Current issue: 56(3)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'maaperä'

Category: Article

article id 5120, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1981). Kivennäismaan raekoon tunnuksista ja niiden käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden maan ominaisuuksien kuvaamiseen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5120.
English title: Particle size distribution characteristics of mineral soil and their applicability for describing some soil properties.
Original keywords: metsämaa; maaperä; lajitekoostumut; raekoko; kenttäkapasiteetti; kationinvaihtokapasiteetti
English keywords: forest soil; particle size distribution; field capacity; degree of sorting; cation exchange capacity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The particle size distribution affects several properties of the soil, thus, the ability to define the texture type of the soil as accurately as possible in field conditions is essential. The soil particle size classification devised by Atterberg (1912) is used in Finnish forestry. The study is based on a small laboratory material. The correlation between some characteristics of the soil particle size distribution, field capacity and cation exchange capacity were determined.

The particle size characteristics such as the relative proportion of different particle sizes, average particle size (Md) and parameters depicting the degree of sorting were determined. The relative proportion of soil particles below 0.06 mm correlated best with both field capacity and cation exchange capacity. Similarly, the average particle size and the degree of sorting correlated well with the field capacity and the cation exchange capacity.

The use of sorting characteristics is not well-suited to the type of soil sample material containing a high proportion of particles of varying size as was used in this material. Such characteristics are probably more easily applicable to the fine sand and sand sediments which are predominant in Finnish forest soils. The most useful particle size distribution characteristics in soils having a great variation in particle sizes were the average particle size and the relative proportion of silt and clay. Thus, the nutrient and water status of the soil can be predicted to some extent by examining the percentage of silt and clay, average particle size and the degree of sorting.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sepponen, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5109, category Article
Esteri Ohenoja, Liisa Pohjola. (1981). Metsämaan lämpöolojen mittaaminen ruokosokerin inversioon perustuvalla menetelmällä. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5109.
English title: Sucrose inversion method for measuring the temperature conditions in forest soil.
Original keywords: metsämaa; maaperä; lämpötila; mittausmenetelmät; sakkaroosi-inversiomenetelmä
English keywords: forest soil; soil temperature; measurement methods; Sucrose inversion method
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The use and problems of the sucrose inversion method for the study of forest humus and soil are discussed. The method is based on the temperature dependence of sucrose inversion, changes in rotation angle being determined with a circle polarimeter. Average temperatures and thermal sums for forest humus in different forests in Finland were measured, using this method, for a period of ca. 100 days. The results are not considered definitive but are regarded rather as examples. Average temperatures were somewhat higher in the humus of dry and poor heath forests than in that of moist and herb-rich forests, with exceptions that could be explicable by topographic position.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ohenoja, E-mail: eo@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pohjola, E-mail: lp@mm.unknown
article id 5016, category Article
H. Vasander, A. Mäkinen, P. Pakarinen. (1979). Kangaskorpimaannosten hivenainejakautumista ja -määristä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5016.
English title: Trace elements in soil profiles of paludified spruce forests.
Original keywords: maaperä; turvemaat; korvet; maannos; mikroravinteet; hivenaineet; kangaskorpi; raskasmetallit
English keywords: peatlands; soil; gleysol; trace elements; metals
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Gleysol profiles of five southern Finnish sites dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were described according to the Canadian system of soil classification, and the total contents of five metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe) were analysed in each soil profile. Lead, zinc and manganese showed highest concentrations in the organic surface horizons with a decrease towards mineral soil horizons. Vopper distribution was somewhat irregular. Iron had maximum values in the mineral soil: in A-horizon of Rego Gleysols and in B-horizon of Fera Gleysols. A preliminary comparison of metal pools in soil (root layer) with annual atmospheric input shows that the role of atmospheric deposition is relatively greater in the case of Cu, Zn and Pb than for Fe or Mn.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vasander, E-mail: hv@mm.unknown (email)
  • Mäkinen, E-mail: am@mm.unknown
  • Pakarinen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 4819, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Hakkuutähteiden merkityksestä puuston vaurioitumisen ja raiteenmuodostuksen kannalta harvennusmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4819.
English title: Significance of logging waste in thinnings as to scars and tracks in the terrain.
Original keywords: maaperä; harvennushakkuu; puunkorjuu; metsäkuljetus; hakkuutähteet; metsäkoneet; maastovauriot; puustovauriot; ajourat; kantavuus
English keywords: thinnings; forest haulage; soil; timber harvesting; terrain transportation; strip roads; logging waste; tree injuries; stem injuries; tracks; carrying capacity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to explain whether it is possible to affect, in practical working site conditions, by means of logging waste on the strip road, the depth of the track which is formed in terrain transportation and the injuries of the growing stand. Five 20 m long investigation areas with logging waste and five similar areas without logging waste were arranged on one strip road at Teisko logging site in Southern Finland. The logging waste layer was mainly Norway spruce and 10–15 cm thick. A KL–836 B forwarder was used. The type of soil was loam.

