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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles by Erkki Lähde

Category: Article

article id 4910, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Katri Pahkala. (1974). Havupuiden siemenen kehitys ja itäminen kirjallisuuden valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4910.
English title: Development and germination of the seeds of conifers according to literature.
Original keywords: kylvö; havupuut; itäminen; esi-idätysmenetelmä; kukkiminen; siementen kehitys; pölytys
English keywords: germination; flowering; conifers; pollination; seeds; sowing; seeding; development of seeds; pre-germination method
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to collect information presented in literature concerning the development and germination of the seeds of coniferous trees with special reference to those species which thrive in the conditions prevailing in Finland. Along with the increase in the importance of direct seeding as a silvicultural means in Northern Finland, there is a growing demand for methods by means of which the germination of seeds could be promoted. According to the results obtained from previous studies, such a method can be found, provided that a practically usable and reliable pre-germination method is developed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pahkala, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown
article id 4836, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1971). Anaerobisten olosuhteiden ja aerobisuusrajan esiintymisestä erilaisilla luonnontilaisilla turvemailla ja merkityksestä suotyypin kuvaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4836.
English title: Anaerobic conditions in various virgin peat soils and the significance of the aerobic limit as an indicator of site quality.
Original keywords: suotyypit; turvemaat; luonnontilaiset suot; anaerobisuusraja; puuston kasvu; pohjaveden syvyys
English keywords: Finland; tree growth; virgin peatlands; peatland types; aerobic limit; ground water table
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to increase the knowledge of the anaerobic conditions prevailing in virgin peat soils of different kinds, and on the fluctuation of the aerobic limit. Silver rod method was used to indicate anaerobic conditions and to locate the aerobic limit. The material included 18 peatland sample plots on treeless bogs, in pine bogs and in spruce swamps in Southern Finland. Observations of the discoloration of the silver rods and measurements of ground water level were made from 8 June to 13 August 1968.

The results show that the location of the aerobic limit is dependent of the depth of the ground water table, and usually lies 5–15 cm above the ground water table. Down to 10–20 cm below the aerobic limit, where it reaches maximum, the rate of decomposition of sulfurous organic matter is positively correlated with the distance from the aerobic limit. Deeper it gradually decreases, and in the depth of 25–35 cm no hydrogen sulphide seems to be released.

In the forested peatland types the volume of the growing stock and the increment were dependent on the depth of the aerobic limit only when nutrient content and pH of the peat was more or less constant. Where the aerobic limit was close to the ground surface but the nutrient contents were relatively high, the volume of the growing stock may be comparatively high. Birch (Betula sp.), better than the conifers, is able to stand conditions poor in oxygen. The growing stock was poor in sites where the aerobic limit was near the ground surface, but the nitrogen and phosphorus contents were high, or vice versa. Consequently, aerobic limit is of great importance as an indicator of site quality.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4808, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Antti Oksanen. (1969). Morfologiset, gravimetriset ja fotometriset tunnukset männyn taimien juuristojen kuvaajina. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4808.
English title: Morphological, gravimetric, and photometric characteristics in describing of the root systems of pine transplants.
Original keywords: mänty; Pinus sylvestris; juuristo; taimet; mittausmenetelmät; juurten pinta-ala; morfologia
English keywords: Scots pine; seedlings; root system; surface area of the root system; morphology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This project studied the value of various shoot and root-system characteristics as indicators of plantability of transplants. Correlation and regression analysis was used to compare these characteristics. The study material consisted of two-year Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) transplants that had grown in a plastic greenhouse for the first year and then been transplanted in the open. The seedlings had been transplanted in the field without treatment or with the roots cut to a length of 8 cm. A part was transplanted without treatment into plastic pails. A gravimetric and photometric method was used to obtain a description of the surface area of the root systems.

The results show that the photometric value gives a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The greatest advantage offered by the method is the simplicity and rapidity of measurement. The gravimetric, and especially the titrimetric, measurement takes much more time per plant. Photometric measurement affects plantability little, and measured and planted transplants can be followed up in the field. In gravimetric measurements, it was found that fresh and dry weight of the plants were closely correlated.

Mycorrhizal frequency in the root systems gave a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The number of living roots-tips was also rather closely correlated with the surface area of the root system. The other morphological characteristics failed to serve as a satisfactory index for the surface area of root systems. The one closest correlated was the annual leader growth. The second best was stem diameter; the height of the plant, on the contrary, was rather poorly correlated with the other characteristics.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
  • Oksanen, E-mail: ao@mm.unknown
article id 4730, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1966). Kokeita selluloosan hajaantumisnopeudesta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 119 article id 4730.
English title: Experiments on the decomposition rate of cellulose in different stands.
Original keywords: kuusi; koivu; puulajit; hajotus; maatuminen; selluloosa; hajoaminen; hajotusnopeus
English keywords: Norway spruce; birch; Betula; Picea abies; tree species; decompostition; decomposition rate; cellulose
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this project was to investigate the cellulose decomposition rate in the soil on the ecological conditions created by different tree species, particularly birch (Betula sp.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Therefore, comparable sample plots were established in adjoining birch and spruce stands. Data on the stands, the vegetation, and the soil in the sample plots were collected. The experiment was carried out in the Ruotsinkylä Experimental Forest near Helsinki in Southern Finland.

