Current issue: 56(2)

Under compilation: 56(3)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
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PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'turvemaat'

Category: Article

article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429.
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.
Original keywords: maanmuokkaus; turvemaat; maavesi; maaveden potentiaali; huokostilavuus; pohjavedenpinta; vesipotentiaali; metsäauraus; kivennäismaat
English keywords: site preparation; Finland; peatlands; soil moisture; ground water table; water potential; soil aeration; forest ploughing; mineral soil sites
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Möttönen, E-mail: vm@mm.unknown
article id 5411, category Article
Eero Paavilainen. (1990). Effect of refertilization of pine and birch stands on a drained fertile mire. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5411.
Original keywords: mänty; koivu; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; hieskoivu; jatkolannoitus; hivenravinteet
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Betula; fertilization; Betula pubescens; drained peatlands; tree litter; micronutrients
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Refertilization with PK, about 15 years after the first fertilizer application, increased tree growth and the amount of nutrients in tree litter in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (mainly Betula pubescens Erhr.) stands on a drained fertile mire in Northern Finland (65°34 N’, 25°42’ E). The increase in growth and nutrient contents after refertilization was greatest in the mature pine stand where the application of nitrogen and micronutrients gave an additional response compared to the PK-application.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Paavilainen, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5370, category Article
Harri Rantonen, Juhani Päivänen. (1989). Kasvatusmetsien metsänhoidollinen tila ojitusalueilla puunkorjuun jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5370.
English title: Silvicultural condition of tree stands after thinning on drained peatlands.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; harvennushakkuu; puunkorjuu; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; harvennusvoimakkuus
English keywords: forest management; harvesting; forest drainage; silviculture; drained peatland; thinning intensity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The area of stands studied by line plot survey was 594 ha. On the basis of the length of the inventory line the estimated proportion of harvesting strips was 14% and that of ditch openings 6% of the area. The calculated strip road spacing was 29 m. The option of the minimum diameter made it difficult to use the number of stems as criterion for thinning intensity. Thinning intensity evaluated according to the basal area had been stronger than recommended with low values of dominant height and milder with high values. The estimated removal according to stumps was 38 m3/ha on the average between the strips. The real removal has, however, been larger than that, as the strip road openings are made in connection with the first thinning.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Rantonen, E-mail: hr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown
article id 5341, category Article
Hannu Hökkä, Jukka Laine. (1988). Suopuustojen rakenteen kehitys ojituksen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 5341.
English title: Post-drainage development of structural characteristics in peatland forest stands.
Original keywords: metsikön rakenne; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; eri-ikäisrakenne; runkoluku; läpimittajakauma
English keywords: stand structure; drained peatlands; diameter distribution; forest drainage; uneven-aged structure
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of drainage on structure of tree stands is analysed by comparing the average structural characteristics (e.g. diameter distribution) of stands in the data for different drainage age classes and selected site types. The material consists of ca. 4,400 relascope sample plots, which are part of a large drainage area inventory project. The uneven-aged structure of the virgin peatland forest is preserved for several decades after drainage. This is enhanced by the post-drainage increase of small-diameter trees, especially birch. The number of trees per hectare increased during a period of ca. 30 years and levelled off thereafter. The increase in the number of saw log stems is clearly related to the fertility of the site and its geographical location.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hökkä, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laine, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
article id 5126, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1981). Koneiden uppoaminen suometsien puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5126.
