an abstract from a lecture given in Helsinki on 2.12.1970. Physiological differences in different parts of developing primordia of micro- and macrostrobiles are manifested in the ultrastructure of the cell tissues. In electron microscopy, the study off metabolic activities can be combined with the anatomical examination of the flower primordia.

The generative cells of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) develop under the strong metabolic activity of surrounding layers of cells. Simultaneously the activity and development of the organelles in generative cells becomes hindered, and these inhibitions will exist until the fertilization. It can be concluded that the higher the gradient of sexualization of the cells in different parts of flower primordia, the weaker the metabolic activity in these cells.

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  • Kozubov, E-mail: gk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4853, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen, Pentti K. Räsänen, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1971). Neulasten väri myöhemmän kasvun ja lannoitusvaikutuksen ilmaisijana. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4853. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14655
English title: The use of needle colour in predicting growth and response to fertilization.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; kasvu; taimet; lannoitus; neulaset
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; planting; growth; seedlings; needle clour
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

About 4,000 seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were planted in 1965 both on a clear-cut and sheltered area in Central Finland. In the autumn of 1966 needle colour was determined by using Muncell Color Charts which allowed a quantitative measurement of three colour dimensions (hue, value, and chroma). Terminal shoot growth was recorded for two years after colour measurements. In both species, fertilization (NPK in the spring of the year of colour measurement) as well as other site factors caused differences in all three dimensions of needle colour. A regression of shoot growth on needle colour was found in both species. In most cases colour value (darkness) and, in spruce, also chroma, predicted the subsequent growth almost as well as did these two-colour variables together.

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  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown
article id 4849, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Tapani Hänninen. (1971). Eräiden talvivarastointimenetelmien vaikutuksesta männyn taimiin. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4849. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14651
English title: The effect of some over-winter storage methods on different Scots pine nursery stock.
Original keywords: mänty; taimet; varastointi; talvivarastointi; kuolleisuus; kylmävarastointi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; mortality; seedlings; cold storage; winter storage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Seedlings of three different Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) nursery stock, 1+0 ,1+1, and 2+0, were kept over the winter, after they had been packed in polythene bags, in three different ways: 1) In a refrigerated storage room, 2) in a wooden crate in the ground, 3) submerged in a lake. The seedling to which they were to be compared with were left over the winter in a nursery bed. The 1,800 seedlings were planted out in the spring 1966 in 15 random blocks. Their development was scrutinized during the three subsequent falls.

The seedlings which had been stored in the lake all died. The seedlings which had been stored along the 1st and 2nd method, managed almost as well as the ones which had been kept over the winter in the nursery bed, except for those of 1+0 stock.

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  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hänninen, E-mail: th@mm.unknown
article id 4847, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Matti Hiltunen. (1971). Männyn erilaisten taimierien istutuskelpoisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4847. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14649
English title: The effect of differences in Scots pine nursery stock on the field survival and growth.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänviljely; istutus; kasvu; taimet; varastointi; kastelu; kuolelisuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; growth; mortality; storage; seedlings; watering
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were stored for five days in an ordinary wood shed. One half of the seedlings were planted out directly, and another half after soaking the roots of the seedlings for 3–6 hours in water to compensate the possible water deficit developed. According to the results of the experiment, the effect of watering was extremely small. The difference observed, which was in favour of the trees that had been watered during storage, was discernible only in the needle length and in the number of lateral buds; in mortality or in the growth of the seedlings no difference could be observed.

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  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hiltunen, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown
article id 4842, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1971). Metsikkösadannan määrä eräässä hoidetussa männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4842. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14644
English title: Throughfall in a managed Scots pine stand in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; mänty; sadanta; metsikkösadanta; sademäärä
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; precipitation; throughfall; rainfall
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the study was to measure the throughfall in a managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland (61°47’, 24°18’). Totally 20 summer rain gauges (collecting area 100 cm2) were placed randomly in form of a lattice of 100 squares, each 2x2 m. Six rain throughs, 15 cm x 150 cm, were placed in the experimental stand. Auxiliary precipitation measurement was done in an opening, by using four summer rain gauges, two rain throughs and one recording rain gauge. The throughfall was followed in May–September 1967.

