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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'wood supply'

Category : Article

article id 5165, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1982). Roundwood market: A source of stagnation of the forest industries. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5165.
Keywords: forest owners; forest taxation; private forests; timber sales; wood supply; behaviour
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Certain trends in the sales behaviour of private non-industrial forest owners suggest that the forest industries have to rely on a raw material supply much less than the allowable cut. This paper deals with several factors responsible for the change in sales behaviour during the last 20–25 years. These changes are caused by social change, a multi-face process which is led by industrialization. It is manifested in the increasing division of labour, more pronounced strive for efficiency, change in social values for the benefit of the adoption of innovations and thus of further changes.

It has become more common than previously to borrow money instead of selling timber. An incentive for doing so is provided by the increased progression of income tax scales which makes it more profitable than earlier to substitute a loan for timber sales with a view to reduce the amount of taxes. In 1977, the real value of the farmers’ debts was 1.7 times as large as in 1970. Inflation provides a further incentive to borrow money rather than to sell timber, because it tends to reduce debts, whereas a growing stock keeps increasing without affecting the property taxation, maintaining its real unit value.

Certain forestry policy measures conductive to increasing the forest owner’s willingness to sell timber are suggested. Among the most promising seems to be an adjustment of the present area-based yield taxation so as to take into account the age class distribution of the growing stock.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4955, category Article
Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto. (1976). Puutavaraselvitys 1976. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4955.
English title: Timber report 1976. – Finland’s roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue balances by 1980 as well as the wood raw material situation of Finnish forest industries by the year 2000.
Original keywords: metsäteollisuus; raakapuu; puuvarat; raaka-aine; metsätase; teollisuusjätepuu; metsätähde
English keywords: Finland; roundwood supply; forest industry; logging residue; timber balance; Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries; industrial residue
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study was carried out on behalf of the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries Federation) in order to obtain information about the wood raw material situation, to serve, in turn, as a basis for the forest industries’ long-term planning. The study deals with the potential supply of roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue by the year 200 by five wood-supply areas. Examination of the situation during the period of 1972–80 is based on available balances and that concerning the period 1985–2000 in the estimated quantities available for industrial use.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto, E-mail:
article id 4884, category Article
Kauko Hahtola, Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Aarne Reunala. (1973). Metsänomistajien puunmyyntikäyttäytyminen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4884.
English title: The timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners.
Original keywords: yksityismetsät; puukauppa; metsänomistajat; hakkuusuunnite; puun tarjonta
English keywords: Finland; forest owners; allowable cut; private forests; timber sales; wood supply
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The task of this study was to gather all available information concerning timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners and to try to find the probable trends in this behaviour. The initiative for the study came from the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries.

In Finland there are areas of timber savings and those of overcutting. These are mainly explained by regional variation in prosperity of forest owners. There are also several individual factors affecting timber sales behaviour. Without major changes in forest policy the annual variation in quantity cut in Finland is increasing and the degree of cutting seem to remain below the allowable cut.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown
  • Reunala, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown
article id 4846, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1971). Metsäteollisuutemme laajennukset ja puuraaka-aineen riittävyys. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4846.
English title: Expansion capacity of Finnish forest industries and the sufficiency of wood raw material.
Original keywords: puunkäyttö; metsäteollisuus; Suomi; metsätase; puuntarjonta
English keywords: wood utilization; forest industries; timber balance; wood supply
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Finnish forest industries have doubled their use of wood raw material during the past two decades. The average annual overcut of 4.0 million m3 in 1960–64 has been turned into an average annual surplus of 2.7 million m3 in 1965–69. By 1974 industry’s requirements for domestic roundwood would increase by about 6.3 million m3, if all new capacity can be taken into full production. The MERA allowable cut, if realized, would leave a 1.5 million m3 annual surplus in the forest balance in 1974. Less intensive forestry programs would mean a 1.5 to 4.4 million m3 overcut in 1974.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Article