Five pieces (3x5x0.15 cm) of cellulose (bleached sulphite pulp) were dried, weighed, and fastened in a row into a nylon bag. The bags were placed into the soil at a slant so that the upmost piece of cellulose was in the depth of 0–1.5 cm and the bottom one 6–7.5 cm. The weight losses of the pieces were measured after periods ranging from 6 to 12 months.

The results show that even within the same forest type, decomposition is much more rapid in birch stands than in spruce stands. In all the stands the decomposition rate decreased rapidly with increasing depth. The difference between birch and spruce stand, as well as the decrease with increasing depth, was probably mainly due to different thermal conditions.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7173, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1966). Studies on the respiration rate in the different parts of the root systems of pine and spruce seedlings and its variations during the growing season. Silva Fennica vol. 81 no. 8 article id 7173.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; seedlings; respiration; seasonal variation; respiration of roots; respiration rate; short-roots; long-root
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this study an attempt was made to use manometric Warburg technique in studying the growing season variations in the respiration rates of the roots of 1–3-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). The respiration rates in both short-roots and long-roots have also been investigated.

According to the results, respiration intensity was the greatest in Scots pine and Norway spruce short-roots but also considerable in the long-root tips at the points of elongation. When the oxygen uptake rate per weight unit in the pine short-roots is given value of 100, the rate in the long-root tips is 61 and in the basal area 36. The corresponding values for spruce are 100, 69 and 43. The relative carbon dioxide release rates are different for the basal parts of the long-roots: pine 53 and spruce 57, when the CO2 release from the short-roots is 100. The CO2 release rate in the basal parts of the long-roots is relatively greater than the oxygen uptake. The respiration rate of the root systems of pine was larger than that of spruce due to the larger size of the root system.

The respiration rate per unit weight of pine roots of the 1- to 3-year-old seedlings decreases significantly with the increasing age. In spruce, the decrease was smaller. The result could have been different if only the short-roots of the same growing season were studied from all seedlings.

During the first growing season the root respiration rate decreased from the middle of the summer towards autumn. An experiment with pine seedlings grown in the mineral soil showed a very rapid increase in respiration rate in the spring. The rate, especially oxygen uptake, is at its greatest in the roots at the time of fastest growth.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7171, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1966). Vertical distribution of biological activity in peat of some virgin and drained swamp types. Silva Fennica vol. 81 no. 6 article id 7171.
Keywords: drained peatlands; peat; decomposition; peatlands; cellulose decomposition; gas exchange; biological activity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of this project was to determine the amount of gas exchange in peat samples collected from several swamps, using the Warburg method in the laboratory measurements. Special attention was directed on the influence of the lowering of the ground water level through drainage, on oxidation-reduction conditions in the samples from both forested and treeless peatlands, by measuring oxygen uptake and CO2 release. The biological activity in situ was determined by the cellulose decomposition rate in the sample plots. The six areas examined were both in drained peatlands and peatlands in natural condition.

The results show that in the sample plots in open swamps there was no consistent differences in the CO2 release rate in peat samples taken from different depths. However, in the sample plots on forested swamps rapid decrease is seen with increasing depth. The decreased biological activity of peat is caused by the oxidation-reduction conditions. The CO2 release rate may also be due to the respiration of tree roots, which are very shallow in peatlands.

The rate of in situ cellulose decomposition experiment and CO2 release indicated by the Warburg measurements appear to be correlated. The results indicate improved conditions for cellulose-decomposing microbes after draining. It is also possible that the biological activity of peat after draining increases to a considerable depth until the decrease of easily decomposable substances limit the activity in an old drainage area. The cellulose decomposition rate would still increase as the oxidation-reduction conditions improve.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7601, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1969). Biological activity in some natural and drained peat soils with special reference to oxidation-reduction conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 94 article id 7601.
Keywords: drained peatlands; peat; decomposition; ground water table; oxidizing conditions; reducing conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to collect information on biological activity in the topmost 30 cm peat layer in certain natural and drained peatlands of different fertility, covered by different stands.

The results showed that if the ground water table in peatland sites is located in the immediate vicinity of the ground surface (about 5-10 cm in depth), conditions are reducing, and often even anaerobic, up to the ground surface. By means of drainage the aerobic limit can be dropped to a greater depth. This will occur because of the aerobic limit closely follows the fluctuation of the ground water table.

Although, by means of drainage, the aerobic limit can be lowered to more than 50 cm in depth, rains are followed by a rise of a ground water table and the aerobic limit; hereby a change from oxidizing to reducing conditions takes place. Only by keeping the ground water table and the aerobic limit constantly at the depth of more than 50 cm is it possible to obtain oxidizing conditions in the topmost 20-30 cm peat layer. The anaerobic conditions prevent the tree roots penetrating deeper in the peat.

In reducing conditions cellulose decomposition as well as carbon dioxide release from peat samples is slower than in oxidizing conditions. The rate of cellulose decomposition, however, is essentially dependent on the nitrogen content and the acidity of the peat.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)

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