In comparison with summer rain gauges, the rain throughs gave too low values when the precipitation was below 3 mm/rain shower. Accordingly, only the results of rain gauges were used. The rate of throughfall was determined by the amount of precipitation and the rate of heaviness of the rain shower. When trying to describe the relative amount of throughfall by using various characteristics of the stand, the equitation proposed by Seppänen (1964) proved the best. When the rate of throughfall was depicted with the distance between the summer gauge and the nearest tree, there was negative correlation between these. The correlation was negative under heavy rains, but positive in small rains.

Various factors of uncertainty are discussed. During long periods the areas under Scots pine canopies reach more rain water than those between the canopies, which may be important when analysing the spatial distribution of ground vegetation.

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  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4841, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1971). Lannoituksen vaikutus kylvösten ensi kehitykseen turvealustalla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4841. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14643
English title: Effect of fertilization on the initial development of Scots pine and Norway spruce plantations established by sowing on peat.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; turvemaat; lannoitus; itäminen; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; germination; Scots pine; height growth; mortality; sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Experiments were carried out to find out the effect of fertilizer application on germination, seedling emmergnece and initial development in conifer plantations established on peat by sowing, with a special reference to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The experiments were carried out in 1968–70 in laboratory, in greenhouse and in the field.

In the greenhouse experiments with Y fertilizer for peat soils (14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) it was shown that germination and seedling emergence decreased markedly with increased fertilizer application. Mortality among seedlings that had emerged was the higher the larger quantities of fertilizer had been applied. The effect of fertilization was the greater, the drier the substrate. Fine ground rock phosphate (33% P2O5) promoted seedling emergence on a dry substrate but not on a wet one.

The field experiments carried out in Central Finland included dry and wet sites. Y fertilizer, Oulu Saltpeter (25% N), fine-ground rock phosphate and potassium salt (50% K2O) were used. According to the results, easily soluble fertilizers decreased seedling emergence. On wet sites the effect of Y fertilizer was weaker than on drier sites. Fine-ground rock phosphate slightly increased the number of seedlings emerging. Height growth was increased during the first three growing seasons only by those fertilizers containing phosphorus.

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  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4838, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1971). Metsityslannoituksessa käytetyn lannoitemäärän ja levitystavan merkitys istutustaimiston alkukehitykselle ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4838. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14640
English title: The quantity of fertilizer and application methods used in afforestation of open bogs.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; metsitys; taimet; turvemaat; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; avosuot; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; afforestation; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; mortality; seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results obtained from an experiment of fertilization of drained treeless peatlands in connection of planting in three sites in Central Finland. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings 2+0 was used. The fertilizer (Y-fertilizer for peat soils, 14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) was applied in rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 g/transplant. The fertilizer was strewn either around the plant within a circular patch of 20 cm in diameter, in a ring with a radius of 10 cm and in a ring with a radius of 20 cm. The seedlings were measured two and five years after planting.

The greater the quantity of fertilizer applied and the closer it was applied to the plant the higher was the mortality of transplants. Fertilization increased the mortality during the first two growing seasons after application. Later, however, the mortality decreased to a similar level irrespective the way the fertilizer was applied. In the beginning of the second growing season the fertilized plants showed considerably better height growth than the control plants. The smallest quantity of fertilizer applied produced almost full increase in growth. The pattern of application of the fertilizer had little effect on the growth.

It was concluded that a use of small amounts of fertilizer can be recommended in connection with planting and that it should not be applied very near the seedlings.

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  • Seppälä, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4834, category Article
Bo Långström. (1971). Weight loss, water content and mortality of cold stored Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4834. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14623
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; mortality; seedlings; cold storage; weight loss; water content; storage conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to investigate how the weight loss and water content of cold stored plants depend on the storage conditions, and if there is a clear connection between these factors and the field survival of the planting stock. The experiments were carried out in a climate chamber at about +2°C and at three moisture levels (about 70, 85, and 95%) from November 1968 to May 1969. Three-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) average length 127 mm, diameter 3.5 mm and the top/root-ratio of fresh weight 1.93, were stored in open and sealed plastic bags. In addition, a transpiration retardant (Silvaplast) was used. The plastic bags (10 plants each) were weighted every 4. week. The remaining 270 seedlings were planted out and inspected after one growing season.

