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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'geography'

Category : Article

article id 5638, category Article
Markku Tykkyläinen, Pentti Hyttinen, Ari Mononen. (1997). Theories of regional development and their relevance to the forest sector. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5638.
Keywords: forest policy; forest economics; regional development; restructuring; resource community; geography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper elaborates upon various theories to explain economic development and restructuring in the forested regions of advanced countries. The concepts of communities based on the forest sector and the concept of restructuring are discussed before presenting the diversity of relevant theories. Different theoretical approaches in geography and regional and socio-economic sciences are analysed, and the paper concludes that each theory gives only a partial explanation of restructuring under certain conditions. This paper recommends that an explanatory framework should take into account – in addition to general explanatory factors – sectoral, local-specific and policy-related factors and the role of human agency in attempts to explain restructuring and development.

  • Tykkyläinen, E-mail: mt@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hyttinen, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Mononen, E-mail: am@mm.unknown
article id 4475, category Article
Olavi Cajander. (1934). Viljavan maa-alan jakautumisesta sekä lehtokasvillisuudesta ja -kasvistosta keskisen Längelmäveden seudulla. Silva Fennica no. 34 article id 4475.
English title: Distribution of fertile lands and vegetation indicative for herb-rich forest sites in Längelmävesi area in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: kasvillisuus; Häme; lehdot; Satakunta; viljavuus; viljava maa
English keywords: fertility; plant geography; herb-rich forest sites; vegetation analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Typical for the area of Längälmävesi, in Satakunta in Southern Finland, are densely populated fertile lowland areas near the waterways and poorer sparcely populated upland areas. The changes in fertility of the land influence the vegetation, and has directed where the population has settled. A vegetation survey was made using specific plant species as indication to fertility. A detailed description of the species composition and distribution of the plant species indicative for fertile land is presented in the article.

Analyzing the fertility only based on the plant species indicative for rich soils underestimates the proportion of fertile lands. Farmlands, on the other hand, have been cleared also on less fertile soils, which would give an overestimate of the fertile lands. A map of fertile lands was drawn based on both vegetation and location of the fields. The changes in fertility influenced also bird species observed in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, E-mail: oc@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Article

article id 7101, category Article
J. P. Norrlin. (1923). Lectio praecursoria (the opening presentation) of J. P. Norrlin at his public defence of a doctoral thesis on may 13th 1871. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 7101.
Keywords: plant geography; Scandinavia; Norrlin; dissertation; biogeography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The text is the opening presentation by the author at his public defence of his doctoral thesis on plant geography of Finland. The text discusses the principles that apply on plant geographical classification of earth with respect to characteristics of vegetation and gives an oversight on the plant geographical work conducted in Scandinavia. 

  • Norrlin, E-mail: jn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7674, category Article
J. Ashley Selby, Leena Petäjistö. (1992). Small sawmills as enterprises: a behavioural investigation of development potential. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 228 article id 7674.
Keywords: information; bounded rationality; behavioural matrix; development potential; entrepreneurial partial space; human geography; phenomenological existentialism; small sawmills; entrepreneurship
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The investigation examines the development potential of small sawmills in rural Finland. Development is defined with qualitative bias, given small sawmills’ limited possibilities for large-scale investments. Potential is defined in terms of the behavioural limitations to development. The investigation assumes that small sawmill entrepreneurial behaviour is essentially satisficing, and that the concept of bounded rationality is applicable. The empirical material concerns a random sample of 399 sawmills from all regions in Finland collected in connection with the 1990 small sawmill inventory.

Three sets of enterprise/entrepreneurial attributes are constructed using principal component analyses: i) entrepreneurial skills & organization, ii) small sawmill outlets, and iii) information attributes. Development potential is measured by employing discriminant analyses to test these attributes against four a priori sawmill classifications: i) sawmill production structure, ii) entrepreneurial development intentions, ii) sawmill operating environments, and iv) sawmilling as a livelihood. Each of these analyses contributes to an understanding of the entrepreneur-enterprise dialectic.

Based on the use of Pred’s behavioural matrix, small sawmill entrepreneurs’ quantity & quality of information and their ability to use information are examined with respect to sawmill typologies. In this way, the entrepreneur-enterprise dialectic is given a third dimension, that of the entrepreneurs’ partial space. The analysis is therefore able to examine development potential from the standpoint of an entrepreneur-enterprise-environment (partial space) trialectic.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Selby, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
  • Petäjistö, E-mail: lp@mm.unknown
article id 7606, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen, Auli Immonen. (1991). Quantitative biogeography of the bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) in northern Europe. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 219 article id 7606.
Keywords: climate change; boreal forests; biodiversity; Nordic countries; multivariate methods; insect pests; biogeography; Scolytids; logistic regression models; faunal changes; Fennoscandia
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Biogeographical patterns of the Scolytidae in Fennoscandia and Denmark, based on species incidence data from the approximately 70 km x 70 km quadrats (n = 221) used by Lekander et al. (1977), were classified to environmental variables using multivariate methods (two-way indicator species analysis, detrended correspondence analysis, canonical correspondence analysis).

