Current issue: 57(2)
Under compilation: 57(3)
The paper elaborates upon various theories to explain economic development and restructuring in the forested regions of advanced countries. The concepts of communities based on the forest sector and the concept of restructuring are discussed before presenting the diversity of relevant theories. Different theoretical approaches in geography and regional and socio-economic sciences are analysed, and the paper concludes that each theory gives only a partial explanation of restructuring under certain conditions. This paper recommends that an explanatory framework should take into account – in addition to general explanatory factors – sectoral, local-specific and policy-related factors and the role of human agency in attempts to explain restructuring and development.
In this paper, different approaches and results concerning forest tax design are reviewed. In particular, comparisons are made between Scandinavian approaches, which rely on the two-period model, and North American approaches, which largely rely on the Faustmann model. Existing work is critically evaluated according to several stylized facts that are common among forest taxation problems. These include the second-best forest policy environment, joint production of public and private forest goods, the dynamic nature of forest capital, public and private ownership, competition between forest and non-forest sectors, and global policy constraints on taxation design. The gaps in addressing stylized facts are used to motivate new research directions. Problems and appropriate public finance literature are identified for investigating forest tax policy under government budget constraints, fiscal federalism, dynamic forest tax design, open economy forest tax policy, and econometric studies of reform. One conclusion reached from discussing future research is that two period and dynamic models will continue to prove useful in analysing taxation design from the government's perspective.
This paper is an assessment of what in Finland are referred to as local forest management associations (LFMAs); the local units of a non-profit, forestry-promotion institution. First, the concept of organisational effectiveness is explored and an attempt is made to define it with respect to the LFMAs. The study then seeks to identify the environmental constraints, organisational characteristics and managerial practices differentiating the most effective and least effective associations. Discriminant analysis revealed four determinants of effectiveness: agrarian prosperity in the given area, activeness in marketing services to forest owners, the board of governors' role, and goal setting practices. The results thus indicate that the comparison of managerial policies and practices among LFMAs can provide useful information for improving their effectiveness.
Addressing the potential impact of climate change on boreal forest ecosystems will require a range of new conservation techniques. During the early 1990s, the scope of WWF's (the World Wide Fund for Nature) forest policy work has broadened from a focus on tropical moist forests to a more general consideration of all the world's forests. Climate change is only one of a series of threats currently facing boreal forests.
Planning conservation strategies that take account of global warming is not easy when there are many computer models of climate change, sometimes predicting very different ecological effects. Climate change could result in some particularly extreme problems for the boreal forest biome. A summary of the problems and opportunities in boreal forests is presented. WWF has also been drawing up strategies for conservation on a global, regional and national level. The organization has concluded that conservation strategies aimed at combatting climate change need not be in direct conflict with other conservation planning requirements. However, proposals have emerged for ways to address the impacts of climate change that would have detrimental impacts on existing conservation plans.
Model-based information systems have proved valuable planning tools for analysing the production possibilities of forests as well as for understanding forest resources dynamics, stand management practices and forest economics. Computerized forest models implemented in the users’ information systems facilitate the transfer and application of research results in practical forestry.
Conclusions and visions concerning modelling are drawn from experiences in developing the MELA system and its application in solving timber production problems on both the national and forest holding level in Finland. The precondition for predicting forest resource dynamics and for planning the utilization of forests is to accept conditions, uncertainties and a restricted period of time.
The interactive process of forest resource, growth and drain monitoring, and forest management planning supported by forest research and modelling, are the means to enable an operational information base for a dynamic regulation and adaptation strategy for forest resource management under changing conditions and uncertainty.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
The paper, presented at the seminar ”Forestry in Europe: Implications of European Integration for National Forestry”, discusses the effects of first Forestry Action Programme in the European Community, UNCED 1992, the European Community’s new Forestry Strategy and the second Forestry Action Programme directives of conservation of habitats on forestry within the EC.
The paper, presented at the seminar ”Forestry in Europe: Implications of European Integration for National Forestry”, discusses the meaning of the European Community for the forestry sector, putting a special emphasis on recycling. Subsidies and the so-called ”Forestry Action Program” are among the topics that have raised controversial discussions within the EC. In addition, wood fibre recycling and the EC draft directive on packaging waste includes ambiguous targets for recycling.
The usefulness of forest sector models in forest policy analysis is discussed, mainly based on experiences from Norway. Forest sector modelling is contrasted to two alternative approaches: (i) Intuitive, verbal analysis, and (ii) econometric models. It is concluded that forest sector models, properly developed in contact with the policy makers, should be of considerable value in forest policy analysis.
This paper designs an Economy-Welfare-Environment Adjustment System model (EWEAS model or EWE model in short) which consists of the circular flow of the economic, the welfare, and the environment system of forestry. That is, this model builds the relationship between the systems for material wealth and that for mental wealth.
The EWE model is designed as a complete open system model which describes the economy-welfare-environment circular system in forestry by linking up the internal system of forestry with the surrounding external systems. The EWE model can be manipulated as a policy formation or a policy decision model, and it is available for policy evaluation in the economic, the welfare and the environmental phase of forestry. The model is a basic simulation system model which is reliable in its reproductive fitness, stability and universality. Thus, this model ought to be useful in any country in the world as well as in Japan.
