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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'refugia'

Category: Research article

article id 94, category Research article
Youhong Peng, Ke Chen. (2011). Phylogeographic pattern of Populus cathayana in the southeast of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China revealed by cpSSR markers. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 94.
Keywords: genetic differentiation; refugia; phylogeography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is thought to be highly sensitive and more vulnerable to global climate change than that of other areas. The uplift of the plateau as well as the climatic oscillations during glacial periods had a profound impact on plant species distribution and genetic diversity there. In the present study, seven pairs of cpSSR (chloroplast Simple Sequence Repeat) primers were utilized to detect genetic varieties of Populus cathayana Rehd populations from their natural range in the southeastern areas of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. A total of 28 alleles and 12 different haplotypes were detected. The proportion of haplotype variation among populations (GST = 0.794, NST = 0.900) indicated high level of genetic differentiation among populations and a significant phylogeographic structure (NST > GST, P < 0.05). This appears to support the hypothesis that these populations were derived from multiple refugia areas during the Quaternary climatic oscillations. Based on the haplotype network and mismatch distribution analyses, we found no evidence of postglacial range recolonization and expansion by P. cathayana in this region. This might be mainly due to the complex topography of the southeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The lofty mountain ranges and deep valleys in this region might have prevented long-distance migrations of this species during the climatic amelioration.
  • Peng, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu, China E-mail: (email)
  • Chen, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu, China E-mail:
article id 240, category Research article
Monika Dering, Andrzej Lewandowski, Krzysztof Ufnalski, Aleksandra Kedzierska. (2008). How far to the east was the migration of white oaks from the Iberian refugium? Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 240.
Keywords: refugia; oaks; postglacial recolonization; Quercus robur; Quercus petrea
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The goal of this study was to investigate the postglacial recolonization pathways of the white oaks Quercus robur and Quercus petrea in Poland, and especially to evaluate the impact of Iberian refugium in this part of Europe. Chloroplast DNA polymorphism of 310 individuals older than 200 years was analyzed. Six haplotypes in total were found to differentiate three maternal lineages: the Balkan (haplotypes 4, 5, and 7), the Apennine (haplotypes 1 and 2), and the Iberian (haplotype 12). The most abundant were members of the Balkan (71.5% of all samples) and the Apennine lineage (23.1%), and only 5.4% of individuals were of Iberian origin. The geographic distribution of the three lineages is clearly structured. The northernmost territories of Poland are occupied by Apennine (haplotype 1) and Iberian (haplotype 12) lineages, whereas samples in central and southern Poland represents the Balkan lineage. The population structure might be the result of competitive colonization among lineages after migration from different refugia. It is likely that colonization of northernmost parts of Poland by the Balkan lineage was halted or at least hampered due to the arrival of the Apennine populations. The most significant result of this study concerns the presence and status of the Iberian lineage in Poland, which is most likely of natural origin.
  • Dering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, Parkowa 5, Kornik, Poland E-mail: (email)
  • Lewandowski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, Parkowa 5, Kornik, Poland E-mail:
  • Ufnalski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, Parkowa 5, Kornik, Poland E-mail:
  • Kedzierska, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, Parkowa 5, Kornik, Poland E-mail:
article id 427, category Research article
Scott A. Weyenberg, Lee E. Frelich, Peter B. Reich. (2004). Logging versus fire: how does disturbance type influence the abundance of Pinus strobus regeneration? Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 427.
Keywords: disturbance refugia; interspecific competition; Minnesota; seedling dispersion; seed source; white pine
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) has decreased in abundance over the past century throughout the Great Lakes Region of North America, but the relative constraints placed on recruitment under contrasting disturbance regimes are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent to which white pine could invade areas recently disturbed by fire or logging (within 10–28 years), and assess the relative limitations placed on recruitment by seed supply, microsite habitat, and competition. We compared white pine regeneration on 61 sites disturbed by fire or logging that were adjacent to intact mature stands that provided a seed source. White pine seedling and sapling densities declined with increasing distance from a seed source, and the rate of decrease was determined by the interaction between seed supply and variation in number and quality of safe sites. For a given combination of seed source and site, white pine seedlings were three times more abundant on burned than logged sites. White pine seedlings grew into the sapling size class more often on burned than logged sites due to lower shrub cover on burned sites. At 25 years after disturbance, regeneration densities of white pine sufficient to achieve eventual future dominance occurred up to 80 m and 20 m from the edge of mature white pine stands after fire and logging, respectively. To attain a similar level of white pine stocking after disturbance, three to four times as many patches of mature white pine need to be left after logging than after fire.
  • Weyenberg, University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources, 1530 Cleveland Ave. N., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA E-mail:
  • Frelich, University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources, 1530 Cleveland Ave. N., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA E-mail: (email)
  • Reich, University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources, 1530 Cleveland Ave. N., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA E-mail:
article id 558, category Research article
Tuomo Wallenius. (2002). Forest age distribution and traces of past fires in a natural boreal landscape dominated by Picea abies. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 558.
Keywords: boreal forest; disturbance dynamics; fire refugia; tree age
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Forest age distribution and occurrence of traces of past fires was studied in a natural Picea abies -dominated landscape in the Onega peninsula in north-west Russia. Forest age (maximum tree age) was determined and charcoal and fire scars were searched for in 43 randomly located study plots. In 70% of the study plots (30/43) trees older than 200 years existed. The largest 50-year age class consisted of plots with 251–300 year old forests. Traces of fires were found in all types of study plots, in forests on mineral soil as well as on peatlands. However, fire has been a rare disturbance factor, as traces of fires could not be found in 35% of the study plots (15/43). Estimated from the forest age class distribution, the fire rotation time for the whole area has been at least 300 years, but possibly considerably longer. This fire rotation time is much longer than fire history studies (largely based on examination of fire scars) commonly have reported for the average time between successive fires in Fennoscandia and Northwest Russia. The results suggest that the often stated generalisations about the importance and natural frequency of fire disturbance in boreal forests do not apply in landscapes dominated by Picea abies.
  • Wallenius, Department of Ecology and Systematics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)

Category: Review article

article id 923, category Review article
Katarzyna A. Jadwiszczak. (2012). What can molecular markers tell us about the glacial and postglacial histories of European birches? Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 923.
Keywords: Betula; cpDNA; glacial refugia; microsatellite; suture zone
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The last glaciation was one of the most severe of the Pleistocene epoch. The development of the Scandinavian ice sheet forced many species to reduce their ranges to areas with favourable climatic conditions. Most European species survived the Last Glacial Maximum in refugia in southern parts of Europe. Cold-tolerant species, such as birch trees and shrubs, could also inhabit western, eastern or central Europe. After climate warming, Holocene recolonisation began. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the genetic variation of four European Betula species to reconstruct their glacial and postglacial histories. Two chloroplast DNA haplotypes dominate within the ranges of all birch species, one haplotype is the most common in western and northwestern Europe, the second haplotype occurs mainly in the eastern and southeastern parts of the continent. This finding suggests that birches have recolonised Europe from the western and the eastern refugia, respectively. Most of Europe was likely populated from higher latitude refugia because there was no evidence of isolation by distance and weak genetic structures were detected. Similar patterns of haplotype distributions within Betula ranges indicate that postglacial recolonisation may be disturbed by interspecies hybridisation.
  • Jadwiszczak, Institute of Biology, University of Bialystok, wierkowa 20B, 15-950 Bialystok, Poland E-mail: (email)

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