Current issue: 57(2)
Under compilation: 57(3)
Growth data were collected from 40 European aspen (Populus tremula L.) stands growing on eight localities in Sweden. The stands ranged in latitude from 56 to 66°N. The mean age of the stands was 32 years (range, 12–63), the mean stand density 1978 stems ha-1 (range, 300–6,000), and the mean diameter at breast height (on bark) 17 cm (range, 8–34).
Site index curves were constructed for total age. Curves for H40 (dominant height at 40 years total age) were made for total Sweden. Curves fitted for H40 total age have another shape than curves presented by other Nordic studies. The curves from the present study have slower growth for young aspens than curves from Norwegian and Finnish conditions. For 50–70-year-old aspen stands, curves from the present study indicate taller heights than from Nordic studies.
Classified soil types from the stands were grouped into three groups: sandy till (17), light clay (15) and medium clay till (4). As there was only one stand growing in the fine sand group and one stand in the heavy clay till group and two stands in the silty till group, these stands were not presented with growth curves. There were no statistically significant differences in site index between the three soil type groups. Some recommendations for management of aspen stand are given. Damages caused by moose, fungi and other injuries are discussed as a problem for height yield production and a good timber quality.
Europe’s forest area has increased 5 million ha since the late 1960s. The growing stock has increased 43% and the net annual increment 55% in exploitable forests since 1950. A part of the reported increase is caused by sampling inventories, which have been made in greater part of the countries. Sampling inventories have corrected earlier underestimates of the growing stock and the increment.
The difference between the annual net increment and fellings has increased since 1950. The net increment, 584 million m3, exceeded fellings, 408 million m3, by 176 million m3, in exploitable forests in 1990. If fellings could be increased to equal the increment, Europe would be an exporter of forest products.
A greater increase in the density, in the age and in the mean volume of forests per hectare threaten the biological stability of the growing stock. Degrading of the stock, increasing natural losses and deteriorating environmental qualities of forests can only be prevented by increased fellings and by forest regeneration.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
The paper, presented at the seminar ”Forestry in Europe: Implications of European Integration for National Forestry”, discusses the effects of first Forestry Action Programme in the European Community, UNCED 1992, the European Community’s new Forestry Strategy and the second Forestry Action Programme directives of conservation of habitats on forestry within the EC.
The paper, presented at the seminar ”Forestry in Europe: Implications of European Integration for National Forestry”, discusses the meaning of the European Community for the forestry sector, putting a special emphasis on recycling. Subsidies and the so-called ”Forestry Action Program” are among the topics that have raised controversial discussions within the EC. In addition, wood fibre recycling and the EC draft directive on packaging waste includes ambiguous targets for recycling.
A brief overview of forestry in European Community (EC) of the 9 is presented. Forestry incentives seem necessary for increasing timber production on private ownership in order to avoid possible price inflation.
In the economic analysis of the program evaluation method proposed here to assess the efficiency of such incentives, a broad EC perspective is recommended to avoid erroneous conclusion. The evaluation made from the prospect of a member country only is artificial and is influenced by EC policies anyway. The evaluation changes depending on whether these EC policies are considered given and immutable or not.
In the densely populated Central Europe, forestry has always had different functions than in Scandinavia or Canada. Today the increasing pressures on the environment and more numerous demands of the people have put emphasis on environmental management and the demands of recreation in forest management practiced in the area. This paper outlines the trends in the utilization of forests in Central Europe, and especially in the Federal Republic of Germany, due to these changing targets. The regulations concerning forestry in Baden-Würtenber, and the forest plan of the Bavarian state forests are used as an example to clarify the principals of forest management and planning.
Experimental applications of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (Borrelinavirus diprionis) to control of the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoff.) was carried out during the last outbreak of this sawfly in in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland in 1963. Quantities of polyhedrosis virus preparation, collected and purified in Finland were available as concentrations packed in capsules. Spraying took place in three localities in southwestern Finland when the larvae were in I–III instars.