Non-industrial private landowners hold about two-thirds of the forest land in the southern United States. The types of public (state) and private (consulting and industrial) assistance offered to these owners is reviewed. In total, about 1,600 foresters in the South provide management assistance to non-industrial private forest owners. They assist at least 72,000 owners annually, including provision of management plans for about 10 million acres and supervision of over 4 million acres of leased lands.
A brief overview of forestry in European Community (EC) of the 9 is presented. Forestry incentives seem necessary for increasing timber production on private ownership in order to avoid possible price inflation.
In the economic analysis of the program evaluation method proposed here to assess the efficiency of such incentives, a broad EC perspective is recommended to avoid erroneous conclusion. The evaluation made from the prospect of a member country only is artificial and is influenced by EC policies anyway. The evaluation changes depending on whether these EC policies are considered given and immutable or not.
Comprehensive state laws regulating the practice of forest management on private lands are in effect in seven of the United States. Established to protect a wide range of non-timber forest resources and to ensure reforestation after harvest, these laws may impose significant administrative costs on states and significant compliance costs on landowners and timber operators. Total state administration costs for 1984 are estimated at $10.1 and total private sector compliance costs are estimated at $120.5 million, for a total regulation cost of $130.6 million.
The resource protection effectiveness of state forest practice regulation is difficult to quantify. However, agreement is strong that regulation has led to significant improvements in forest resource conditions and has helped to increase reforestation.
In 1979, the Federal Research in the United States instituted a so-called ”tight money” policy which led to a decrease in the demand for stumpage. The decrease in demand brought about lower stumpage prices and, consequently, a waning interest in policies to stimulate NIPF production. The authors report on five recent studies on NIPF behaviour and raise concerns that increases in demand for housing may bring new pressure upon NIPF as a source of wood.
A nation that wishes to enhance its social and economic well-being through more intensive utilization of its forest resources must develop a rather comprehensive policy statement to ensure that the expanded exploitation does not lead to the destruction of these resources. The policy must specify the goals to be achieved, provide general direction on how these goals can be achieved, and develop a system of checks-and-balances to ensure achievement of the long-term objectives. The policy must consider resource protection, the economic needs at the various levels of government, the social impacts of utilization on ways of life in all areas of the nation, and the infrastructure needed in the short and long terms.
In order to understand the present forest policies for the small woodlot of Quebec, it is essential to understand the history of settlement of Quebec. Following this brief description, the author introduces the various forest policies (programs) which have been initiated in Quebec by various levels of governments in order to deal with the management of these lands.
In Japan many governmental projects have been promoted during 35 years since 1950, which were most active in the history of our forestry and wood industry. They were pushed forward for and by high economic growth. This article refers to the development of our forest policy and projects in those days. But as for the future of the forest economics, it is an urgent question to develop the comparative study between every nation’s experience. In order to contribute to this problem, the forest policy is divided into three fields and experiences are discussed.
Standard methods of welfare economics are used in a market simulating framework to evaluate policy measures designed to increase future timber supplies. Forest management cost-share programs are examined using this methodology. The differential regional impact of cost-share payments is considered, as is the distribution of these benefits between stumpage producers (owners of forest land) and stumpage consumers (producers of forest products). Previous estimates of the welfare gains that would result from a higher level of forest management cost-share payments in the southern United States are revised to account for the loss of public revenue resulting from lower future prices. A methodology for comparing alternative policy instruments is discussed, and a preliminary, qualitative comparison is made between the use of cost-share payments and alternative policy measures.
An empirical analysis of the Finnish non-industrial private forest owners indicates that forestry extension has an effect on the supply of timber and the use of cutting potentials. This effect appears to be indirect rather than direct. The use of extension services is likely to increase the frequency of timber sales, which in turn, increases the use of the allowable cut via increased volume of actual cuttings. Forestry extension can also be considered as an intermediate variable through which certain background conditions and owner characteristics affect the use of cutting potential.
To conduct an efficient forest policy, both a normative and a positive theory are necessary. In addition, however, the explicit intertemporal considerations in natural resource economics demand that it is made crystal clear which means are permanent and which are non-permanent. The permanent case is far from easy to solve.
That the theoretical problems have practical relevance is shown by Swedish experience. A practical course of action is to weight possible positive effects from a permanent subsidy against possible deleterious outcomes. It is also desirable to avoid jerkiness in forest policy, which is likely to create uncertainty about the permanence of permanent means.
Law may sometimes be more efficient in creating ”credibility” than economic incentives. Regeneration has been mandatory in Sweden since 1903, and nobody refrains from cutting because he believes that regeneration duty will be abolished in some near future.
Development of timber sale accounting system for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service ordered by the U.S. Congress, has entailed numerous evaluations and research projects. Critics of the current process claims administrative costs are not recovered by the prices paid for Federal timber. However, management of multiple resources for multiple uses makes traditional accounting difficult; i.e., keeping track of cash flows. A further complication involves allocating costs to the various resources (joint cost allocation), for which no nonarbitrary method currently exists. A concurrent issue involves the building of roads for timber harvest into areas released from wilderness consideration. Environmentalists see the road building program of the Federal land management agencies as an additional reason Federal management costs are not recovered from timber-generated revenues. The heart of the issue is which lands are economically suited for timber management, and what nonmarket benefits and costs accrue from the timber management.
The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to evaluate the profitableness of a forest policy program and to discover from among the feasible programs the one that best complies with the desired performance of the economy. At first the procedures of forest policy-making in a country like Finland is considered. After that a method to evaluate forest policy programs is derived.