Although the experiment was made in a small scale, the results showed clearly that plant mortality, varying between 3 and 97%, was due to the storage conditions. The weight loss ranged between 2 and 50%, and the correlation between the weight loss and the mortality in the field was high. The water content of the seedlings was about 61%. The correlation between water content and survival was very high. Thus, the determination of weight loss or water content could be a useful method in observing the changes of water balance of the seedling stock during winter-storage. Further investigations are needed to show the tolerable rate of drying out for different sorts of plants. The Silvaplast-treatment had no visible effect either on the drying out or on the field survival.

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  • Långström, E-mail: bl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4832, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri, Pentti K. Räsänen. (1971). Siementen peittämisen ja kylvökohdan polkaisun vaikutus männyn ruutukylvön tulokseen. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4832. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14621
English title: The influence of covering and tramping the seeds into the soil on the success of spot sowing of Scots pine.
Original keywords: kylvö; mänty; metsänviljely; taimettuminen; itäminen; kylvösyvyys; siementen suojaus; ruutukylvö
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; germination; Scots pine; sowing; artificial regeneration; covering of the seeds; stocking with seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper reports spot sowing experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The seeds were either covered with coarse sand, tramped in the substrate or sowed without any covering, 30 seeds in each treatment in 70 replications. The site was of Vaccinium type with sandy soil. The germination percentage was 81 and 91 on the respective years. The development of seedlings was observed for 3–4 years.

The results indicate that both tramping and covering the seeds to some extent increased the number of seedlings and improved the early development. The highest numbers of seedlings were recorded in the first growing season, after which there was 23 seedlings/100 seeds in the uncovered spots, 27 seedlings in the covered spots and 31 seedlings in the tramped spots in the experiment sowed in 1965.

Mortality of the seedlings was highest between the first and second growing season, and empty spots increased with the time. There was no difference in mortality between the sowing methods, but the number of seedlings after first growing season affected the result. Under favourable conditions four seedlings per spot seemed enough to secure the survival of minimum one seedling per spot during the three first growing seasons. In poor conditions seven seedlings was needed.

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  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
article id 4823, category Article
Christel Palmberg. (1970). Heritabiliteetin arvioiminen eräässä männyn (Pinus silvestris L.) jälkeläiskokeessa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4823. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14612
English title: Estimation of heritability in open-pollinated plus tree progenies of Pinus sylvestris L.
Original keywords: mänty; oksikkuus; metsänjalostus; pluspuut; pituuskasvu; perinnöllisyys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; height growth; tree breeding; heritability; branchiness; plus trees
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Field experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was established by planting seedlings grown from seeds collected from open-pollinated plus trees throughout the country. The 36 progenies represented were planted in 4 blocks as 2+2 transplants in 1960. The main characteristics of the seedlings were measured in 1966 and 1968. Considerable damage had been caused to the stands by moose (Alces alces) and Melampsora pinitorqua Rostr., consequently, therefore, only normally developed seedlings were measured.

Highly significant differences between progenies were found in the number of branches in 1968 and in the ratio of height of tree to the length of the longest branch. In 1968, the differences in height between progenies were not significant, but there were significant differences between blocks both in tree height and length of terminal shoot. Obviously, the edaphic heterogeneity of the site has influenced mainly the juvenile growth of the plants, because in the length of the terminal shoot there could be seen also significant differences between the progenies. There were no significant differences between the progenies in the length of the longest branch, in the angles of the thickest branches, in stem taper and in the diameter of the thickest branch.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palmberg, E-mail: cp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4817, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Ouni. (1970). Turvemaiden taimistojen pituuskasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4817. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14606
English title: Height growth of seedling stands growing on peatland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; turvemaat; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; taimikot; pituuskasvu; ylispuusto
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; peatlands; seedling stands; hold-overs
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper presents the results of a contest performed on behalf of the Finnish bank Kansallis-Osake-Pankki and the Central Forestry Board Tapio on growing trees on peatlands. Over 5,000 sample plots were established on drained peatlands in various parts of Finland. The aim was to achieve a best possible growth of seedling stands on peatland. The factors influencing the growth of 85 best Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 60 best Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) sample plots were studied.

The height growth of the seedling stands decreased towards the north. Fertilization seemed not to decrease the regional differences; rather on the contrary. On the other hand, fertilization increased height growth, but evidently so that the increase obtained was greater in the southern than in the northern parts of the country. Light fertilization (50 kg/ha of K2O and 60 kg/ha of O2P5) caused a clear increase in height growth while heavy fertilization (100 g/ha of K2O and 120 kg/ha of O2P5), had same effect but to much greater extent than the former. Spruce seedling stands in particular benefitted of the heavy fertilization.

