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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'pulping'

Category: Article

article id 5267, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Mänty- ja kuusirunkojen arvosuhteet. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5267.
English title: Value relations of Scots pine and Norway spruce stems.
Original keywords: kuusi; paperiteollisuus; mänty; sahatavara; sahateollisuus; raaka-aine; rungon koko
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; simulation; pulping; sawn goods; sawmill industry; pulp industry; raw material; stem size
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A mathematical model was developed for determining the value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stems on the basis of sawing and pulping. The model was based on selling prices of sawn goods, pulp and other products as well as processing costs. Sawing was applied to large-dimension parts of stems and pulping to other parts and small stems. Bark and other residues were burned. The quality of pine stems was described by the distance of the lowest dead branch. In spruce only stem size affected the quality-

According to the results, the size of stem affects considerably the value of pine stems and clearly that of spruce stems. The main reason is an increase in the productivity of frame sawing as the stem size increases. In pine another factor is the higher price of sawn goods. The effect of pulp price increases as the stem size decreases. Even in large sized stems the effect of pulp was notable as the value of chips and saw dust was determined on the basis of product values in export. The competition ability of mechanical pulp was greatly affected by the price of electricity.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7511, category Article
Jukka Tyrväinen. (1995). Wood and fiber properties of Norway spruce and its suitability for thermomechanical pulping. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 249 article id 7511.
Keywords: Picea abies; wood properties; pulpwood; fiber properties; thermomechanical pulping; pulp properties
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the first part of the study, the selected wood and fiber properties were investigated in terms of their occurrence and variation in wood, as well as their relevance for thermomechanical pulping process and related end-products. It was concluded that the most important factors were the fiber dimensions, juvenile wood content, and in some cases, the content of heartwood being associated with extremely dry wood with low permeability in spruce. The following pulpwood assortments of which pulping potential was assumed to vary were formed: wood from regeneration cuttings, first-thinnings wood, and sawmill chips.

In the experimental part of the study, the average wood and fibre characteristics and their variation were determined for the raw material groups. Subsequently, each assortment – equalling about 1,500 m3 roundwood – was pulped separately for 24 h period. The properties of obtained newsgrade thermomechanical pulps were then determined.

Thermomechanical pulping (TMP) from sawmill chips had the highest proportion of long fibres, smallest proportion of fines, and had generally the coarsest and longest fibers. TMP from first-thinned wood was the opposite, whereas that from regeneration cuttings fell in between these two. High proportion of dry heartwood in wood originating from regeneration cuttings produced a slightly elevated shives content. However, no differences were found in pulp specific energy consumption. The obtained pulp tear index was clearly the best in TMP made from sawmill chips and poorest in pulp from first-thinned wood, which had generally inferior strength properties. No big differences in any of the strength properties were found between pulp from sawmill residual wood and regeneration cuttings. Pulp optical properties were superior in TMP from first-thinnings. No noticeable differences were found in sheet density, bulk, air permeance or roughness between the three pulps.

The most important wood quality factors were the fibre length, fibre cross-sectional dimensions and percentage juvenile wood. Differences found in the quality of TMP assortments suggest that they could be segregated and pulped separately to obtain specific product characteristics and to minimize unnecessary variation in the raw material and pulp quality.

  • Tyrväinen, E-mail: jt@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 494, category Research article
Antero Varhimo, Soili Kojola, Timo Penttilä, Raija Laiho. (2003). Quality and yield of pulpwood in drained peatland forests: pulpwood properties of Scots pine in stands of first commercial thinnings. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 494.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; peatland; thinning; silviculture; pulpwood; fiber; pulping
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The inherent structural dynamics of drained peatland forests may result in a great variation in various wood and fiber properties. We examined variation in fiber and pulp properties i) among stands, ii) among trees within stands, and iii) within trees in young stands dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The stands, selected to cover a maximal range of the potential variation, were all at a stage of development where the first commercial thinnings would be feasible. Differences in the processability of the thinning removals were small. In similar kraft cooking conditions, a 5-unit variation in the kappa number of unbleached pulp was observed among the stands. Stand origin had no effect on pulp bleaching. The wood formed prior to drainage had a higher density, shorter fibers, was slightly slower delignified by cooking, and its yield was slightly lower than that of post-drainage wood. These properties, except for high density, are typical for juvenile wood in general, and at stand level they did not correlate with the proportion of pre-drainage wood. When the variation in fiber and pulp properties was broken down into its components, most of it was derived from tree-level in all the cases. On average, the fiber and pulp properties did not differ from those observed for first-thinning pulpwood from upland sites. Consequently, peatland-grown pulpwood may be mixed with other pulpwood in industrial processes. It would probably be best suited as the raw material for pulps with high bonding requirements, e.g. in the top ply of multi-ply board grades or in some specialty grades.
  • Varhimo, KCL, P.O. Box 70, FIN-02151 Espoo, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Kojola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:
  • Penttilä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:
  • Laiho, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail:

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