When Finnish and Swedish preparations were used 83–96% of larval colonies were completely destroyed within 14 days. In addition, an attempt was made to change the virus in latent stage, present already in the area, to acute stage by application of substrates which are probably harmless to pine, but were expected to stress the larvae. Ground quarts as spray had the best lethal effect upon larvae.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
According to the statistics, the fuel wood consumption in Europe has declined since 1925/1929, when the total fuel wood consumption was 144 million m3. In 1960 the consumption was 108 million m3. Because of insufficient statistics in the early years, the drop may even be larger than shown by the figures. The aim of this paper is to assess what part of European fuel wood removals in 1960 could be used for industrial purposes by 1975.
It was estimated that in 1975 the use of fuel wood in Europe will be about 45–55 million m3 less than in 1960 and about 10 million m3 of this amount will consist of coniferous species. It is believed that about 45 million m3 could be transferred to industrial use by 1975, and 55 million m3 is supposed to be the maximum reduction achievable by 1975. The estimates are based on the revised European fuel wood removal figures.
The new European timber trends and prospects study reveals a shortage of small-sized coniferous wood of about 25–43 million m3, depending on whether the exports from Europe are curtailed or not. The decrease of coniferous fuel wood of 10 million m3 could almost entirely be transferred for the use of industry.
A more important question is, is there demand for the extra small-size broadleaved wood. It is important to note that there is no longer any technical limitations on the use of this kind of wood for producing pulp, paper paperboard and wood-based panel products.
Fuelwood is often collected by the farmer and used near the farm. If the wood is to be used in the industry, harvesting and transport costs need to be decreased. However, productivity of the logging and transportation may be significantly improved by cutting the trees into longer lengths and professional harvesting. About 40% of the potential transfer of fuelwood to industrial uses is concentrated in Finland (7 million m3), France (5 million m3), and Italy (7 million m3). Other countries with significant potential shifts could be Romania, Spain and Yugoslavia.
The PDF includes a summary in French, German, Dutch, Russian and Finnish.
The aim of the study was to update knowledge of natural range of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.), Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Miller), wych elm (Ulmus glabra Mill.) and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in Finland, and estimate how far north they could be grown as forest trees or as park trees. The study is based on literature and questionnaires sent to cities and towns, District Forestry Boards, districts of Forest Service, Forestry Management Associations and railway stations.
The northern borders in the natural range of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: English oak, European ash, Norway maple, wych elm, and small-leaved lime. Occurrence of European white elm is sporadic. The English oak forms forests in the southernmost Finland, while the other species grow only as small stands, groups or solitary trees. According to experiences of planted stands or trees, the northern limits of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: European ash, English oak, Norway maple, European white elm, wych elm and small-leaved lime. All the species are grown in parks fairly generally up to the district of Kuopio-Vaasa (63 °). The northern limits where the species can be grown as park trees reach considerably further north in the western part of the country than in the east.
The article includes a summary in English.
Distribution of European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pallas) is on its northernmost border in Pyhäjärvi and Kokemäenjoki area. This survey describes distribution of European white elm in the flooded shores of the central lake of Pyhäjärvi and Kokemäenjoki river water system.
Both Ulmus laevis and U. montana (now U. Glabra Hudson) can be found in the area, but most of the elms qrowing in thea area are U. laevis. U. laevis occurs around the lake in two separate areas, almost entirely in flooded shores of the lake. Regeneration of elm from seeds was limited on a narrow belt on the higher part of the flooded shore. Consequently, U. laevis can be found as zones around the lake, created by the changes in water level of the lake. The trees are judged to be native for the area.
The article includes an abstract in German.
