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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'accuracy'

Category: Article

article id 5590, category Article
Heikki Hänninen, Seppo Kellomäki, Ilkka Leinonen, Tapani Repo. (1996). Overwintering and productivity of Scots pine in a changing climate. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5590.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; climate change; ecosystems; frost damage; phenology; forest ecology; gap-type model; model accuracy; model realism; overvintering
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The productivity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under changing climatic conditions in the southern part of Finland was studied by scenario analysis with a gap-type forest ecosystem model. Standard simulations with the model predicted an increased rate of growth and hence increased productivity as a result of climatic warming. The gap-type model was refined by introducing an overwintering sub-model describing the annual growth cycle, frost hardiness, and frost damage of the trees. Simulations with the refined gap-type model produced results conflicting with those of the standard simulation, i.e., drastically decreased productivity caused by mortality and growth-reducing damage due to premature dehardening in the changing climate. The overwintering sub-model was tested with frost hardiness data from Scots pine saplings growing at their natural site 1) under natural conditions and 2) under elevated temperature condition, both in open-top chambers. The model predicted the frost hardiness dynamics quite accurately for the natural conditions while underestimating the frost hardiness of the saplings for the elevated temperature conditions. These findings show that 1) the overwintering sub-model requires further development, and 2) the possible reduction of productivity caused by frost damage in a changing climate is less drastic than predicted in the scenario analysis. The results as a whole demonstrated the need to consider the overwintering of trees in scenario analysis carried out with ecosystem model for boreal conditions. More generally, the results revealed a problem that exists in scenario analysis with ecological models: the accuracy of a model in predicting the ecosystem functioning under present climatic condition does not guarantee the realism of the model, nor for this reason the accuracy for predicting the ecosystem functioning under changing climatic conditions. This finding calls for the continuous rigorous experimental testing of ecological models used for assessing the ecological implications of climatic change.

  • Hänninen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Leinonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown
  • Repo, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
article id 5196, category Article
Simo Poso. (1983). Kuvioittaisen arvioimismenetelmän perusteita. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5196.
English title: Basic features of forest inventory by compartments.
Original keywords: metsänarviointi; metsikkö; kuvioittainen arviointi; luotettavuus; kuvio
English keywords: accuracy; forest mensuration; survey by stands; compartment; stand
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The concepts of the terms compartment and compartment-wise forest inventory have been studied empirically by repeated delineation and intensive systematic plot samples. The material consisted of 16 study areas of some 8–90 hectares in size in Southern Finland and of more than 1,000 relascope plots. Stands and compartments were found to be rather heterogenous. Alternative photographs, working techniques and test persons were studied. An endeavour for better accuracy in compartment inventories is recommended.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7177, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Simo Poso, Christian Keil. (1968). The use of aerial photographs in the estimation of some forest characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 82 no. 4 article id 7177.
Keywords: forest inventory; accuracy; forest mensuration; methods; aerial photograps; volume of growing stock
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this investigation is to study, for north European conditions, some overall standards of accuracy attainable in the estimation in a number of forest characteristics from aerial photographs. Field data was acquired in three areas, comprising whole stands, fixed and variable size sample plots and sections of survey strips.  

The results show that land use classes could be estimated to a rather high degree of precision from aerial photographs. The accuracy of determination of the main tree species (Scots pine, Norway spruce and deciduous trees) was more moderate; three quarters of all stands were interpreted correctly from the present photographs. The estimate of pure stands was noticeable better than those for mixed stands. In general, the agreement between treatment class stratification in the field and from aerial photographs was poor, as only one-third of all cases the class was same. The dominant height was estimated with relative lack of bias for small stands, but systematic underestimation of nearly 2 m existed for high stands.  

The emphasis in this investigation was laid on determination of the volume of growing stock. Stand volumes in the small and medium volume classes were overestimated, against clear under-estimate for high volume stands. The standard error of difference, including bias, was ±43 both in m3 and as a percentage. 

The variance data available provide a basis for the conclusion that under some conditions photo stratification within the forest land seems to improve the efficiency of volume estimation, whereas in some other cases the stratification is hardly an economic proposition. Alternative computations made from the data of an experimental survey indicated the likelihood that no gain was deprived from the use of aerial photographs for volume class estimation. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown
  • Keil, E-mail: ck@mm.unknown
article id 7146, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1963). Analysis of two alternative methods for national forest inventories in northern Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 76 no. 6 article id 7146.
Keywords: forest inventory; National Forest Inventory; costs; accuracy; methods; continuous inventory
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A comparison was made between two alternative methods of continuous national forest inventory. In method 1, samples measured annually are taken throughout the country, in method 2 samples are confined to one section of the country each year. The figures are derived from national forest inventories carried out in the North-European countries Finland, Norway and Sweden. Systematic sampling on the ground has been employed without remeasured sample plots. Field work consisted of survey tracts.

For the whole country, method 1 gives results, which are continuously up-to-date, although detailed information requires observation over a period of several years. On an average, the results obtained from method 2 area at least n/2 years old (survey cycle n years). For a specific section of the country, method 1 gives preliminary results already in 1-2 years, but more accurate results are at least n/2 years old. Method 2 gives accurate results every nth year. Thus, method 2 is not always to be recommended, even if the emphasis is laid on regional information and planning.