Some of the quantification problems which face the designer of a forest policy program are discussed. Experiences drawn from the preparation of the Forest 2000 program in Finland are used as examples. Both the defining of goals and the choice of means are surveyed and their interconnection in the planning process emphasized.
The importance of forestry and forest industries to the Finnish economy led, at a very early stage, to a close cooperation between the interest organizations concerned and the government which founded the economic advisory council. The development of the social system in Finland since the 50’s can be described with the help of the neocorporatist theory. This can also apply in part to the forest and forest industry policy. According to Olson’s group theory the representation of interests of the forest owners as a free association was forced to use various incitements to win new members or to maintain old ones. This led to tension with the forest industry which had developed its own activities to approach forest owners. Following the economic crisis, the wish was expressed for an official forestry policy programme. In response to indirect requests to the state, a project committee was formed by the economic advisory council in order to work towards a long-term plan to solve the problems and to carry out the objectives of the forestry and the forest industries. In formulating phase of the policy, the marked neocorporatist consensus between the associations and the state became evident. Certain controversial questions were, however, postponed and thereby remained unresolved. The interest organization of forest owners held an important position throughout all the phases of program design up to their realization.
Comparative analysis could offer a number of advantages in the science of forest policy. Comparisons make use of the compiled material from different countries, point to new origins and solutions of issues of forestry and allow to question the common presuppositions in the national forest policy in a critical way.
The basic requirement of fruitful comparative research is a common scientific framework. In the light of empirical-analytical theory it is more promising to compare only one factor across regions than the whole system. The forest administration could be such a suitable object of comparison in particular because it is to be found all over the world, and it has a formal and partly public organization with a number of similarities. The product of forest administration is policy. The significance of the bureaucratic behaviour in agenda setting, policy formulation, legitimating, and implementation with regard to an issue of forest policy is to be analysed.
The two significant fields of analysis, namely forest administrations and the issues of forest policy characterize the strategies of research. By making use of a collection of papers dealing with forest bureaucracy we can select countries for comparison according to the following criteria: socioeconomic context, space and time. The next step is to analyse comparatively the behaviour of the forest bureaucracy in treating a special forest issue. The explanations can be tested empirically in different countries. Perhaps the dying of the forest could be a suitable issue as an object of comparative analysis which again could enlarge our knowledge about the forest administration as a political factor.
Land use problems are very often a serious obstacle to forestry development in several countries of both developed and developing world. To overcome these problems an integrated land use policy is needed for designing and implementing innovative programs aimed at the integrated development of forestry with other land uses and the social, cultural, political, ecological and economic environment involved. Policy analysis can assist in the success of such programs by identifying the people’s needs and concerns, by gathering information about land capacity, land tenure and the traditional production systems, by testing alternative polices and by evaluating the programs after their implementation so that the necessary readjustments are made.
Forest legislation is one of the important institutional elements for the development and expansion of the forest sector. It provides the structural framework within which national forest policies are set and in turn reflects or should reflect their objectives and priorities. It is also an indispensable instrument for the implementation of those policies.
Forest laws in the sector specific sense have been modified and developed considerably during the last decades. They tend to incorporate more and more provisions on environmental protection and natural resources management and become de facto part of such legislation. Forest legislation as a whole can today only be interpreted meaningfully if it is considered within the framework of an expanding legal system for environmental conservation and social development.
This paper considers the problems of world’s forestry and emphasizes the policy nature of the most threatening issues. A policy science approach is needed in order to be able to provide effective tools to solve the problems. Incremental forest policies followed are evaluated to be too tardy to respond to the many forestry issues of today. Managing the global forestry issues presupposes the design of new and more effective and efficient public policy programs. More profound policy analysis is therefore needed to improve the intellectual basis for planning and decision making. The advancement of the research on the effectiveness presupposes further development of the theories of timber supply and forestry investments as well as the improvement of national forestry statistics. The whole forest policy process should be a subject to intensified systematic research.
This is a discussion paper on certain trends in forestry, and society as a whole which may constitute a major challenge for forest policy analysis in the future. Developed and developing countries are treated separately. In developed countries, one of the problems requiring policy analysis is the rising opportunity cost of forestry and the consequent weakening interest in commercial forestry among nonindustrial private forest owners. In developing countries, the most acute problem is the depletion of forests. While looking at the relative merits of the remedial means actually applied or suggested, major guidelines are needed for a proper balance between commercial timber production and forestry for rural development. Evaluation of past forestry projects is also desirable.
The issue of Silva Fennica comprises 22 papers on forest policy and program analysis, and evaluation presented at the XVIII IUFRO World Congress in 1986 arranged in Ljubljana. The papers discuss the future and role of policy and program analysis, the effectiveness of policy programs on timber supply and private forestry investments as well as the application of forest sector models to policy analysis.
The PDF includes the preface and list of authors in English and an abstract in Finnish.