English title: Sinkage of forest machines during harvesting operations on peatlands.
Original keywords: suot; puunkorjuu; turvemaat; metsäkoneet; kantavuus
English keywords: logging; peatlands; timber harvesting; forest machines; carrying capacity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Questionnaires were sent out to determine the volume of wood harvested from peatlands during 1978 and the harvesting problems encountered. In total there were 110 responses which accounted for 8 million m3 of wood harvested, of which 1.0 million m3 (14%) was harvested from peatlands. The largest proportion of wood harvested from peatlands was during the winter. Most of the respondents reportet that they wait for the soil frost to set before harvesting is started on peatlands. Respondents indicated a total of 263 machines bogging down in to the soil or, for 1978, a total for Finland of 750 to 1,000 machines.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarilahti, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5016, category Article
H. Vasander, A. Mäkinen, P. Pakarinen. (1979). Kangaskorpimaannosten hivenainejakautumista ja -määristä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5016.
English title: Trace elements in soil profiles of paludified spruce forests.
Original keywords: maaperä; turvemaat; korvet; maannos; mikroravinteet; hivenaineet; kangaskorpi; raskasmetallit
English keywords: peatlands; soil; gleysol; trace elements; metals
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Gleysol profiles of five southern Finnish sites dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were described according to the Canadian system of soil classification, and the total contents of five metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe) were analysed in each soil profile. Lead, zinc and manganese showed highest concentrations in the organic surface horizons with a decrease towards mineral soil horizons. Vopper distribution was somewhat irregular. Iron had maximum values in the mineral soil: in A-horizon of Rego Gleysols and in B-horizon of Fera Gleysols. A preliminary comparison of metal pools in soil (root layer) with annual atmospheric input shows that the role of atmospheric deposition is relatively greater in the case of Cu, Zn and Pb than for Fe or Mn.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vasander, E-mail: hv@mm.unknown (email)
  • Mäkinen, E-mail: am@mm.unknown
  • Pakarinen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 4924, category Article
Teklé Kapustinskaité. (1975). Puuston kasvu ja turpeen tuhkapitoisuus ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924.
English title: Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth in connection with drainage.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; ravinteisuus; puulajit; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; pituuskasvu; rauduskoivu; tervaleppä; Liettua; tuhkapitoisuus; hieskoivu; metsäsaarni
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; birch; Betula pendula; Picea abies; Betula pubescens; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; tree species; Alnus glutinosa; alder; ash content; fertility; Fraxinus exelsior; ash; Lithuania
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The ash content has been found to correlate with the fertility of peatlands. Relationship between height of 80-year-old stands and ash content of peat in topmost 30 cm layer was examined in Lithuanian conditions. On drained peatlands with ash content of peat from 3% to 8% pine stands increase in height. Ash content of peat being about 7% Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands on drained sites are found to be of equal height. Ash content of peat more than 8–9% has no significant effect on growth of pine or spruce stands. Birch (Betula verrucosa (B. Pendula Roth.) and Betula pubescens Erhrh.), stands are less sensitive to ash content of peat compared with other species. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) stands occurred in sites with ash content of peat more than 8–10%. The height of the stands become equal both in drained and undrained sites in the cases where ash content of peat is about 16–18%. Ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) stands attain high productivity on drained sites with ash content of peat about 20%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kapustinskaité, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4921, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1975). Ojitusalueiden kulkukelpoisuudesta puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4921.
English title: On the trafficability of drained peatlands in harvesting.
Original keywords: puunkuljetus; harvennushakkuu; puunkorjuu; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; metsäkoneet; puustovauriot; kantavuus; routa; koneistuminen
English keywords: soil frost; drained peatlands; thinnings; mechanization; forest haulage; timber harvesting; forwarders; bearing capacity; logging conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