The distributional patterns of scolytid species composition showed similar features to earlier presented zonations based on vegetation composition. One major difference, however, was that the region was more clearly divided in an east-west direction. Temperature variables associated with the location of the quadrat had the highest canonical coefficient values on the first axis of the CCA. Although these variables were the most important determinants of the biogeographical variation in the beetle species assemblages, annual precipitation and the distribution of Picea abies also improved the fit of the species data.

Samples with the most deviant rarity and typicality indices for the scolytid species assempblages in each quadrat were concentrated in several southern Scandinavian quadrats, in some quadrats in northern Sweden, and especially on the Swedish islands (Öland, Gotland, Gotska Sandön) in the Baltic Sea. The use of rarity indices which do not take the number of species per quadrat, also resulted high values for areas near Stockholm and Helsinki with well-known faunas. Methodological tests in which the real changes in the distribution of Ips acuminatus and I. amitinus were used as indicators showed that the currently available multivariate methods are sensitive to small faunal shifts even, and thus permit analysis of the fauna in relation to environmental changes. However, this requires more detailed monitoring of the species’ distributions over longer time spans.

Distribution of seven species (Scolytus intricatus, S. laevis, Hylurgops glabratus, Crypturgus cinereus, Pityogenes salasi, Ips typographus, and Cyleborus dispar) were predicted by logistic regression models using climatic variables. In spite of the deficiencies in the data and the environmental variables selected, the models were relatively good for several but not for all species. The potential effects of climate change on bark beetles are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
  • Immonen, E-mail: ai@mm.unknown

Category : Research article

article id 1721, category Research article
Anna Hebda, Błażej Wójkiewicz, Witold Wachowiak. (2017). Genetic characteristics of Scots pine in Poland and reference populations based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 1721.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; phylogeography; conifers; genetic divergence; population structure; microsatellite markers; neutral variation
Highlights: Similar genetic variation was found between Polish Scots pine populations from a wide variety of habitats based on nSSR and cpSSR markers; Homogeneity was observed in the genetic structures of Polish and Finnish populations from the continuous pine range; Genetic differentiation in microsatellite markers was identified only when populations from the central pine distribution were compared to the marginal stands.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Polymorphisms at a set of eighteen nuclear (nSSR) and chloroplast (cpSSR) microsatellite loci were investigated in sixteen populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) derived from the provenance trial experiment and representative of the species distribution range and climatic zones in Poland. The patterns of genetic variation were compared to the reference samples from the species distribution in Europe and Asia. A similar level of genetic variation and no evidence of population structure was found among the Polish stands. They showed genetic similarity and homogenous patterns of allelic frequency spectra compared to the Northern European populations. Those populations were genetically divergent compared to the marginal populations from Turkey, Spain and Scotland. The population structure patterns reflect the phylogeography of the species and the divergence of populations that most likely do not share recent history. As the analysed provenance trial populations from Poland are diverged in phenotypic traits but are genetically similar, they could be used to test for selection at genomic regions that influence variation in quantitative traits.

  • Hebda, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Forestry, Institute of Forest Ecology and Silviculture, Department of Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, 29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Kraków, Poland ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Wójkiewicz, Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland E-mail:
  • Wachowiak, Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland; Institute of Environmental Biology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Poland E-mail:
article id 94, category Research article
Youhong Peng, Ke Chen. (2011). Phylogeographic pattern of Populus cathayana in the southeast of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China revealed by cpSSR markers. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 94.
Keywords: genetic differentiation; refugia; phylogeography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is thought to be highly sensitive and more vulnerable to global climate change than that of other areas. The uplift of the plateau as well as the climatic oscillations during glacial periods had a profound impact on plant species distribution and genetic diversity there. In the present study, seven pairs of cpSSR (chloroplast Simple Sequence Repeat) primers were utilized to detect genetic varieties of Populus cathayana Rehd populations from their natural range in the southeastern areas of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. A total of 28 alleles and 12 different haplotypes were detected. The proportion of haplotype variation among populations (GST = 0.794, NST = 0.900) indicated high level of genetic differentiation among populations and a significant phylogeographic structure (NST > GST, P < 0.05). This appears to support the hypothesis that these populations were derived from multiple refugia areas during the Quaternary climatic oscillations. Based on the haplotype network and mismatch distribution analyses, we found no evidence of postglacial range recolonization and expansion by P. cathayana in this region. This might be mainly due to the complex topography of the southeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The lofty mountain ranges and deep valleys in this region might have prevented long-distance migrations of this species during the climatic amelioration.
  • Peng, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu, China E-mail: (email)
  • Chen, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu, China E-mail:

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