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Articles containing the keyword 'ploughing'

Category : Article

article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15583
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.
Original keywords: maanmuokkaus; turvemaat; maavesi; maaveden potentiaali; huokostilavuus; pohjavedenpinta; vesipotentiaali; metsäauraus; kivennäismaat
English keywords: site preparation; Finland; peatlands; soil moisture; ground water table; water potential; soil aeration; forest ploughing; mineral soil sites
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Möttönen, E-mail: vm@mm.unknown
article id 5243, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1985). Maan kunnostus männyn viljelyssä Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5243. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15422
English title: Soil preparation in reforestation of Scots pine in Lapland.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; kulotus; maanmuokkaus; Lappi; laikutus; lautasauraus; uudistustavat; hajakylvö
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; soil preparation; Scots pine; planting; regeneration methods; scalping; prescribed burning; disc ploughing; broadcast sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study deals with the interaction of various soil preparation and reforestation methods. The most favourable time of the year for broadcast sowing and the effect of stabilization after soil preparation on restocking were studied as special problems.

Prescribed burning, scalping and disc ploughing made a better combination with sowing than planting, and ploughing better combination with planting than sowing. The longer the period was between sowing and germination the fewer seedlings emerged. The best stocking was clearly resulted with sowing in June. Stabilization of soil after preparation had a negative effect on reforestation results.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pohjola, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5188, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Vuosina 1970-1972 Lappiin perustetun aurattujen alueiden viljelykokeen tulokset. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5188. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15171
English title: Results from the reforestation experiment on ploughed sites established in Finnish Lapland during 1970–1972.
Original keywords: kuusi; kylvö; mänty; istutus; maanmuokkaus; Lappi; uudistaminen; kuolleisuus; rauduskoivu; siperianlehtikuusi; auraus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Betula pendula; Picea abies; regeneration; soil preparation; Scots pine; silver birch; planting; ploughing; Lapland; mortality; Siberian larch; sowing; Larix sibirica
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of the study was to compare different reforestation methods on ploughed areas in Finnish Lapland. Four species were compared: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.). The experiments were established in different parts of Lapland on different types of sites in 1970–72.

In Scots pine there was a difference of 15 percentage points in survival of seedlings between the best and worst methods of regeneration. Containerized seedlings and paper pot seedlings had the best survival rates. In Norway spruce the respective difference between sowing and planting was about 20 percentage points. In favour of planting. The survival rate can be increased by about 20 percentage points by selecting the right tree species. The average height varied from 25 cm (the sowed Norway spruce) to 179 cm (the planted silver birch) after 10 growing seasons. The birch was planted at the most fertile sites only. The longer time passed from the afforestation the clearer was the effect of the local growing conditions on the development of the seedlings. The elevation of the site was one factor seemed to influence the success of the seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pohjola, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5127, category Article
Simo Kaila, Juhani Päivänen. (1981). Metsämaanmuokkauksen suoritemäärät ja konekalusto vuosina 1976-1979. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5127. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15068
English title: Forest soil cultivation areas and machinery in 1976–1979 in Finland.
Original keywords: maanmuokkaus; uudistaminen; metsäkoneet; lautasauraus; pyöräkoneet; telakoneet; auraus
English keywords: regeneration; soil preparation; disc plow; plowing; ploughing equipment; wheel tractors; crawler tractors
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The areas of soil cultivation in regeneration sites using different methods in 1976–1979 and the cultivation units in use in Finland in 1979 were studied by means of a questionnaire. Application of soil cultivation methods appears to have become strongly polarized: in Southern Finland disc plowing with wheel tractors are used, whilst in Northern Finland wing plowing with crawler tractors is the most popular method, each being practically the only alternative in the respective area.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kaila, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown

Category : Research article

article id 10648, category Research article
Antti-Jussi Lindroos, Hannu Ilvesniemi. (2023). Weathering rates of Ca and Mg related to granitic and gabbro mineralogy in boreal forest soils and the effect of mechanical soil disturbance on weathering release. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 10648. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10648
Keywords: ploughing; base cations; rotation period; mineral soil weathering
Highlights: Weathering rates were higher in the gabbro than the granitic areas; Weathering was an important Ca and Mg source to forest trees, and it increased after mechanical soil disturbance.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study’s aim was to calculate the weathering rates of Ca and Mg for five boreal forest soils in southern Finland on granitic and gabbro containing bedrock. The effect of mineralogy on the total concentrations of Ca and Mg in soil and weathering rates was evaluated. The aim was also to estimate the effect of mechanical soil disturbance related to ploughing on the weathering in the gabbro area. The total concentrations of SiO2, CaO, MgO, and Zr were determined by XRF, and weathering rates of Ca and Mg were determined based on the changes in the CaO, MgO, and Zr concentrations. The weathering rates of Ca+Mg varied 5–38 mmolc m–2 year–1 in the E+B/BC horizons among the plots. Soil disturbance related to ploughing increased the weathering of Ca and Mg largely in the disturbed part of the topmost mineral soil as indicated by the decreasing concentrations of Ca and Mg after mechanical soil disturbance. The weathering input of Ca in the undisturbed soil did not fully replace the Ca output in final whole-tree cutting. The weathering input of Mg in the undisturbed soil was sufficient to replace the lost Mg in stemwood harvesting but not on all the plots the lost Mg in whole-tree harvesting. Weathering rates were higher in the gabbro than the granitic areas.

  • Lindroos, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: antti.lindroos@luke.fi (email)
  • Ilvesniemi, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: hannu.ilvesniemi@luke.fi
article id 306, category Research article
Niina Tanskanen, Hannu Ilvesniemi. (2007). Spatial distribution of fine roots at ploughed Norway spruce forest sites. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 306. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.306
Keywords: Picea abies; forest soil; fine roots; ploughing; spatial distribution; specific root length; understorey roots
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
We examined the spatial distribution of fine roots at two forest sites that were ploughed 20 (site K1) and 33 years (site K2) before sampling and planted with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. Soil core samples were taken from the tilt and beneath the tilt, the furrow and the intermediate undisturbed soil to a depth of 0.4 m for fine root biomass, length and necromass determinations. Norway spruce fine roots were found throughout the ploughed forest sites. The fine roots were, however, unevenly distributed: the fine root biomass was highest in the tilt (624 and 452 g m–2 at sites K1 and K2, respectively) and lowest in the undisturbed soil at site K1 (79 g m–2) and in the furrow at site K2 (145 g m–2). The estimated average fine root biomass at the ploughed forest sites (268 and 248 g m–2 at sites K1 and K2, respectively) was, however, similar to those presented in other studies concerning sites that had not been ploughed. In the tilt, a substantial proportion of the fine roots was in the inverted mineral soil horizons and in the new organic horizon above the tilt. Consistent with the fine root biomass findings, the Norway spruce necromass was highest in the tilt but the vertical distribution of the dead roots was different: the necromass was highest in the buried OBT horizon. The results of this study suggest that at the ploughed forest sites, a substantial part of Norway spruce nutrient and water uptake occured in the tilt during the first 20 or 33 years after plantation.
  • Tanskanen, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: niina.tanskanen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Ilvesniemi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: hi@nn.fi

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