During the next decade there will be a marked increase in the allowable cut in drained peatlands. At the same time, the mechanization in logging proceeds, and in short-distance haulage the use of forwarders will increase. This study, based on literature and some observations, deals with logging conditions in drained peatlands with special reference to the suitability of heavy logging machines for use in such terrain. In addition, soil frost and the bearing capacity of the frozen peat soil were studied.

Freezing of the soil in a drained peatland area depends prevailingly on the weather conditions during early winter. The factors influencing soil freezing of a drained peatland are completely different from those regulating the freezing of natural peat soils. The frost penetrates in general deeper in the drained than virgin peatland. The topmost peat layer does not, however, freeze uniformly. Generally speaking, the bearing capacity of a drained peat soil is lower than that of undrained peat due to lower water content.

It is concluded that heavy logging machines are probably not fitted for use in drained areas on peatland even if the average soil frost values recorded would suggest it. Moreover, because of their extremely superficial root systems, peatland forests are exposed to damages by heavy machines in thinning operations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4891, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1973). Metsäojitustoiminta ja toimenpideraja. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4891.
English title: The profitability limit in forest drainage.
Original keywords: ojituskelpoisuus; kannattavuus; turvemaat; soiden ojitus; menetelmät; metsäojitusboniteetti
English keywords: profitability; drainability; draining of peatlands; methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study describes the relationships between a method developed by the author for the calculation of the profitability of forest drainage and the old biological method. The calculations were based on empirical data, and they aimed at finding out the effect of a variation in the profitability limit in the areas in hectares to be drained, and on the profitability of drainage. The study deals also with the profitability of present-day drainage activities. The results showed that the profitability coefficient (the ratio between the discounted increase in returns and the costs of drainage) averages 3.04 for the whole country. The corresponding value was 5.68 for Southern Finland, 3.19 for Central Finland and 1.67 for Northern Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4882, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1973). Ekologisia havaintoja eräältä ojitetulta suolta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4882.
English title: Ecological investigations in a drained peatland area.
Original keywords: kuusi; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; aluskasvillisuus; turpeen paksuus; ravinteet; ravinnepuutos; puusto
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; drained peatlands; nutrient deficiency; growing stock; nutrients; ground vegetation; thickness of peat
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper deals with the relationships between macronutrients, ground vegetation and tree crop on a drained peatland area in Central Finland. The former herb-rich spruce swamp was drained in 1930s. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand was established by planting under a nurse crop of birch, which was removed later.

There was a negative correlation between the thickness of the peat layer and the volume and mean height of the growing stock. This was found to depend on the negative correlation prevailing between the potassium content of the topmost peat layer and the thickness of the peat cover. The deficiency of potassium is clearly discernible as deficiency symptoms in the needles, the intensity of which showed a strong correlation with the stand characteristics studied. Among the nutrient characteristics of the topmost peat layer, total potassium and the N/K and P/K ratios showed the closest correlation with the stand characteristics. The communities into which the ground vegetation was divided differed from each other with regard to the calcium content of the peat substrate.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4881, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1973). Harvennuksen vaikutus lumi- ja routasuhteisiin nuoressa turvemaan männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4881.
English title: The effect of thinning on the snow cover and soil frost conditions in a young Scots pine stand on drained peatland.
Original keywords: mänty; harvennushakkuu; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; lumi; lumen syvyys; routa; lumen vesiarvo
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; soil frost; thinning; drained peatlands; Scots pine; snow cover; depth of snow; water equivalent of snow
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results obtained from an investigation into the effect of thinning of different intensity and fertilization on the depth and water equivalent of the snow cover as well as on the depth of the soil frost in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on drained peatland in Central Finland. Thinnings and fertilization was carried out in 1968, and the snow cover was followed in the winters 1970/71 and 1971/72.

Only extremely heavy thinnings (60% of the volume) seemed to increase the depth and water equivalent of the snow cover. The indirect effect of fertilization on the snow cover was insignificant. In the clear-cut sample plot of the study, soil frost was either not found at all or the depths of the frozen soil layer was smaller than in the other plots. When deciding the silvicultural measures to be taken in the case of tree stands growing on drained peatlands, there seems to be reason to avoid radical thinnings. Otherwise, the favourable influence of the trees on a site on its water relationships will be diminished.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4876, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi, Juhani Sarasto. (1973). Kokemuksia rauduksen istutuksesta ojitetuille soille. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4876.
English title: Betula verrucosa plantations on peat.
Original keywords: taimet; turvemaat; uudistaminen; ojitetut suot; kuolleisuus; rauduskoivu; ravinnetasapaino
English keywords: Betula pendula; regeneration; drained peatlands; planting; nutrient deficiency; mortality; seedlings; Betula verrucosa; Godronia multispora
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to assess whether two-year old Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (now Betula pendula Roth.) transplants can be used in afforestation of drained peatlands and what factors affect the development of the young trees. The seedlings were planted in 1967. The site was repair planted next spring due to mortality caused by a undefined fungal disease, and the plantations were fertilized with NPK fertilizer (soil application. The seedlings were measured twice a year until the autumn 1970.

