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Articles containing the keyword 'reflectance'

Category: Article

article id 5443, category Article
Raimo Silvennoinen, Rauno Hämäläinen, Kaarlo Nygrén, Kim von Weissenberg. (1991). Spectroradiometric characteristics of Scots pine and intensity of moose browsing. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5443. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15597
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Alces alces; aerial photography; moose; spectral analysis; reflectance; multispectral photography; browsing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The light reflected from the crowns of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clones was measured spectroradiometrically during and after growing season. Standard deviations of the spectra of pine clones showing differences in moose browsing intensity were compared. A new algorithm was developed for predicting the browsing intensity of moose (Alces alces).

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Silvennoinen, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hämäläinen, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown
  • Nygrén, E-mail: kn@mm.unknown
  • Weissenberg, E-mail: kw@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 10331, category Research article
Jussi Juola, Aarne Hovi, Miina Rautiainen. (2020). Multiangular spectra of tree bark for common boreal tree species in Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 4 article id 10331. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10331
Keywords: classification; reflectance; hyperspectral; imaging spectrometer; near-infrared; SVM; visible
Highlights: Novel multiangular measurement set-up for hyperspectral imaging; Multiangular spectra of silver birch (Betula pendula), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) stem bark samples were collected; Intra- and interspecific variations in reflectance were analyzed; Demonstration of tree species identification based on stem bark spectra; Collected spectra openly available in SPECCHIO Spectral Information System.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Despite the importance of spectral properties of woody tree structures, they are seldom represented in research related to forests, remote sensing, and reflectance modeling. This study presents a novel imaging multiangular measurement set-up that utilizes a mobile handheld hyperspectral camera (Specim IQ, 400–1000 nm), and can measure stem bark spectra in a controlled laboratory setting. We measured multiangular reflectance spectra of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stem bark, and demonstrated the potential of using bark spectra in identifying tree species using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based approach. Intraspecific reflectance variability was the lowest in visible (400–700 nm), and the highest in near-infrared (700–1000 nm) wavelength regions. Interspecific variation was the largest in the red, red-edge and near-infrared spectral bands. Spatial variation of reflectance along the tree height and different sides of the stem (north and south) were found. Both birch and pine had increased reflectance in the forward-scattering directions for visible to near-infrared wavelength regions, whilst spruce displayed the same only for the visible wavelength region. In addition, spruce had increased reflectance in the backward-scattering directions. In spite of the intraspecific variations, SVM could identify tree species with 88.8% overall accuracy when using pixel-specific spectra, and with 97.2% overall accuracy when using mean spectra per image. Based on our results it is possible to identify common boreal tree species based on their stem bark spectra using images from mobile hyperspectral cameras.

  • Juola, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6050-7247 E-mail: jussi.juola@aalto.fi (email)
  • Hovi, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4384-5279 E-mail: aarne.hovi@aalto.fi
  • Rautiainen, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland; Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, P.O. Box 15500, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6568-3258 E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi
article id 10270, category Research article
Aarne Hovi, Matti Mõttus, Jussi Juola, Farshid Manoocheri, Erkki Ikonen, Miina Rautiainen. (2020). Evaluating the performance of a double integrating sphere in measurement of reflectance, transmittance, and albedo of coniferous needles. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 2 article id 10270. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10270
Keywords: vegetation; albedo; reflectance; transmittance; needle carrier; spectra
Highlights: Adaptation of a compact double integrating sphere for spectral measurements of coniferous needles; Double integrating sphere is fast to operate and suitable for monitoring purposes and collection of large spectral databases; Measured spectra showed negative bias, which could potentially be reduced by building an optimized measurement setup.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra are essential information in many applications such as developing remote sensing methods, computing shortwave energy balance (albedo) of forest canopies, and monitoring health or stress of trees. Measurement of coniferous needle spectra has usually been carried out with single integrating spheres, which has involved a lot of tedious manual work. A small double integrating sphere would make the measurements considerably faster, because of its ease of operation and small sample sizes required. Here we applied a compact double integrating sphere setup, used previously for measurement of broad leaves, for measurement of coniferous needles. Test measurements with the double integrating sphere showed relative underestimation of needle albedo by 5–39% compared to a well-established single integrating sphere setup. A small part of the bias can be explained by the bias of the single sphere. Yet the observed bias is quite significant if absolute accuracy of measurements is required. For relative measurements, e.g. for monitoring development of needle spectra over time, the double sphere system provides notable improvement. Furthermore, it might be possible to reduce the bias by building an optimized measurement setup that minimizes absorption losses in the sample port. Our study indicates that double spheres, after some technical improvement, may provide a new and fast way to collect extensive spectral libraries of tree species.