Fertilization did not eliminate the original differences in the quality of the sites in question, but these could still be seen in the height growth after fertilization. The effect of drain spacing on the height growth was not very clear. In dense seedling stands (800 seedlings/ha) the height growth of the dominant seedlings was greater than that obtained in stands of lower density. Hold-overs caused a decrease in the growth of the seedling stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ouni, E-mail: jo@mm.unknown
article id 4816, category Article
P. M. A. Tigerstedt, Eero Malmivaara. (1970). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet I.Pluspuiden valintaero ja siemenviljelysten valintahyöty. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4816. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14605
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding. I Selection differential of plus trees and genetic gain in seed orchards in Finland.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänjalostus; siemenviljelmät; pluspuut; valintahyöty; periytyvyys; vieraspölytys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; tree breeding; seed orchards; genetic gain; heredity; selection differential; foreign pollen sources
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An attempt was made to estimate critically the genetic gain in clonal seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland. The selection differential of Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is calculated on the basis of filed information on selected plus trees which has been kept by the genetic register at the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The differentials were computed as realized differences in height between plus-trees and normal stand characteristics on respectively site class and as a function of age.

The genetic gain in height growth of Pinus sylvestris was computed on the basis of information on selection differential and heritability. This genetic gain is between 2.6–4.4% provided there is no pollen contamination from unknown sources outside the seed orchard. The genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine is about 7–15%, provided there is no pollen contamination in the seed orchard. However, according to investigations, there is invariably some pollen contamination in this kind of seed orchards. The contamination decreases to about 30–50% as the orchard matures and starts to produce endemic pollen. If the pollination would be entirely due to foreign pollen sources, the mathematically calculated genetic gain would be 3.5–7.5%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tigerstedt, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown (email)
  • Malmivaara, E-mail: em@mm.unknown
article id 4813, category Article
Bo Långström. (1970). Pakkaustapojen vaikutuksesta talvivarastoitujen männyn taimien istutukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4813. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14602
English title: The effect of packing methods on the field survival and growth of winter-stored plants of Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänviljely; istutus; kasvu; taimet; kylmävarasto; talvivarastointi; kuolleisuus; tukkimiehentäi; torjunta-aine
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; nursery; Scots pine; planting; seedlings; cold storage; winter storage; Hylobious abietis; large pine weevil; insecticide; field survival; packing methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of four packing methods on the field survival and growth of seedlings and transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stored over the winter in a cold-storage cellar. The following sorts of plants were used: one-year-old seedlings (1+0) grown in a plastic greenhouse, two-year-old (2+0) open grown seedlings and three-year-old open grown transplants. These plants were stored in open wooden boxes, in sealed plastic bags, in boxes with wet peat on the bottom and in plastic-laminated paper bags.

The control plants were of the same types and were kept in a nursery over the winter. The storage was carried out in a mantle-chilled cold-storage from October 1966 to May 1967. The temperature in the cold-storage was kept around -2 °C and the relative humidity of the air over 90%. The water content of a randomly selected sample plants showed no increase in water deficit after the storing. Part of the seedlings were transplanted in the nursery and the rest were planted in a clear-cut area. A number of the latter plants were treated with an insecticide (1% Intaktol, which contains DDT, Lindane and dieldrin) before planting. All the experiments were examined after one growing season and the planting experiments the next fall.

The transplants (2+1) in the nursery, and in the forest had survived and grown better than the seedlings. In the nursery the 1+0 seedlings survived and grew better than the 2+0 seedlings. There was no difference in mortality between the seedlings. After the first growing season occasional significant differences between the packing methods were observed, but they disappeared during the second growing season. Thus, all packing methods proved to be as successful as the control method without winter storage.

Transplants were more often attacked by the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) than the smaller seedlings. The damage, however, was considerably greater on the seedlings because of their lower resistance. No significant differences in the Hylobius-attack between the packing methods could be observed. The Intaktol-treated plants were as often attacked as the untreated ones, but the damage was slighter on the treated ones.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Långström, E-mail: bl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4812, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Aarno Koukkula, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1970). Pakkauksen, varastoimisen ja valeistutuksen vaikutus männyn taimien istutuskelpoisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4812.