The Forest 2000 Programme is a long-term programme for forestry and the forest industries in Finland. It attempts to obtain a better integration of timber production and other forms of forest use. The total annual cut is to be increased by 15 million m3 by the year 2010. This is almost one third greater than the level during the first few years of the 1980’s. In order to achieve the cutting targets, the cut area will have to be increased by almost one third by the turn of the century. The area of thinnings will experience the greatest increase. Considerable changes are proposed in silvicultural and basic improvement work. According to the programme, the growth of the raw-material base and the consumption of the wood-based products will permit an annual increase of about 3% in the production of the forest industries as a whole until the end of the century. This would be the same as the target growth rate of the GNP.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
A methodology to evaluate forestry programs aimed at increasing timber supply from nonindustrial private forests is presented that aggregates the marginal social cost and marginal social benefit of a sample program participants and compares them in a benefit-cost efficiency ratio. The paper exposes a methodology followed to evaluate several forestry programs in Massachusetts, USA, and discusses its advantages and inconveniences compared to the other methodologies that have been used for the same purpose. The marginal analysis is based on detailed property and landowner behaviour surveys which are costly but represent a good standard to compare the performance of other approaches.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effect that the various measures by society have on bringing the level of the annual cut by private woodlot owners in line with the forestry policy goal of a long-term sustained yield of wood. The objectives and measures of forest policy in Sweden are described, as well as the central relations which explain the development in the logging policies of the private woodlot owners.
The goal of Swedish forestry policy has long been to safeguard a sustained yield of wood. This demand has successively been tightened, defined and detailed. The principle measure employed by the authorities to obtain the goal has been silvicultural legislation.
The author summarises that of all the means available of influencing the logging policy of private woodlot owners the most effective is silvicultural legislation. However, when viewed in an historical perspective, the legislation has not been able to significantly regulate the level of the annual cut. Nevertheless, at a time when there is a shortage of wood materials the legislation will undoubtedly exert a greater influence. Changes in forest taxation could prove to be an effective means in future of, for example, achieving an increase in the annual cut of private woodlot owners.
In dealing with the effectiveness of forest taxation reform as a means of economic policy, the paper starts by recalling certain objectives of taxation, as well as the effect on aggregate demand of taxation in general. The effect of forest taxation depends on such factors as (1) whether the woodland owner has a regular income from a source other than forestry; (2) the system of taxation (whether taxation of actual stumpage revenue or of area-based yield); (3) the progression of taxation; and (4) the woodland owner’s income level.
The problem is illustrated by an example taken from Finland, where forestry revenue is taxed on the basis of area-based yield. A shift to taxation of actual stumpage revenue, as is proposed, is assumed. The effectiveness of this change is studied in terms of how far the assumed change is consistent with the objectives of the national economy. It is assumed that a shift to taxation of actual stumpage revenue would cause a decline in roundwood supply. A sensitivity analysis is then applied to detect the effect on tax revenue and national income of the tax reform. It is likely that a 10% decrease in fellings would bring about a reduction of tax revenue which would not be compensated for by the more perfect exposure of forestry income to taxation brought by the reform. The effect on investment, production, employment, differences in individual and regional income, and on the international balance of payments also disfavour the suggested change.
Private forestry in the Federal Republic of Germany mainly consists of small holdings. Out of 534,000 proprietors 97% own 0.01–10.0 ha. This category covers 45% (1.4 million ha) of private woodlands in total. During the last decades cooperation has increased so that now about 50% of the small woodland is managed by voluntary cooperatives. The main aim of the cooperatives is the improvement of management by trying to overcome the disadvantages arising from small size, unfavourable location and splitting up, as well as from insufficient accessibility and other structural difficulties.
An economic analysis of forestry cooperatives was conducted by using a combination of model calculations and field investigations of 20 forestry cooperatives which represented different types of cooperation in all regions of the country. The theoretical calculations showed the amplitude of efficiency improvement in small holdings by means of cooperation. It was shown that there were relatively poor results in the beginning and success could be achieved only in the long-term view by improving quality of stands. According to the analysis of the 20 cooperatives, the possible annual cutting rate was 4.1 m3/ha, but the actual cutting rate reached only 3.7 m3/ha. Aims of the cooperatives manly concerned coordination of production, mechanization, material acquisition and timber sales. The subsidization of forestry cooperatives proved, in general, to be insufficient. A discussion of different ways of subsidization showed that from the microeconomic point of view direct product subsidies of timber production may be more favourable than area-based grants.
In Japan, there are 2,990,000 forest owners within the scope of Forest Cooperatives, 60% of which are members of forest cooperatives. These are the largest functional organizations concerning private forests in Japan. The majority of members are small woodland owners with less than 20 ha per person, and 90% of the members are of agricultural cooperatives. The variety of memberships makes it difficult for cooperatives to strengthen its solidarity. The article describes the legislation concerning cooperatives in Japan, characteristics of business, reforestation and logging made by the forest cooperatives, and reorganization of the forest workers of the cooperatives.
Steady expansion of the main activities of the Forest Cooperatives, i.e. logging, marketing and reforestation, has been seen during the past 20 years. Logging and marketing have been taken over from the timber-dealers, and reforestation has been expanded by the Forest Cooperatives on the members’ behalf.