  • Hovi, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O.Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4384-5279 E-mail: aarne.hovi@aalto.fi (email)
  • Mõttus, VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2745-1966 E-mail: matti.mottus@gmail.com
  • Juola, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O.Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland E-mail: jussi.juola@aalto.fi
  • Manoocheri, Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Metrology Research Institute, Maarintie 8, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3935-3930 E-mail: farshid.manoocheri@aalto.fi
  • Ikonen, VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland; Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Metrology Research Institute, Maarintie 8, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6444-5330 E-mail: erkki.ikonen@aalto.fi
  • Rautiainen, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O.Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland; Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, P.O. Box 15500, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6568-3258 E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi
article id 7753, category Research article
Aarne Hovi, Pekka Raitio, Miina Rautiainen. (2017). A spectral analysis of 25 boreal tree species. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 7753. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7753
Keywords: albedo; leaf; needle; reflectance; transmittance; integrating sphere; spectrometer
Highlights: An extensive spectral library containing leaf and needle reflectance and transmittance spectra was collected; The spectra openly available in SPECCHIO Spectral Information System; Effects of tree species, leaf/needle side, canopy position, and needle age on spectra were quantified; Seasonal variations were measured for four species; Spectra analysis highlights the importance of shortwave-infrared region in separating tree species.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Spectral libraries have a fundamental role in the development of interpretation methods for airborne and satellite-borne remote sensing data. This paper presents to-date the largest spectral measurement campaign of boreal tree species. Reflectance and transmittance spectra of over 600 leaf and needle samples from 25 species were measured in the Helsinki area (Finland) using integrating sphere systems attached to an ASD FieldSpec 4 spectroradiometer. Factors influencing the spectra and red edge inflection point (REIP) were quantified using one-way analysis of variance. Tree species differed most in the shortwave-infrared (1500–2500 nm) and least in the visible (400–700 nm) wavelength region. Species belonging to same genera showed similar spectral characteristics. Upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) leaf sides differed most in the visible region. Canopy position (sunlit/shaded) had a minor role in explaining spectral variation. For evergreen conifers, current and previous year needles differed in their spectra, current-year needles resembling those of broadleaved and deciduous conifers. Two broadleaved species were monitored throughout the growing season (May–October), and two conifers were measured twice during summer (June, September). Rapid changes were observed in the spectra in early spring and late autumn, whereas seasonal variations during summer months were relatively small for both broadleaved and coniferous species. Based on our results, shortwave-infrared seems promising in separating tree species, although it is to-date least studied. The spectral library reported here (Version 1.0) is publicly available through the SPECCHIO Spectral Information System.