The logging waste affected the depth of the track only by decreasing the wear of humus layer. Even decreasing effect of logging waste on the injuries in the growing stand was minor. At Kitee working site in Eastern Finland strip roads were studied. The type of soil was thick, rather mouldered peat. The thickness of logging waste was 3–4 times greater than in Teisko, mainly spruce. A Volvo Nalle SM 460 forwarder was used. The effect of the logging waste on the depth of the tracks was clearly to be noticed. On basis of the appearance of the tracks one could assume that the difference was due to different wear of the humus, and not so much due to the quantity of logging waste that improves the carrying capacity of terrain.

In some extent logging waste was also found to affect the amount and quality of tree injuries. In practical working conditions, the importance might be small, since in the experiments an unrealistically great amount of logging waste was used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4721, category Article
S. A. Wilde. (1965). Theory of relativity, soil science, and forest mensuration. Silva Fennica vol. no. 115 article id 4721.
Original keywords: metsätyypit; maaperä; metsänarviointi; kasvupaikat; kasvukyky; tuottokyky
English keywords: soil; forest mensuration; forest type; forest site; productive capacity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

No other manifestation of life is allied more conspicuously to the theory of relativity as the growth of forest stands which is a function of the inherent growth potential of trees, the productive capacity of environment, and time.

The height over age quotient of a forest stand is usually the most reliable indicator of the productive forces of the habitat. Stem analysis have shown that increment of a tree at different ages is closely correlated with the extension of roots into individual geological horizons of different productive capacity. Growth curves of stands of a same tree species growing on different soils can be disparate due to different conditions. The temporal variety of tree growth on different sites is of prime importance in the construction of yield tables. Investigations of natural plant communities of Finland provided one rational approach towards the construction of yield tables. By confining mensuration analyses to define floristic types, the Finnish foresters harmonized their records with Einstein’s formula for space-time matrix of material events.

  • Wilde, E-mail: sw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4678, category Article
W. Wittich. (1958). Kasvupaikkaopin kehitys ja merkitys metsänhoidolle Saksassa. (Helsingin yliopistossa 26.4.1958 pidetty esitelmä, suomentanut Peitsa Mikola). Silva Fennica vol. no. 96 article id 4678.
English title: Development and significance of the knowledge of site factors and site types in forestry in Germany.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; maaperä; kasvupaikka; kasvupaikkaoppi; Saksa
English keywords: forest management; site type; soil; forest type; site factors; soil science; Germany
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a summary of a presentation by W. Wittich, held in the University of Helsinki in 26.4.1958.
The significance of fertility of the site in tree growh was known already for over 100 years ago in Germany, but after the First World War the view was abandoned in forestry. According to the Dauerwald system of managing forests that was introduced at the time, the type of site was considered relatively insignificant in forest management. Therefore, similar practices were used in all kinds of sites. The opposition against the use of this method resulted in new research on the site factors.
Knowledge of the relation of the site types and vegetation makes it possible to improve productivity: in regional planning the production that is considered to be necessary is assigned to the sites that have best conditions for it. For instance, in Niedersachsen county about 6% of the forest lands are reserved for cultivation of oak.
Another line of soil science studies the root causes behind the hands-on experiences of forest management. The aim is to abandon rigid approaches in forestry. Studying the effects of forest management practices on soil has been targeted, for instance, on effects of clear cutting on decomposition and vegetation, how the soil affects choice of tree species, and decomposition of litter from different tree species. Knowledge of soil and the trees’s demand of nutrients helps to mend disturbancies, such as nutrient deficiensies. Consequently, fertilization has become a new tool to improve productivity in forestry.
The article includes a German summary.

  • Wittich, E-mail: ww@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4529, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1938). Maa ja metsän uudistuminen. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4529.
English title: Forest regeneration and soil.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; luontainen uudistaminen; kulotus; maanmuokkaus; metsämaa; maaperä
English keywords: regeneration; soil preparation; natural regeneration; soil; forest education; professional development courses; broadcast burning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes the effect of properties of soil on forest regeneration. 

  • Aaltonen, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7018, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1917). Metsänhävityksen ja polton vaikutuksesta metsämaahan. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 7018.
English title: Effects of forest devastation and shifting cultivation on forest soil.
Original keywords: maaperä; metsittyminen; kaskeaminen
English keywords: regeneration; soil; shifting cultivation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Soil of open and forest covered lands have different properties. Forest devastation has negative effect on forest soil, for instance, through leaching of nutrients. There are different views on how forest fire influences chemical properties of the soil. Burning of forests can have both positive and negative consequences.

The article publishes partial results from a study that aimed to find out how shifting cultivation affects the soil, and how it may change natural regeneration and forest growth of the stands. Soil samples were collected from four burnt-over sites. Of the samples, size classes of the soil particles, volatile solids and nutrient contents were determined. According to the results, the burning increased soluble nutrients, but the effect was not long-lasting. However, more sample sites would be needed to give definitive results of the differences.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)

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