Only 28% of the original transplants, and 73.4% of the repair plantations were alive in 1970. In some cases, fertilization improved the results, while in others it was detrimental to the trees or had no effect on survival. According to peat analysis, the poor survival and development of the plants could be due to the too high ratios of N/Ca and N/P. Stunted or dead trees displayed often necrosis caused by Godronia multispora. According to the experiences, Betula verrucosa plantations are inferior to those obtained with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In addition, the results indicate that in old draining areas calcium and phosphorus are often too low in comparison to nitrogen.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Sarasto, E-mail: js@mm.unknown
article id 4860, category Article
Pentti Erjala, Jussi Saramäki. (1972). Astiakoemenetelmä suotyyppien lannoitustarpeen määrityksessä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4860.
English title: Determination of the need for fertilizer application of drained peat soils with the pot method.
Original keywords: mänty; suotyyppi; turvemaat; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; ravinteiden puute; lannoitustarve
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; drained peatlands; Scots pine; nutrient deficiency; peatland type; need for fertilizers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The possibilities of using a pot method to determine the need for fertilizer application were studied. Seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were grown in peat samples that had cylindrical shape with a diameter of 25 cm and height of 35 cm. The samples represented three different peatland types, and were fertilized with two levels of phosphorus, potash and nitrogen. Two transplants were planted per pot. The development of the seedlings was followed for three years.

Phosphorus seemed to be of greatest importance for the growth of the seedlings, but nitrogen was also required in the poorest peatland type. Potash did not give statistically significant results. NPK application gave the best response. The usability of the method was studied by following the development of the roots. It seemed that the diameter of the pots was too small and restricted the growth of the root systems.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Erjala, E-mail: pe@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saramäki, E-mail: js@mm.unknown
article id 4841, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1971). Lannoituksen vaikutus kylvösten ensi kehitykseen turvealustalla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4841.
English title: Effect of fertilization on the initial development of Scots pine and Norway spruce plantations established by sowing on peat.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; turvemaat; lannoitus; itäminen; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; germination; Scots pine; height growth; mortality; sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Experiments were carried out to find out the effect of fertilizer application on germination, seedling emmergnece and initial development in conifer plantations established on peat by sowing, with a special reference to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The experiments were carried out in 1968–70 in laboratory, in greenhouse and in the field.

In the greenhouse experiments with Y fertilizer for peat soils (14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) it was shown that germination and seedling emergence decreased markedly with increased fertilizer application. Mortality among seedlings that had emerged was the higher the larger quantities of fertilizer had been applied. The effect of fertilization was the greater, the drier the substrate. Fine ground rock phosphate (33% P2O5) promoted seedling emergence on a dry substrate but not on a wet one.

The field experiments carried out in Central Finland included dry and wet sites. Y fertilizer, Oulu Saltpeter (25% N), fine-ground rock phosphate and potassium salt (50% K2O) were used. According to the results, easily soluble fertilizers decreased seedling emergence. On wet sites the effect of Y fertilizer was weaker than on drier sites. Fine-ground rock phosphate slightly increased the number of seedlings emerging. Height growth was increased during the first three growing seasons only by those fertilizers containing phosphorus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4839, category Article
Erkki Timonen. (1971). Auraus- ja kaivuriojien koon ja muodon muutoksista. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4839.
English title: The changes of the size and shape of ditches made by plows and tractor diggers.
Original keywords: suot; turvemaat; ojat; aura; kaivinkoneet; ojien painuminen
English keywords: draining of peatlands; ditches; plows; tractor diggers; drain digging; draining plough
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The changed in size and shape of ditches made by draining plows and tractor diggers were followed over a one-year period after the draining in four different peatland types. The material consists of 51 ditches made with each method in dwarf-shrub pine bog, herb-rich spruce swamp, in herb-rich sedge bog and sedge pine bog. The measurements were made immediately after the digging, and one month and a year later.

Ditches made by plowing and surrounded by peat became shallower quickly during the first 2–3 days after plowing due to the pressure of the surrounding peat. Ditches made with tractor diggers did not become shallower as fast, and their bottom did not widen to the same extent than plown ditched. During the first year, machine-made ditches change in a same way as handmade ditches, especially when compared to ditches made by tractor digger.

Immediately after digging the ditches made by tractor digger were 10 cm deeper and 0.13 m3 larger than plown ditches. One year later the values were 7,5 cm and 0.09 m3, respectively. Plown ditches made in the peat were 14.4 cm deeper than ditches that penetrated into the subsoil, for tractor digger the value was 13.2 cm. Ditches made with a tractor digger were deeper than plown ditches both in soils with deep and shallow peat layer.