  • Hovi, Aalto University, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland E-mail: aarne.hovi@aalto.fi (email)
  • Raitio, Aalto University, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland E-mail: pekka.raitio@aalto.fi
  • Rautiainen, Aalto University, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland; Aalto University, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, P.O. Box 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi
article id 1087, category Research article
Ilkka Korpela, Lauri Mehtätalo, Lauri Markelin, Anne Seppänen, Annika Kangas. (2014). Tree species identification in aerial image data using directional reflectance signatures. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 3 article id 1087. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1087
Keywords: forestry; reflectance calibration; BRDF; mixed-effects modeling; Monte-Carlo simulation
Highlights: Multispectral reflectance data showed a strong and spectrally correlated tree effect; There was no gain in species classification from using species-specific differences of directional reflectance in real data and only a marginal improvement in simulated data; The directional signatures extracted in multiple images are obscured by the intrinsic within-species variation, correlated observations and inherent reflectance calibration errors.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Tree species identification using optical remote sensing is challenging. Modern digital photogrammetric cameras enable radiometrically quantitative remote sensing and the estimation of reflectance images, in which the observations depend largely on the reflectance properties of targets. Previous research has shown that there are species-specific differences in how the brightness observed changes when the viewing direction in an aerial image is altered. We investigated if accounting for such directional signatures enhances species classification, using atmospherically corrected, real and simulated multispectral Leica ADS40 line-camera data. Canopy in direct and diffuse illumination were differentiated and species-specific variance-covariance structures were analyzed in real reflectance data, using mixed-effects modeling. Species classification simulations aimed at elucidating the level of accuracy that can be achieved by using images of different quality, number and view-illumination geometry. In real data, a substantial variance component was explained by tree effect, which demonstrates that observations from a tree correlate between observation geometries as well as spectrally. Near-infrared band showed the strongest tree effect, while the directionality was weak in that band. The gain from directional signatures was insignificant in real data, while simulations showed a potential gain of 1–3 percentage points in species classification accuracy. The quality of reflectance calibration was found to be important as well as the image acquisition geometry. We conclude that increasing the number of image observations cancels out random observation noise and reflectance calibration errors, but fails to eliminate the tree effect and systematic calibration inaccuracy. Directional reflectance constitutes a marginal improvement in tree species classification.
  • Korpela, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014, Finland E-mail: ilkka.korpela@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Mehtätalo, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: lauri.mehtatalo@uef.fi
  • Markelin, Department of Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry, Finnish Geodetic Institute, P.O. Box 15, FI-02431 Masala, Finland E-mail: lauri.markelin@fgi.fi
  • Seppänen, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: anne.seppanen@arbonaut.com
  • Kangas, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014, Finland E-mail: annika.kangas@helsinki.fi
article id 261, category Research article
Miina Rautiainen, Matti Mõttus, Pauline Stenberg, Sanna Ervasti. (2008). Crown envelope shape measurements and models. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 261. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.261
Keywords: Norway spruce; Scots pine; crown profile; reflectance model; remote sensing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
This paper addresses tree crown envelope shape modeling from the perspective of optical passive remote sensing. The aims are 1) to review the specific requirements of crown shape models and ground measurement techniques in optical remote sensing, and 2) to present preliminary results from empirical, parametric crown shape and volume modeling of Scots pine and Norway spruce applicable in Finland. Results indicated that the basic dimensions (maximum radius, its height and crown length) of tree crowns were better predicted for pines, but the profile shape of the upper part of the crowns varied more than in spruce. Pine crowns were also slightly less concave than spruce crowns. No regularities were observed concerning the lower part of the crowns. The asymmetry of crowns increased as a function of tree age for both species, spruce crowns being more asymmetric than pine crowns. A comparison of measured crown volume with several simple geometrical crown shape envelopes showed that using a cone as a crown shape model for Scots pine and Norway spruce underestimates crown volume most severely. Other crown envelope shape models (e.g. ellipsoids) rendered crown volumes closer to the measured volume and did not differ considerably from each other.
  • Rautiainen, Tartu Observatory, 61602 Tõravere, Estonia, and Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: miina.rautiainen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Mõttus, Tartu Observatory, 61602 Tõravere, Estonia E-mail: mm@nn.ee
  • Stenberg, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: ps@nn.fi
  • Ervasti, City of Vantaa, Land Use and Environment / Green Area Unit, Kielotie 13, FI-01300 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: se@nn.fi