A study to determine the effectiveness of private forestry assistance programs in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in Canada was conducted among three complementary groups of individuals concerned with the private forest resource. Rural residents, members of woodlot owner associations and extension foresters in the four provinces were surveyed using three different, bilingual questionnaires. The majority of rural residences do not use forestry assistance programs. 45% of the woodlot association members responding used one or more of the several available programs. 54% of these users had a high regard for the assistance provided. Extension foresters felt that the objectives of their respective assistance programs were being met with available resources but performance could be bettered with more staff, increased budgets and an improvement in communications. This was a first attempt to evaluate private forestry assistance programs in a Canadian context
The purpose of the present study is to explore the applicability of some methodological approaches to empirical policy analysis in evaluating the effectiveness of public forest policy. From the perspective of effectiveness analysis we can distinguish in forest policy, aiming at the promotion of timber production, two principal objective levels in forestry: the quantity of silvicultural investments and their allocation and the quantity (sufficiency) together with the structure of timber supply. This paper is restricted to the exploration of the effect of forest policy measures directed to silvicultural investments in private forestry. First, the effects of state subsidies in silvicultural investments are analysed. The analysis is macro analysis of quantitative forest policy means, in which aggregated time series data are used as study material. Second, an attempt is made to provide a causal interpretation of the impacts of qualitative forest policy means at the woodlot level. This micro analysis utilizes an approach characteristic to the behavioural sciences.
It is concluded that like quantitative forest policy means the qualitative means, coupled with the activities of the forest promotion organizations, play a significant role in attaining the timber production goals. Of these, the professional advice given by forestry experts, has a direct effect on silvicultural activities. Extension and training activities have an indirect effect by increasing the willingness of forest owners to employ experts on their woodlots.
The need for the planning and analysing of public policy has increased in economic and social policy, along with the expansion of the public sector, i.e. as the number of aims of the policy has increased and the objects of it have become more versatile, the objects of allocation have likewise been multiplied. In addition, the significance of planning a public forest policy has been emphasized by many economic and social changes in forestry and the timber economy.
The purpose of the present paper is to outline a general frame of reference for empirical policy analysis, upon which the effectiveness analysis of forest policy is also based. The approach serves as a methodological frame for the empirical analysis, presented in the following paper of this issue of Silva Fennica, in which econometric methods are applied to the examination of the effect of public forest policy.
Research concerning the forest owners’ behaviour plays an important role in the evaluation of the effectiveness of forest policy on small woodlots. This is because the effects of forest policy measures on forestry are indirect and channelled through the behaviour of a forest owner. In this paper some basic concepts and methodological problems of forest owner studies are discussed. First, the concepts ’forest owner’ and ’forestry behaviour’ are defined on the basis of general sociological term, social role. Second, the problem of explanation and the selection of the explanatory model in forest owner studies is discussed. In this connection the heuristic nature of the selection of the explanatory model is underlined. It is pointed out that the proper explanatory mode in forest owner studies is decisively dependent on the objectives of the study or on the kind of information that will be obtained by the study. In such studies that intend to serve the planning and implementation of forest policy, it seems necessary to aim at causal explanations, and to analyse the general determinants and factors that can be manipulated in forest owners’ behaviour.
To what extend can the services of forestry fulfil the needs of a nation? The answer depends not only on the natural resources or the stage of development of a country and its forestry, but also on its base of knowledge and know-how. The question is how to maximize the knowledge of forests and its role in human life, how to analyse this knowledge and in due course forward the result to the decision makers.
As an organic part of economy and culture, forest policy must incorporate a balanced and up-to-date program of education which will cover the needs of all forest-based services to the public. This program ought to guarantee a sufficient number of qualified professionals, technicians and workers who for their part should share their knowledge and especially field experiences for the development of the nation’s forest policy.
The forest management must be turned into a profession that will have its permanent role in the general planning of the nation’s economy and welfare. Depending on the structure of the country’s administration, there are different ways to make the professional voice heard by the responsible politicians. In any case a close and continual discussion and cooperation between politicians and professionals will be essential. Discussions must take place in the early phases of the planning in order to minimize erroneous planning caused by eventual lack of factual knowledge among the politicians. Information must be given in clear and uncomplicated terms, understood also by the public which must be well informed about the aims and duties of the professionals as well.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
The part played by research work in guiding the management and utilization of Lapland’s forests is examined in this publication. The review has been written to mark the 70th anniversary of the Finnish Forestry Society (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science).
The climate in Lapland is very severe and, owing to the lack of experience abroad, forestry has been forced to follow the guidelines set by domestic research activity in Finland. Research work was very active in Lapland the 1910’s, 1920’s and 1950’s, and the main outlines for forestry utilisation were soon established. In the 1950’s, there was a strong trend prevailing to develop forestry, with the result that a change took place in favour of clear-cutting. The cool climate period in the 1960’s caused considerable damage to young plantations. In order to find means to rectifying the situation and to devise new guidelines for forest management, The Finnish Forest Research Institute established a number of research stations in Lapland.
Research activity has had a pronounced effect on the management and utilization of forests in Lapland. Present-day problems have been caused more by the international situation than by difficulties in the management of forests in Lapland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The paper deals with the methodological problems concerning policy planning and evaluation in small woodlands. A methodological approach to effectiveness of forest policy measures calls, according to the author, for using a frame of reference formed by general economic theory and models of forest owners’ behaviour. Thus, it is important for the selection of forest policy means, and for evaluating the likely effects of a policy, to know the behaviour of the decision makers being influenced. The use of models of forest owners’ behaviour in planning forest policy is motivated by the fact that measures must often affect the woodlot through the owners’ decision making.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The agricultural committee appointed by the Finnish Government in 1958 pointed out a problem that the rural population needed to be ensured employment and earnings from forestry. A forestry study group was called to investigate the effects of forest improvement on employment and income, on four fields: a) forest drainage, b) afforestation, c) thinning of young stands, and d) construction of forest roads. Items a, b and c increase output, and d creates outlets for timber and increases stumpage value.