To gain knowledge of annual timber removals, often necessary in assessing the forest resource situation, stump measurements can be used, either exclusively or by way of control. The corresponding sampling must be affected throughout the whole country, and this can be done only when method 1 is used. Other information required annually, such as estimates of seed crops, occurrence of pests or annual variation of growth due to the climate, favour method 1.

It can be concluded that method 1 has important advantages, although these must be bought at higher costs. A comparison of inventory costs shows, assuming the same degree of accuracy, that the total expenditure for method 2 is 7-8% lower than that for method 1, owing to the difference in transport requirements. Also, other aspects may affect the choice of method, for example, the use of aerial photographs may be arranged more efficiently in method 2.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 975, category Research article
Renats Trubins, Ola Sallnäs. (2014). Categorical mapping from estimates of continuous forest attributes – classification and accuracy. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 2 article id 975.
Keywords: Sweden; land cover maps; forest type maps; map accuracy assessment; class membership probability; Bayesian network; k-NN estimates
Highlights: The paper presents an approach to classification and accuracy assessment of ad-hoc categorical maps based on existing spatial datasets with estimates of continuous forest variables; Pixel level class membership probabilities are estimated using a Bayesian network model.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Spatially explicit data on forest attributes is demanded for various research with landscape perspective. Existing datasets with estimates of continuous forest variables are often used as the basis for producing categorical forest type maps. Normally, this type of maps are used without knowing their accuracy. This paper presents a Bayesian network model for estimating pixel level class membership probabilities of thus derived categorical maps. Class membership probabilities can be used as a post-classification measure of map accuracy and in the process of map classification affecting the assignments of class labels. The method is applied in mapping deciduous dominated forests on the basis of the k-NN Sweden 2005 dataset in a study area in southern Sweden. The results indicate rather low accuracy for deciduous class regardless of the map classification method: 0.48 versus 0.50 in the maps classified without and with the use of the class membership probabilities given equal deciduous area. When probability-based classification is applied, the level of accuracy varies with the assumed map class proportions. Thus, when deciduous class area corresponding to the National Forest Inventory estimate was used, the accuracy of only 0.35 was obtained for the deciduous map class.
  • Trubins, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 49, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden E-mail: (email)
  • Sallnäs, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 49, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden E-mail:
article id 264, category Research article
Yrjö Nuutinen, Kari Väätäinen, Jaakko Heinonen, Antti Asikainen, Dominik Röser. (2008). The accuracy of manually recorded time study data for harvester operation shown via simulator screen. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 264.
Keywords: accuracy of timing; mixed effects models; time studies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of work experience on the accuracy and variation of observers recording the operation time of a harvester. A simulated thinning operation using a harvester, shown as video via a television screen in laboratory conditions, was observed by 20 inexperienced students and 10 experienced work study researchers. All the observers timed the different work elements of the harvester work with special fieldwork timers. The duration of different work elements measured by the human observers were compared to the corresponding recordings by the harvester’s automated data collector. Although the inexperienced students made more measurement mistakes than the experienced researchers, the differences in measurement error averages were not statistically significant between the groups. However, the variances of tree specific errors were significantly higher in the measurements done by the students. As inexperienced recorders, the students were not able to properly record short work elements, which lasted a maximum of 4 seconds. Due to systematic measurement errors, there was a large variation in the timing structures of the work elements among all observers. Observers’ skills and experience seems to affect measurement accuracy and thus the derived results, especially in intensive time studies. Therefore, the recorder should receive detailed training and practical experience in timing of different work elements of forest operations. In the future, with the use of automated data collectors time studies with large, detailed and accurate data will be implemented. However, due to the varying timing conditions in the forest, manual data collection is still required because of its greater flexibility.
  • Nuutinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Väätäinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Heinonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Asikainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Röser, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 522, category Research article
Annika Kangas, Matti Maltamo. (2002). Anticipating the variance of predicted stand volume and timber assortments with respect to stand characteristics and field measurements. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 522.
Keywords: diameter distribution; timber assortment; prediction; calibration estimation; volume; accuracy; measurement combination
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Several models and/or several variable combinations could be used to predict the diameter distribution of a stand. Typically, a fixed model and a fixed variable combination is used in all conditions. The calibration procedure, however, makes it possible to choose the measurement combination from among many possibilities, although the model used is fixed. In this study, the usefulness of utilizing additional stand characteristics for calibrating the predicted diameter distribution is examined. Nine measurement strategies were tested in predicting the total stand volume, sawlog volume and pulpwood volume. The observed errors of these variables under each strategy were modeled as a function of basal area, basal area median diameter and number of stems. The models were estimated in three steps. First, an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model was fitted to the observed errors. Then, a variance function was estimated using the OLS residuals. Finally, a weighted Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) analysis was used to model the observed errors, using the estimated variance functions as weights. The estimated models can be used to anticipate the precision and accuracy of predicted volume characteristics for each stand with different variable combinations and, consequently, to choose the best measurement combination in different stands.
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Resources Management, P.O. Box 27, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Maltamo, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

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