Category: Research note

article id 10683, category Research note
Aarne Hovi, Petr Lukeš, Lucie Homolová, Jussi Juola, Miina Rautiainen. (2022). Small geographical variability observed in Norway spruce needle spectra across Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 2 article id 10683. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10683
Keywords: albedo; remote sensing; reflectance; transmittance; land surface modeling; leaf optical properties; radiative transfer modeling
Highlights: Spectra of Norway spruce needles were collected from three sites in Europe (49°–62°N); The same acquisition and processing parameters were applied throughout the campaign; Geographical variability in the needle spectra was small; Comparison of the spectra of coniferous needles and broadleaved tree foliage is also presented.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Foliage spectra form an important input to physically-based forest reflectance models. However, little is known about geographical variability of coniferous needle spectra. In this research note, we present an assessment of the geographical variability of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) needle albedo, reflectance, and transmittance spectra across three study sites covering latitudes of 49–62°N in Europe. All spectra were measured and processed using exactly the same methodology and parameters, which guarantees reliable conclusions about geographical variability. Small geographical variability in Norway spruce needle spectra was observed, when compared to variability observed between previous measurement campaigns (employing slightly varying measurement and processing parameters), or to variability between plant functional types (broadleaved vs. coniferous). Our results suggest that variability of needle spectra is not a major factor introducing geographical variability to forest reflectance. The results also highlight the importance of harmonizing measurement protocols when collecting needle spectral libraries. Furthermore, the data collected for this study can be useful in studies where accurate information on spectral differences between broadleaved and coniferous tree foliage is needed.

  • Hovi, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4384-5279 E-mail: aarne.hovi@aalto.fi (email)
  • Lukeš, Global Change Research Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3707-6557 E-mail: lukes.p@czechglobe.cz
  • Homolová, Global Change Research Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7455-2834 E-mail: homolova.l@czechglobe.cz
  • Juola, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6050-7247 E-mail: jussi.juola@aalto.fi
  • Rautiainen, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland; Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, P.O. Box 15500, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6568-3258 E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi
article id 10600, category Research note
Nea Kuusinen, Aarne Hovi, Miina Rautiainen. (2021). Contribution of woody elements to tree level reflectance in boreal forests. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 5 article id 10600. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10600
Keywords: reflectance model; bark; hyperspectral; spectral mixture analysis
Highlights: Contribution of woody elements to reflectance of boreal tree species was estimated using spectral mixture analysis and airborne hyperspectral data; Mean woody element contribution varied between 0.14–0.19 (Scots pine), 0.12–0.20 (birches) and 0.09–0.10 (Norway spruce).
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Spectral mixture analysis was used to estimate the contribution of woody elements to tree level reflectance from airborne hyperspectral data in boreal forest stands in Finland. Knowledge of the contribution of woody elements to tree or forest reflectance is important in the context of lea area index (LAI) estimation and, e.g., in the estimation of defoliation due to insect outbreaks, from remote sensing data. Field measurements from four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), five Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and four birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) dominated plots, spectral measurements of needles, leaves, bark, and forest floor, airborne hyperspectral as well as airborne laser scanning data were used together with a physically-based forest reflectance model. We compared the results based on simple linear combinations of measured bark and needle/leaf spectra to those obtained by accounting for multiple scattering of radiation within the canopy using a physically-based forest reflectance model. The contribution of forest floor to reflectance was additionally considered. The resulted mean woody element contribution estimates varied from 0.140 to 0.186 for Scots pine, from 0.116 to 0.196 for birches and from 0.090 to 0.095 for Norway spruce, depending on the model used. The contribution of woody elements to tree reflectance had a weak connection to plot level forest variables.

  • Kuusinen, Department of Built Environment, School of Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland E-mail: nea.kuusinen@aalto.fi (email)
  • Hovi, Department of Built Environment, School of Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland E-mail: aarne.hovi@aalto.fi
  • Rautiainen, Department of Built Environment, School of Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland; Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6568-3258 E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi

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