There has not been complete agreement as to what is meant by ectendotrophic mycorrhizae, and there is a wide variety of opinion among authors on mycorrhizal terminology. In this paper ectendotrophic mycorrhizae are defined to be short roots with Hartig net and intracellular hyphae in the cortex. A mantle and digestion of intracellular hyphae may be found but are not necessary. In the study of Mikola (1965) ectendotrophic mycorrhiza was found to be common in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in Finnish nurseries. The mycorrhizae had always similar structure and the mycelium isolated from the seedlings (E-strains) was similar. The aim of this study was to find out what kind of ectendotrophic mycorrhizae exist in forests and nurseries outside Finland, what kind of mycorrhizae do the E-strains isolated from Scots pine form with other tree species, and are these associations symbiotic.
Only one type of ectendotrophic mycorrhiza was found on the 600 short roots collected from the continents of Europa and America. The type was similar to the one described by Mikola: the mycelium is coarse and forms a strong Hartig net, and intracellular infection is heavy. Evidence is convincing that this structure was formed by the same fungus species. The species is unidentified. Mycorrhizae synthesized by E-strain with six spruce species, fir, hemloch and Douglas fir were all ectotrophic.
The E-type ectendotrophic mycorrhizae proved to be a balanced symbiosis. The seedlings of 13 tree species inoculated with the E-strain grew in the experiment better than the controls. The observation that ectendotrophic mycorrhizae dominates in the nurseries but is seldom found in forests, and then only in seedlings growing in the forest, was confirmed in the study. In synthesis experiments E-strain formed either ecto- or ectendotrophic mycorrhiza depending on the tree species.
This paper concentrates on the roundwood commerce in Western Europe as seen from the point of view of Finland, considering the role of Eastern Europe. The first part analyses exports and imports both quantitatively and qualitatively, and the balance of the trade in the export countries. Second part covers the new market groups in Europe and the opportunities for a common market.
Arter the Second World War, a surprisingly large trade in roundwood reappeared in Europe. The European countries exported in average 11 million m3 of roundwood annually, of which 4.3 million m3 was pulpwood, and 2.8 million m3 pitprops. Finland leads exports during the 1950s with a yearly average of 4.2 million m3, followed by France and Sweden. Western Germany is the largest importing country with a negative balance of 2.8 million m3. It is concluded, from a theoretical point of view, that in Western Europe only Finland can maintain a large roundwood export. From a national point of view, however, it would be more favourable to expand the countries’ own refining industries.
On the whole, it seems as if the European roundwood trade should continue on a rather large scale during the 1960s, partly because the border trade can be expected to increase, with a freer trade, and partly because the European timber deficit needs filling from sources outside Europe. In addition, the pulp industries in the importing countries will compete more and more keenly with the exporting countries for pulpwood supplies.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
Sales of cellulose have been handled in Finland since 1918 on a central marketing system through the Finnish Cellulose Union (Suomen Selluloosayhdistys), which is a joint sales company formed by the enterprises. First part of the paper constitutes the questions of the channels and functions of marketing. The most focal problem is related to the interests of individual producers. The second part concentrates on the brand policy of central marketing.
The small number of producer companies and – for 40 years ago – the existence of relatively few categories and grades on the market have contributed to the birth of central marketing of cellulose in Finland. Central marketing is probably more advantageous for smaller firms and companies less well placed than the biggest concerns. It levels out the status held by the best and the weakest firm in individual marketing and consequently perhaps does not give a top brand the standing it would have in relation to the other brands in individual marketing. Central marketing may have advantages also in regards of general price level and marketing costs.
The marketing system is dependent on the conditions in which it is to be carried out. An example of this is that Scandinavian cellulose producers have fairly good opportunities under the individual marketing system of using the service factor, owing to the good and far-ranging scheduled shipping facilities of the countries. It is probably the different conditions in this country that have made Finland’s cellulose marketing system essentially different from that of the Scandinavian countries.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
This study concentrates on claims made against Finnish shippers or referred to arbitration by foreign buyers. The material is collected from two inquiries on claims and arbitrations, sent by the Finnish Sawmill Owners’ Association to Finnish sawmills engaged to exportation in 1954 and 1958.