The study outlined three alternative silvicultural programmes. The Basic Programme corresponds average forest management in Finland in 1953–1959. The Medium Programme can be seen conditional to the realization of the felling plan worked out in a study group Heikurainen-Kuusela-Linnamies-Nyysönen in 1961 in a committee report of Forestry Planning Committee. Finally, according to an Intensive Programme to which forest management, especially afforestation and forest drainage, will be raised to the highest possible level.
The costs of different silvicultural measures of the three programmes were estimated. The allowable cuts were calculated corresponding to the silvicultural programmes for the period 1961–1970 and 2001–2010. After calculating labour input and costs, could the increase in employment and income be estimated for the whole economy, and separately in forestry, communications and industry. When calculating the labour input required for the forest management work and road construction, the probable rise in productivity following mechanization and rationalization has been taken into account.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The present publication concerns the report of the committee appointed by the Finnish Government to draft a programme or the development of Finnish forestry and increase of its production.
Part I of the paper reviews the development of forestry and forest policy in Finland. After the World War II – following the land settlement – ca. 1.5 million hectares of land, mostly owned by the state, was transferred to private ownership. The committee states that because the division of small farms and land settlement policy private forests have tended increasingly to become small forests. The decrease in size of forest units has interfered development of forestry. In part II, the forest utilization programme for the period 1963–1972 is outlined. In the country, logging in 1953–1958 was carried out on a fairly sustained yield basis. The regional picture is, however, not as good, and in Southern Finland there has been over-cutting.
A long-term logging plan was prepared on the request of the committee. The allowable cut following this plan would suffice the calculated wood requirement for the years 1963–1972. In the part III, the committee introduces a silvicultural program for the years 1963–1972 to increase the yield of wood. The targets of logging, sowing and planting, and silvicultural work are considerably greater than what was achieved in the 1950s. To speed up the realisation of the silvicultural programme, working plans should be prepared on a large scale for forest enterprises, afforestation and forest drainage should be increased, and a national seed storage should be established.
Part IV discusses the forest work situation from the stand point of the realisation of the forest utilisation programme and silvicultural programme. Part V introduces a host of recommendations concerning forest policy and economic policy.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
In 1956 the Finnish Government appointed a committee to plan the promotion of forest research in accordance with the needs of the national economy. The present publication contains an account of the committee’s work and its recommendations.
Attention is drawn to the fact that forestry in Finland is a natural and important means of livelihood. Hence forestry research must be effective and versatile, for extensive forestry calls for intensive research. In the subsequent chapters, a historical survey of forest research in Finland is presented, including a list of the institutes, organisations and other bodies active in this work. Finnish forest research is mainly centred around Forest Research Institute, which was founded in 1918, and similar research is also pursued at the University of Helsinki, as well as by many other institutes and scientific societies.
After a reviewing the present needs for research and the demands intensive forestry sets upon scientific investigation, the committee concludes that contemporary forest research in Finland cannot completely satisfy these demands. Consequently, the country’s research institutes should be expanded and developed considerably.
The recommendations concern mainly the development of the Forest Research Institute. The committee suggests doubling the personnel of the institute, creating several new departments and increasing the financial allocation to the institute. Certain reforms in the administration of the institute is also recommended. Special attention is drawn to the development of the publicity service. Also, the research in the forestry departments University of Helsinki should be developed. National and international co-operation between various research institutes and organizations should be improved.
The report is supplemented by a draft proposal concerning legislation on the Forest Research Institute, a plan for developing the training of research workers and a recommendation on the retention of certain land areas for scientific and experimental work carried out by the Forest Research Institute.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The article is a review on state forests of Finland. The aim of the review is to describe the state and management of the state forests. Low revenue of the stat forests has been criticised, and misunderstandings have led to economic policy that has had negative impacts on state forestry.
The history of forest ownership of the state begins from 1400th century when Finland was part of Sweden. The article describes in detail the different stages in ownership of state forests and development of forest administration.
Forest Service was established in 1859. In 1949 it had two departments, a private forest department and a state forest department, and four local conservancies, Peräpohjola, Ostrobothnia, Western Finland and Eastern Finland. The forests were managed according to a business plan, which was based on a forest survey and a long term silvicultural working plan. The business plan gave a basis for annual working plans.
The state forests are mainly situated far from sites of forest industry and large human settlements. This affects demand and prices of wood. Especially demand of small diameter timber has been low. Floating is the main means of transport of the timber. The article describes in detail the forest resources of state forests, forest management practices and changes in state forestry. Suggestions to improve the profitability of state forestry are given. These include, for instance improving transport infrastructure and the productivity of forestry.
Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.
This presentation describes the peparation of national budget in forestry administration.
