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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'timber assortment'

Category: Article

article id 5051, category Article
Aili Tuimala. (1979). Kuusen lahon aiheuttamista puutavaralajisiirtymistä ja kantohintamenetyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5051.
English title: Changes in timber assortments and loss in stumpage prices caused by decay in growing Norway spruce timber.
Original keywords: kuusi; kuitupuu; puukauppa; tukkipuu; laho; puutavaralaji; tulonmenetys; puutavaralajisiirtymä
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; pulpwood; decay; timber; timber assortments; loss of income
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Material for this study was collected from 26 stands marked for clear cutting in Southern Finland. The volume of decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) timber and pulpwood was determined by deducting the volumes of these assortments (as recorded on the measurement certificate) from the volume of the standing trees. To obtain the economic loss, the volume of decayed wood was multiplied by the difference in stumpage prices between spruce timber of pulpwood and pine pulpwood. In the 17 stands of Buyer A the loss in timber volume caused by decay was 5.84% and the loss in stumpage price 2.84 Fmk/m3 (means weighted by volume). The corresponding figures in the 9 stands of Buyer B were 10.87% and 5.50 Fmk/m3, respectively.

At the mean stumpage price level for the felling season 1977-78 the losses in the stands m.f.c. mentioned above were 2.87% per unit price in the stands of Buyer A and 5.75% in the stands of Buyer B.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tuimala, E-mail: at@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4610, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Sahatukkien laatuluokittelutavat. Silva Fennica vol. no. 69 article id 4610.
English title: Methods of saw log classification according to quality.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; jatkokoulutus; sahatukit; laatuluokitus; puutavaralajit
English keywords: saw logs; timber assortment; forest education; quality grading; quality classification
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the uses and principles of different kinds of grading of saw logs.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7626, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Risto Ojansuu. (1982). Metsikön puutavaralajirakenteen, arvon ja arvokasvun arviointi. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 179 article id 7626.
English title: Assessment of timber assortments, value and value increment of stands in Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; hakkuulaskelma; arvokasvu; metsikön arvo; puutavaralajirakenne
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; timber assortment; stand development; valuation; cutting budget
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper is the final report of a study on the estimation of value increment and inherent variables of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands. The main aim was to obtain improved criteria for decision-making concerning the priority of stands for regeneration.

The construction of various estimation models and their reliability are discussed in detail. The study, together with some previous papers, has resulted in a system which on the basis of a number of easily assessed stand variables gives for the stands concerned the volume of stems, percentages of timber assortments, stumpage value, volume increment and value increment.

The following examples are given with regard to the practical application of the results, in addition to the determination of the relative maturity of stands: 1) The study of various trends in stand development; the comparison between the volume and value variables. 2) The estimation of timber assortments needed for a cutting budget, trees marked for felling etc. 3) The calculation of the value of forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ojansuu, E-mail: ro@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 177, category Research article
Tuomo Nurminen, Heikki Korpunen, Jori Uusitalo. (2009). Applying the activity-based costing to cut-to-length timber harvesting and trucking. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 177.
Keywords: logistics; bucking; cutting; forest transport; long-distance transportation; trucking; time consumption; timber assortment; cost driver
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The supply chain of the forest industry has increasingly been adjusted to the customer’s needs for precision and quality. This has changed the operative environment both in the forest and on the roads. As the total removal of timber is increasingly divided into more log assortments, the lot size of each assortment decreases and the time consumed in sorting the logs increases. In this respect, the extra assortments have made harvesting work more difficult and affected the productivity of both cutting and forest transport; this has thus increased the harvesting costs. An activity-based cost (ABC) management system is introduced for timber harvesting and long-distance transport, based on the cut-to-length (CTL) method, in which the logistic costs are assigned to timber assortments and lots. Supplying timber is divided into three main processes: cutting, forest transport, and long-distance transportation. An ABC system was formulated separately for each of these main operations. Costs were traced to individual stands and to timber assortment lots from a stand. The cost object of the system is thus a lot of timber that makes up one assortment that has been cut, forwarded, and transported from the forest to the mill. Application of the ABC principle to timber harvesting and trucking was found to be relatively easy. The method developed gives estimates that are realistic to actual figures paid to contractors. The foremost use for this type of costing method should be as a tool to calculate the efficiency of an individual activity or of the whole logistic system.
  • Nurminen, Metsätoimisto Tuomo Nurminen, Joensuuntie 5 B 8, FI-41800 Korpilahti, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Korpunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Unit, Kaironiementie 54, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland E-mail:
  • Uusitalo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Unit, Kaironiementie 54, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland E-mail:
article id 522, category Research article
Annika Kangas, Matti Maltamo. (2002). Anticipating the variance of predicted stand volume and timber assortments with respect to stand characteristics and field measurements. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 522.
Keywords: diameter distribution; timber assortment; prediction; calibration estimation; volume; accuracy; measurement combination
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Several models and/or several variable combinations could be used to predict the diameter distribution of a stand. Typically, a fixed model and a fixed variable combination is used in all conditions. The calibration procedure, however, makes it possible to choose the measurement combination from among many possibilities, although the model used is fixed. In this study, the usefulness of utilizing additional stand characteristics for calibrating the predicted diameter distribution is examined. Nine measurement strategies were tested in predicting the total stand volume, sawlog volume and pulpwood volume. The observed errors of these variables under each strategy were modeled as a function of basal area, basal area median diameter and number of stems. The models were estimated in three steps. First, an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model was fitted to the observed errors. Then, a variance function was estimated using the OLS residuals. Finally, a weighted Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) analysis was used to model the observed errors, using the estimated variance functions as weights. The estimated models can be used to anticipate the precision and accuracy of predicted volume characteristics for each stand with different variable combinations and, consequently, to choose the best measurement combination in different stands.
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Resources Management, P.O. Box 27, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Maltamo, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

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