The changes were largest and fastest in the wettest peatland type herb-rich sedge bog. In herb-rich spruce swamps, which have a shallow peat layer, the shallower plown ditches kept their form better than ditches dug by tractor digger.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Timonen, E-mail: et@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4838, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1971). Metsityslannoituksessa käytetyn lannoitemäärän ja levitystavan merkitys istutustaimiston alkukehitykselle ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4838.
English title: The quantity of fertilizer and application methods used in afforestation of open bogs.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; metsitys; taimet; turvemaat; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; avosuot; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; afforestation; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; mortality; seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results obtained from an experiment of fertilization of drained treeless peatlands in connection of planting in three sites in Central Finland. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings 2+0 was used. The fertilizer (Y-fertilizer for peat soils, 14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) was applied in rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 g/transplant. The fertilizer was strewn either around the plant within a circular patch of 20 cm in diameter, in a ring with a radius of 10 cm and in a ring with a radius of 20 cm. The seedlings were measured two and five years after planting.

The greater the quantity of fertilizer applied and the closer it was applied to the plant the higher was the mortality of transplants. Fertilization increased the mortality during the first two growing seasons after application. Later, however, the mortality decreased to a similar level irrespective the way the fertilizer was applied. In the beginning of the second growing season the fertilized plants showed considerably better height growth than the control plants. The smallest quantity of fertilizer applied produced almost full increase in growth. The pattern of application of the fertilizer had little effect on the growth.

It was concluded that a use of small amounts of fertilizer can be recommended in connection with planting and that it should not be applied very near the seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppälä, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4836, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1971). Anaerobisten olosuhteiden ja aerobisuusrajan esiintymisestä erilaisilla luonnontilaisilla turvemailla ja merkityksestä suotyypin kuvaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4836.
English title: Anaerobic conditions in various virgin peat soils and the significance of the aerobic limit as an indicator of site quality.
Original keywords: suotyypit; turvemaat; luonnontilaiset suot; anaerobisuusraja; puuston kasvu; pohjaveden syvyys
English keywords: Finland; tree growth; virgin peatlands; peatland types; aerobic limit; ground water table
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to increase the knowledge of the anaerobic conditions prevailing in virgin peat soils of different kinds, and on the fluctuation of the aerobic limit. Silver rod method was used to indicate anaerobic conditions and to locate the aerobic limit. The material included 18 peatland sample plots on treeless bogs, in pine bogs and in spruce swamps in Southern Finland. Observations of the discoloration of the silver rods and measurements of ground water level were made from 8 June to 13 August 1968.

The results show that the location of the aerobic limit is dependent of the depth of the ground water table, and usually lies 5–15 cm above the ground water table. Down to 10–20 cm below the aerobic limit, where it reaches maximum, the rate of decomposition of sulfurous organic matter is positively correlated with the distance from the aerobic limit. Deeper it gradually decreases, and in the depth of 25–35 cm no hydrogen sulphide seems to be released.

In the forested peatland types the volume of the growing stock and the increment were dependent on the depth of the aerobic limit only when nutrient content and pH of the peat was more or less constant. Where the aerobic limit was close to the ground surface but the nutrient contents were relatively high, the volume of the growing stock may be comparatively high. Birch (Betula sp.), better than the conifers, is able to stand conditions poor in oxygen. The growing stock was poor in sites where the aerobic limit was near the ground surface, but the nitrogen and phosphorus contents were high, or vice versa. Consequently, aerobic limit is of great importance as an indicator of site quality.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4817, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Ouni. (1970). Turvemaiden taimistojen pituuskasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4817.
English title: Height growth of seedling stands growing on peatland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; turvemaat; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; taimikot; pituuskasvu; ylispuusto
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; peatlands; seedling stands; hold-overs
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper presents the results of a contest performed on behalf of the Finnish bank Kansallis-Osake-Pankki and the Central Forestry Board Tapio on growing trees on peatlands. Over 5,000 sample plots were established on drained peatlands in various parts of Finland. The aim was to achieve a best possible growth of seedling stands on peatland. The factors influencing the growth of 85 best Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 60 best Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) sample plots were studied.

The height growth of the seedling stands decreased towards the north. Fertilization seemed not to decrease the regional differences; rather on the contrary. On the other hand, fertilization increased height growth, but evidently so that the increase obtained was greater in the southern than in the northern parts of the country. Light fertilization (50 kg/ha of K2O and 60 kg/ha of O2P5) caused a clear increase in height growth while heavy fertilization (100 g/ha of K2O and 120 kg/ha of O2P5), had same effect but to much greater extent than the former. Spruce seedling stands in particular benefitted of the heavy fertilization.