The earliest local records of lack of timber in Finland are from the 1600th century when Finland belonged to Sweden. The causes vary from burning of tar and shifting cultivation to local factories using fuel wood. Best preserved were forests in Lapland and Kainuu in Northern Finland and those parts of Karelia where shifting cultivation was not practiced. Especially harmful was shifting cultivation, because it made it impossible to grow valuable timber. The state did not intervene in the use of forests until it itself began to need more wood. Shipbuilding was the first cause to limit the use of wood, especially need of mast trees of pine and oak. Also the use of timber by private sawmills began to raise general concern in the 16th century. They influenced the decrease of forests in the 1800th century, due to the limited wood procurement areas and selection felling of timber trees. The establishment of sawmills became regulated in 1700th century. Collective forest ownership by the farms was seen at the time one of the reasons to forest devastation. In 1654 the state of Sweden forbade the burning of mast or in timber forests. Mining industry needed much fuel wood, and shifting cultivation was forbidden near the mines in 1734. Regulations and instructions were also on given on use of wood, for instance, in building, in fences, leaf fodder, fuel wood and tar burning.
Despite of many efforts, the government of Sweden could not prevent devastation of forests in Finland. The many wars of the state hindered economic growth, the regulations were sporadic and often difficult to apply, there was little supervision, the understanding of forestry was poor, and the remote Finland was often neglected in Sweden.The PDF includes a summary in German.
The article gives a review on the history of forest management in the Northern countries. The article concludes that in the Northern Countries with their immense supplies of forest and small demand, because of sparse population, there was no hurry for developing the study of forest economics, as was the case in Central Europe. It was only when the modern wood using industry had revolutionized the marketing conditions, that the opportunity was provided for forest economics to develop. The paper introduces the book ’Om skogarnas skötsel in Norden’ (Silviculture in the Northern Countries) written by a Finn C.C. Böcker. That paper was compiled in behalf of a request of the king of Sweden, King Carl XIV Johan, who offered a price to a person who would draw a scheme for organizing forestry in Sweden, where Finland at that time belonged to. The prize was divided by Böcker and a swede, af Ström.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish and English and the original text in Swedish.
The forest management practices in Finland are closely related to the industrial history in the country. The selection cutting method used previously has now been gradually disappearing, and differences in the quality of forest management can still be observed between different owner groups. The national forest inventories indicate that farm woodlots show the poorest silvicultural state among the ownership categories. This study analyses social and economic causes responsible for variation in the silvicultural state of farm woodlots managed jointly with a cultivated land holding. The study is based on the data of third national forest inventory in Finland, and a factor analysis was calculated using the data.
Although the model developed explains more than a half of the total variance of the level of silviculture, only less than third of this is clearly explained by economic and social factors. The remaining two thirds are explained by the ’nature factor’, which includes both economic and site factors. This affects the effect of different kinds of forest policy measures. Of the variables in the model, the strongest influence in the level of silviculture have income, size of woodlot, size of land area under cultivation and distribution of forest types. The differences in the level of silviculture between different woodlots and different districts, may be explained by the theory of cumulative process. Regional differences in economic phenomena cannot be explained without taking into consideration the social value hierarchy in each region, which determines the range of variation of economic variables.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The purpose of this study was to analyse economic models used in certain studies and to evaluate whether the economic theory envisaged by a model is consistent with its aims in forest policy. Second, the paper will point out assumed improvements for models that can be used as a basis for forest policy.
There are two types of economic models according to their purpose. One type, the marketing models, can be used for explaining or forecasting the consumer’s behaviour with no intension to affect the economies to be gained from the alternative patterns of behaviour explained. Others, the policy models, are meant to serve as guideposts which by means of normative forecasts point out the programme to be followed in order to attain certain aims. The majority of the policy models are static. The paper assesses the static models, and evaluates how well they fit their purpose. Special attention is given to dynamic economic models. A dynamic model can, at least in principle, be used to explain the course of events during the adjustment period required to achieve a production goal.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
Forest policy can be traced several hundred years back in Sweden. One of the early restrictions was related to iron industry, which was dependent on supply of charcoal. This led in the 17th century to the regulation of the industry in order to fit its capacity to the sustained yield of the forests. Also the early sawmill industry was kept under supervision in the mining districts in order not to compete with the iron industry of the forests resources.
In 1903 the fears of shortage of wood, caused by a few decades of unrestricted use of forests and the rise of pulp and paper industries, resulted in the first forest law (enacted in 1905). The leading principle of the law was that the owner of the forest had to secure reforestation after felling. When previously the regulation had limited the fellings within the sustainable yield of the forests, the new law aimed at promoting the productive capacity of the forests. New felling methods were developed and the new practices were spread to the forest owners with help of education, propaganda and giving advice. One important factor in the success of the forest law was founding of County forestry boards, which are the main agencies to materialize the constructive ideas of the new forest policy.
The First National Forest Survey was conducted in 1923-29, followed by the second in 1938, and third in 1954. A new forest law came into force in 1923, which prohibited the cutting of immature forests in other ways than by thinning. In 1948, new amendments of the law were introduced, which, for instance allowed the forest owner to put part of the income derived from the timber sales into a bank account to be later used in reforestation.
The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.
The article is an overview of forest policy in the end of 1800s and beginning of 1900s in Finland. This is a period of time, when public opinion towards forest officers and forestry in the state forests was very critical. In 1870-1890 the discussion was also accelerated by language dispute between supporters of Finnish and Swedish in Finland. The root of the problem was in the middle of 1800s when management of state forests were gradually transferred to districts administered by forestry offices. At the same time, landless people had been settling in state-owned lands and establishing farms, mostly without permission. The questions concerning settling in state forests was often addressed to foresters in the forest offices. Several commissions discussed the situation, rights of the settlers and forestry in the state forests. The general opinion supported the settlers, and they were allowed to keep their farms. Towards the end of the century the value of state forests increased, which brought more emphasis on forestry in the state lands and restrictions to settlement.
