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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'pitch'

Category : Article

article id 4879, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1973). Mäntyrunkojen ydinsäteiden määrä ja koko. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4879.
English title: Amount and size of rays in Scots pine stems.
Original keywords: mänty; runko; puuaines; ydinsäteet; pihkatiehyet; pihka
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; structure of wood; fusiform rays; uniseriate rays; resin canal; pitch
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The material consists of four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems from which 757 samples were taken from various heights and distances from the pith. According to the results, the number of rays and their sizes are greater at the stump level than higher up in the stem. The size increases, and the number decreases on moving from the pith outwards. However, there are differences between stems as regards the variation model. The ratio between the number of fusiform rays and that of uniseriate rays seems to be lower than anticipated earlier, about 1:40–1:50. The average proportion of ray volume varied from 5.6% to 7.3%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Article

article id 7381, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1946). Pihkomiskokeita pohjoisissa männiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 7381.
English title: Collection of resin in Scots pine forests in the Nordic countries.
Original keywords: mänty; pihka; pihkan keräys; pihkominen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; pitch; resin; resin collection
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Systematic resin collection has not been practiced in Finland or other Nordic areas. One reason is the short growing season. Also, the local pine species, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) gives smaller resin yield than the southern species, such as Pinus maritima. In Nordic boreal forests resin has been collected only in the Soviet Union, where it has been practised also in Eastern Karelia, near the Finnish border. Resin collection experiments were arranged in former resin collection stands in Karelia in 1943. A so-called German method for running resin had been used in the stands. 30-40 sample trees were chosen in five sample sites.

Forest type did not have big influence in the resin yield. The yield seemed to be slightly higher in Scots pine stands growing in fertile sites compared to poorer sites. The diameter of the tree had largest effect on the yield. It is recommended to focus on stands with large trees, and trees with a large, vital crown. In this kind of stands it is possible to get best yield in relation to the work required. The height of the patch that was cut in the stem had no influence on the yield. The size of the patch should, however, not exceed 35-50% of the diameter of the tree.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 42, category Research article
Pablo Martínez-Álvarez, Fernando Manuel Alves-Santos, Julio Javier Diez. (2012). In vitro and in vivo interactions between Trichoderma viride and Fusarium circinatum. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 42.
Keywords: pitch canker; antagonism; biocontrol; biological control agents; endophytes; Pinus radiata; Spain
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Fusarium circinatum, a fungus that causes pitch canker disease, has been present in Europe since at least 2003, when it was detected in northern Spain and found to be producing severe damage in tree nurseries and pine plantations. In this study, we tested a method of biological control of the disease with Trichoderma viride, a fungal species successfully used against many other pathogens. In vitro and in vivo assays were carried out to test the efficacy of this antagonist in controlling F. circinatum. The T. viride isolate exerted a significant effect on the growth of F. circinatum in the in vitro assay, reducing the length of the pathogen colony by half. However, although we tested three different concentrations of the T. viride spore solution, no clear conclusions were obtained with regard to the effects on the Pinus radiata seedlings. To our knowledge, this is the first study carried out with the aim of using Trichoderma spp. to control pitch canker disease.
  • Martínez-Álvarez, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid – INIA, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34071 Palencia, Spain E-mail: (email)
  • Alves-Santos, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid – INIA, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34071 Palencia, Spain E-mail:
  • Diez, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid – INIA, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34071 Palencia, Spain E-mail:

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