On average the claims concerned about 5% of the sawn goods exported from Finland. They affected about 3% of the deliveries from the large sawmills, 10% of the deliveries of medium-sized sawmills and 15–20% of the small sawmills. In large consignments of raw material, variations in quality are not so marked as in smaller ones. Also, the grading of goods is stricter in the larger sawmills, and as they have well-established business relations, they have better opportunities to select goods with a view to demand of the buyer and the marketing areas.
The ratio of goods claimed was least in exports to remote countries, on the Western European markets in exports to Great Britain and the Netherlands. In Belgium, the ratio was high. In 1954 and 1958 approximately 12% of the claims were referred to arbitration. The bigger the sawmills, then on average the smaller the ratio of cases of arbitration in the number of claims. In Belgium, disputes have had to be settled by arbitration most frequently. Over 90% of the claims were made because of defects in quality or condition. About 5% were in respect of the specification of dimensions, and only 5% were related to other reasons than the good themselves. The sums paid for claims connected to the goods in 1958 represented only 54% of those demanded by the buyers. It would perhaps be advisable to consider the formulation of generally acceptable rules of the grading of export timber according to categories of shippers with definition of the minimum standard for each grade.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The article presents the development of the saw-alike tools from the Stone Age to Iron Age and to modern times. The most common forms of saws are described and the history of studies on the theme as well.
Repairing of a saw after work is described in detail. The seven phases of the work are: fastening and tightening the saw to the frame, evening the row of the saw tooth, determining the depth of the gullet area, sharpening the teeth, setting of the saw, and check-up of the repair.
The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
The article summarizes import and export of timber and manufactured wood products in Europe before the Second World War, and outlines which are the opportunities of import and export after the war. The evaluation is based on statistics of 1936 and 1937. The export balance of Europe was positive; when all the timber assortments were included, Europe exported almost 10 million m3 more timber than it imported. Export and import of round timber were almost in balance, whereas export of paper products was about 12 million m3 larger than import. Consequently, European forest industry reached its magnitude before the war through export overseas. Foreign markets have been important especially for countries like Finland and other Nordic countries.
The war has disturbed the markets. In a scenario where Europe remains a closed sub-area in the global market, there is 10 million m3 excess of timber and wood products. Within Europe, United Kingdom is the greatest importer of timber and manufactured wood products. If UK was excluded from the European market, it would mean a big change in the export and import balance within the area. In 1936 and 1937 the import would have been only 45% and 55%, respectively, of the export if UK is not included in European numbers. If also Russia is excluded from the European sub-area, it would affect especially the export of round wood, sawn timber and plywood. Nordic countries have accounted for about 80% of European paper products export before the war. According to the article, Finnish wood resources do not allow big increase in sawn industry. However, there is potential in increasing demand of pulp in continental Europe in future. In general, Finnish forest industry would have to decrease the production, if the markets would be limited to the European sub-area.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
The article describes the distribution of the European white elm; its sites and vegetation communes; phenotype (size and form); variations in the leaves; inflorescence and fruiting; germinative capacity of the seeds; regeneration, both vegetative propagation and from seeds; commercial use of the timber; and the history of European white elm.
The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
The article presents middle-European forests and their characteristics, development and use. The main question is whether the current practice of planted coniferous tree forests should be kept or whether more natural mixed forests should be introduced instead. The article discusses the pros and cons of these and the possible felling and management practices.
The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.
The study area is state owned forest of Vesijako in southern middle Finland that has earlier been intensively managed with slash-and-burn agriculture and then partly reforested with foreign coniferous tree species after controlled burnings. The total area planted with foreign species consists of 66 sample areas, altogether 28 hectares. The data has been collected in summer 1909.