Forests and forestry in northern Scandinavia is affected by the climate, as well as economic and demographic questions. In northern Norway the issues of forest management are related to broadleaved forests, in Northern Sweden and Finland, the forests are mainly coniferous. These forests are still mostly primeval forests as the exploitation of the forests have begun slower than in the south. The Finnish forests are mainly owned by the state which makes the challenges of forestry a management problem within the Forest Service. In Sweden, the rational use of forest resources of the north has been lively discussed. Rational management of forests has begun in the southern and central parts of the country, but as the rationalization process reached the northern Sweden, many biological, economic and forest policy problems emerged. This paper outlines the forest resources, forest policy and legislation (so called lappmarkslag, an act that regulate the use of forest in the region) concerning the problems of forest management in northern Sweden.
The article is a detailed review on the problems in the general parceling out of land (isojako) in Kuusamo, Kemijärvi and Kuolanjärvi counties from the context of forest policy. The disputes about division of the land originate from military tenure contracts (knihtikohtrahti) made with the local tenants in 1700s. Later some counties got alleviations in the contracts concerning taxation and partition of land. These alleviations delayed the parceling out of land in the area. According to the article, from the forest policy point of view, the inhabitants in Kuusamo, Kemijärvi and Kuolanjärvi were conveyed disproportionately large forest properties from the state due to the military tenure contracts. This gave them undue benefits from the state compared to the neighbouring counties.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
The article includes a program for an investigation concerning land purchases by the forestry companies in Finland, requested by the Finnish Forest Association in 1917. The paper draws detailed principles for collecting a comprehensive, accurate and objective information of land purchases of the industry, as well as land holdings, farms and forest lands owned by the companies. Finally, it gives suggestions on how to correct the observed problems in the land purchase, and how to balance the conflicts of interests between the different branches.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
Questions of the small size of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) holdings in Finland are considered and factors affecting their partitioning are analysed. This work arises out of Finnish forest policy statements in which the small average size of holdings has been seen to have negative influence on the economics of forestry. A literature survey indicates that the size of holdings is an important factor determining the costs of logging and silvicultural operations, while its influence on the timber supply is slight.
The empirical data are based on a sample of 314 holdings collected by interviewing forest owners in 1980–86. In 1990–91 the same holdings were resurveyed by means of a postal inquiry and partly by interviewing the forest owners. The principal objective was to collect data to assist in quantifying ownership factors that influence partitioning among different kinds of NIPF holdings. Thus, the mechanism of partitioning was described and a maximum likelihood logistic regression model was constructed using seven independent holding and ownership variables.
One out of four holdings had undergone partitioning in conjunction with a change in ownership, one fifth among family owned holdings and nearly a half among jointly owned holdings. The results of the logistic regression model indicate, for instance, that the odds on partitioning is about three times greater for jointly owned holdings than for family owned ones. Also, the probabilities of partitioning were estimated and the impact of independent dichotomous variables on the probability of partitioning ranged between 0.02 and 0.01. The low value of Hosmer-Lemeshow test statistics indicates a good fit of the model, and the rate of correct classification was estimated to be 88% with a cut-off point of 0.5.
The average size of holdings undergoing ownership changes decreased from 29.9 ha to 28.7 ha over the approximate interval 1983–90. In addition, the transition probability matrix showed that the trends towards smaller size categories mostly concerned the small size categories. The results can be used in considering the effects of the small size holdings for forestry and if the purpose is to influence partitioning through forest or rural policy.
The goal-setting in forest policy and the means available for achieving the desired goal of forest policy are examined in this study. Examination of the goal is done using a macromodel of a closed economy. In the model GNP is assumed to be linearly dependent on the supply of raw wood. The model is used to derive the marginal conditions of the optimum equilibrium forestry with respect to the growing stock and the silviculture. The effect on the forest owners’ behaviour of the following means are examined: the taxation of ”pure income” from forestry, the taxation of income from selling raw wood, unit sales taxation and ad valorem sales taxation of forestry and corresponding sales subsidies, the support of silvicultural investments and the channelling of income from wood sales into silvicultural investments. The marginal conditions have been defined according to the maximum principle. An empirical study concerning the raw wood market in the case of softwood logs, and silvicultural investments in the case of young stand tending, has been carried out on the basis of the theoretical examination.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
The Forest Financing Committee played an important role in Finnish Forestry in the 1960's. This voluntary working group prepared three plans for financing basic forest improvement work from 1965 to 1975.
The report describes the origin of the MERA I (1965–70) and the volunteer work of the Forestry Financing (MERA) Committee in preparing the second and third programmes (1966–75). It deals the initiative of the Committee aiming to finance forest improvement works also from international sources, resulted later on to the Forest Improvement Project (1973–76). Its costs were covered for 16% by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development in form of a State Loan. The report includes comments about the forest policy in Finland during the 60s and 70s as well as the results of the programmes.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish and Swedish.
The purpose of this paper was to design the goals for Finland's forest research policy in the 1970's in order to promote the implementation of the five general science policy objectives approved by the Government. Nine objectives and 22 research activities were formed for forest research policy by applying the relevance tree approach. A simplified Delphi technique was used to find out the two groups of forest research activities having the strongest and second strongest impact on the five Government science policy objectives.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.