article id 7640, category Article
Seppo Vehkamäki. (1986). The economic basis of forest policy: a study on the goals and means of forest policy. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 194 article id 7640.
Keywords: forest policy; forest ownership; forest taxation; wood supply
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The goal-setting in forest policy and the means available for achieving the desired goal of forest policy are examined in this study. Examination of the goal is done using a macromodel of a closed economy. In the model GNP is assumed to be linearly dependent on the supply of raw wood. The model is used to derive the marginal conditions of the optimum equilibrium forestry with respect to the growing stock and the silviculture. The effect on the forest owners’ behaviour of the following means are examined: the taxation of ”pure income” from forestry, the taxation of income from selling raw wood, unit sales taxation and ad valorem sales taxation of forestry and corresponding sales subsidies, the support of silvicultural investments and the channelling of income from wood sales into silvicultural investments. The marginal conditions have been defined according to the maximum principle. An empirical study concerning the raw wood market in the case of softwood logs, and silvicultural investments in the case of young stand tending, has been carried out on the basis of the theoretical examination.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Vehkamäki, E-mail: sv@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 400, category Research article
Antti Mutanen, Anne Toppinen. (2005). Finnish sawlog market under forest taxation reform. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 400.
Keywords: forest taxation; reforms; roundwood supply; simultaneous equations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The stepwise transition in forest taxation from site productivity tax to taxation of profits from timber sales was one of the major institutional changes to impact Finnish non-industrial private forest owners in the 1990s. In this study the effect of the forest taxation reform on the aggregate supply of sawlogs was investigated using time series analysis and quarterly data. In particular, we estimated two simultaneous equations systems for the pine and the spruce sawlog markets. According to the results, the forest taxation reform strengthened the supply of spruce and pine sawlogs in the anticipatory stage of the taxation reform in 1992. Also during the fiscal transition period, which started in 1993, the supply effect of the taxation reform has clearly been positive. The strong own-price elasticity of sawlog supply found in this study indicates high sensitivity to actual and expected wood price changes in the determination of sawlog supply in Finland. Furthermore, the results indicate that the theoretical assumption of a competitive market is suitable for the Finnish sawlog market, but that separate analysis of pine and spruce sawlogs provides additional insights into market behaviour.
  • Mutanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Toppinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

Category : Review article

article id 22018, category Review article
Felipe de Miguel-Díez, Thomas Purfürst, Mauricio Acuna, Eduardo Tolosana-Esteban, Tobias Cremer. (2023). Estimation of conversion factors for wood stacks in landings and their influencing parameters: a comprehensive literature review for America and Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 22018.
Keywords: log properties; roundwood measurement; roundwood purchase; stack properties; wood supply chain
Highlights: Midpoint diameter, stacking quality, crookedness, log length, delimbing quality and bark thickness strongly influence the conversion factors; In Europe and America, a total of 48 methods were developed to estimate the conversion factors of wood stacks; The conversion factors should be estimated for each wood assortment and tree species.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In commercial transaction of stacked roundwood, the estimation of the stack net volume plays a key role. One generalized method to determine the net volume is using conversion factors that relate the gross and net volumes. In this literature review the developed methods to estimate the conversion factors as well as their influencing parameters were analyzed based on 153 references from America and Europe. According to the results, 48 different methods (including their variants) for estimating the conversion factors were developed. The newest methods enabled their accurate determination inexpensively, e.g., photo-optical methods or 3D simulation models. The analyzed references revealed that 30 parameters influence the conversion factors. Based on this comprehensive review, each stakeholder involved in the roundwood supply chain can know which method is used for estimating the conversion factors in the analyzed territories and which influencing parameters should be considered when purchasing roundwood in order to accurately assess the solid wood content in the stacks.
  • de Miguel-Díez, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Department of Forest Utilization and Timber Markets, Eberswalde, Germany; University of Freiburg, Chair of Forest Operations, Freiburg, Germany ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Purfürst, University of Freiburg, Chair of Forest Operations, Freiburg, Germany ORCID E-mail:
  • Acuna, University of the Sunshine Coast, Forest Research Institute, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia E-mail:
  • Tolosana-Esteban, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Montes, Forestal y del Medio Natural, Madrid, Spain ORCID E-mail:
  • Cremer, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Department of Forest Utilization and Timber Markets, Eberswalde, Germany ORCID E-mail:

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