The most of studied sample areas have been unsuccessful, but there are still many areas that are too young to be assessed. The originally with foreign species reforested areas are now pine stands. The tree species in experiments have been e.g. larch (Larix sibirica and L. europaea), Siberian stone pine (Pinus cembra sibirica), Siberian fir (Abies sibirica o. pichta), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white fir (Abies pectinate also Abies alba), white spruce (Picea alba also Picea glauca), Weymouth pinen (Pinus strobus) and European / Swiss mountain pine (Pinus montana also P. mugo, P. mugho).The most important result of the experiments with controlled burning is that stand of grey alder (Alnus incana) with only low economic value can be effectively altered into coniferous forests (Pinus silvestris).
An understanding of the genetic variation of the beech, especially at the edge of its natural distribution, is essential because of the change in natural distribution of the species resulting from changing climatic conditions. The main aim of the study was to determine the level of genetic diversity of European beech at the north-eastern edge of its natural range. The other aim was to check the genetic variation of beech from the two centres, the north and the south of Poland, which were identified in previous findings based on pollen analyses and phenotypic traits. The research material was the progeny of twelve beech provenances. The genetic structure of the populations was determined by ten highly variable microsatellite DNA loci. The results confirmed the high genetic diversity of beech at the north-eastern edge of its natural distribution, which infers the probability of their good adaptation to the changing climate and an extension of the range. Genetic analyses confirmed the existence of two genetic centres for beech in Poland. The populations from south-eastern Poland had a slightly higher diversity than the populations from the north-western area, which may indicate that the colonisation of Poland occurred by two routes. The results are important for creating the borders of the provenance regions and for limiting the transfer of seeds and seedlings. The choice of forest reproductive material, based on the knowledge of genetic diversity, is very important for the stability of future forests.
The European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) is a medium-sized deciduous tree that spreads northeast of the middle of Lithuania. Carpinus betulus L. is a native tree in Poland, and its branch is migrated by two Pleistocene refugia. We hypothesised that its branches had spread to Lithuania. In this study, we selected 10 populations of hornbeam that were chosen from their distribution location. We sequenced the chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH of 70 individuals. We found 24 bp deletion in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) individuals of two populations in the southeastern part of Lithuania. In the seven forest populations, we examined the morphological variability of hornbeam seed involucres and nuts variations of 30 morphometric characteristics. Initial genetic population studies were conducted over a wider area; when differences were detected, morphological studies were conducted in the contact zone. Morphometric differences between the study populations were significant. The existence of two haplotypes of cpDNA supports the hypothesis of two migration refugia in C. betulus populations. This study contributes to significant novel knowledge about the morphological and cpDNA variability of European hornbeam populations in Lithuania and Europe.
Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, European black pine, is a typical component of Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean coniferous forests with highly fragmentary distribution. Western Mediterranean populations of this species have been studied genetically to date, while eastern populations from the central Balkans, which are larger and more abundant, are still genetically understudied. We analyzed seven populations of P. nigra representing all infraspecific taxa recognized within the central Balkans (subspecies nigra with varieties nigra and gocensis Đorđević; and subspecies pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe with varieties pallasiana and banatica (Endl.) Georgescu et Ionescu), with three chloroplast microsatellites (cpDNA SSRs) and one mitochondrial (mtDNA) locus. Although our molecular data failed to support circumscription of studied infraspecific taxa, we found that genetic patterns at both genomes are in accordance with those found previously in westward populations of this species, that is – exceptionally high levels of genetic diversity (HT = 0.949) and low genetic differentiation (GST = 0.024) at the cpDNA level, and moderate levels of genetic diversity (HT = 0.357) and genetic differentiation (GST = 0.358) at the mtDNA level. Based on genealogical relations of mtDNA types currently present in Balkans’ and Iberian/African populations, we inferred that the ancestral gene pool of P. nigra already harbored polymorphism at position 328 prior to the divergence to two lineages currently present in westward and eastward parts of the species range distribution. Subsequent occurrence of three mutations, which distinguish these two lineages, suggests their long-term isolation.