Fertilization did not eliminate the original differences in the quality of the sites in question, but these could still be seen in the height growth after fertilization. The effect of drain spacing on the height growth was not very clear. In dense seedling stands (800 seedlings/ha) the height growth of the dominant seedlings was greater than that obtained in stands of lower density. Hold-overs caused a decrease in the growth of the seedling stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ouni, E-mail: jo@mm.unknown
article id 4660, category Article
A. Kotiaho. (1957). Viljelyskelpoisuustutkimukset, niiden suoritus ja tulosten tiedoittaminen. Silva Fennica vol. no. 92 article id 4660.
English title: Arability research, its execution and information of the results.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; viljavuus; asutustoiminta; jatkokoulutus; suot; viljelymaa; viljelyskelpoisuus; turvemaat
English keywords: peatlands; arable land; forest education; settlement; arability of peatlands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

In 1925-1944 the Finnish Swamp Cultivation Association (now Finnish Peatland Society, Suoseura) carried out research on the arability of peatlands, mostly on state lands that were the main object of settlement work and the arability of which had been little explored. Later the work has been transferred to the Settlement Department of the Ministry of Agriculture (ASO) and some other authorities. ASO has prepared arability maps based on the nutrient analysis of the lands.

  • Kotiaho, E-mail: ak@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7478, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1958). Tutkimuksia ojitettujen turvemaiden kulotuksesta. Silva Fennica vol. 67 no. 4 article id 7478.
English title: Studies on prescribed burning of drained peatlands.
Original keywords: mänty; luontainen uudistaminen; kulotus; suot; pintakasvillisuus; turvemaat; uudistaminen; turvekankaat; vesaikko
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; natural regeneration; drained peatlands; Scots pine; coppice; peatlands; ground vegetation; prescribed burning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Prescribed burning has been used to treat the mineral soil sites, but the method has been little used in drained peatlands. The course and methods of prescribed burning in drained peatlands, and the effect of burning on sprouting of broadleaved trees, growth of ground vegetation and regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by sowing was studied in drained pine bogs in Southern Finland. The top layer of the peat was mostly Sphagnum peat. The material included a prescribed burned 12 ha drained peatland area in Tuomarniemi district, in addition to which ten previously burned areas were investigated.

The burning had succeeded mostly well, but also unsuccessfully burned sites were observed. Estinguishing of the fire was easy, and no peat fires occurred. The fire burned only the logging residue, ground vegetation and the dry top layer of the peat. The roots of brushwood and grasses survived in the peat that insulated the top layer from the heat. For instance, the abundance of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) increased after the fire. Similarly, burning did not affect sprouting of the stumps of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). It cannot thus be used as a method to restrict the growth of coppice in regenerated areas. The seeds of Scots pine germinated well on the burned surface. 46% of the seeds developed to seedlings on sphagnum-shrub vegetation and 16% in feathermoss-shrub vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7623, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1982). Tutkimuksia radioaaltomenetelmien soveltuvuudesta turvemaiden kulkukelpoisuuden arvioimiseen. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 176 article id 7623.
English title: Studies on the possibilities of using radar techniques in detecting the trafficability of peatlands.
Original keywords: turvemaat; menetelmät; ojitetut suot; maasto; tutka; kulkukelpoisuus; turpeen kosteus
English keywords: peat; radar; peatlands; trafficability; methods; terrain
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The possibilities of using microwave techniques in detecting the trafficability of peatlands is discussed. Three microwave methods were tested. 1) A FM-CW radar using 1.01.8 GHz frequency was used to measure the frost thickness of peat layer. It was possible to follow the variations in snow and frost layer thickness. Total reflected power might indicate the wetness class of the peatland, which is also a trafficability factor. 2) A short-pulse radar with 100 MHz frequency was tested in summer condition. Good profiling of peat layers was obtained, giving basic information for trafficability analysis. 3) A mapping of brightness of temperature of peatlands in summer conditions using a 790 MHz radiometer. The measured brightness temperature was correlated with vegetation cover, thus giving some information of trafficability.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarilahti, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown (email)

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