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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'tree age'

Category: Research article

article id 9968, category Research article
Hubert Lachowicz, Anna Bieniasz, Rafał Wojtan. (2019). Variability in the basic density of silver birch wood in Poland. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 9968.
Keywords: Betula pendula; tree age; forest habitat type; thickness of trees; geographical location; physical properties of wood
Highlights: Location, tree age and forest habitat type, and the interactions between those factors, have a statistically significant impact on the basic density of silver birch wood; The average basic density of silver birch wood increases with the age of the tree.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This work presents the findings of a study concerning variability in the basic density of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) wood, depending on the geographical location of tree stands, the age and thickness of the trees, the forest habitat type, and interactions between some of these factors. The study was carried out on wood from trees aged approximately 30, 50 and 70 years in 12 forest districts located throughout Poland. In total 4777 wood samples, taken from 306 trees from 51 test plots, were measured. The location, the age of the trees, the thickness of the trees and the forest habitat type, as well as interactions between these factors, proved to have a significant influence on the basic density of silver birch wood. The highest mean values of the basic density of the birch wood were found in Sokołów forest district on the FBF habitat type (549 kg m–3) and in Giżycko forest district on the FMBF habitat type (548 kg m–3). For the entire set of examined material, the average values of the basic density of wood increase with tree age. For the examined material originating in FBF and FMBF habitats the average values of basic density showed no significant differences; however, in the cases of the forest districts of Giżycko, Łobez and Rudziniec, significant differences in the analysed property were observed.

  • Lachowicz, Department of Forest Utilization, Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159 02-787 Warsaw, Poland E-mail:
  • Bieniasz, Department of Forest Utilization, Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159 02-787 Warsaw, Poland E-mail: (email)
  • Wojtan, Laboratory of Dendrometry and Forest Productivity, Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159 02-787 Warsaw, Poland E-mail:
article id 507, category Research article
Tysk Staffan Ericsson, Lars Östlund, Rikard Andersson. (2003). Destroying a path to the past – the loss of culturally scarred trees and change in forest structure along Allmunvägen, in mid-west boreal Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 507.
Keywords: forest history; dendroecology; blazed trees; culturally modified trees; forest trails; tree age structure
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The tradition to blaze trees to mark trails and boundaries is very old in northern Scandinavia. The disappearance of culturally modified trees (i.e. trees with trail blazes) and changes in forest structure along a section of an old bridle trail in boreal Sweden was analyzed using historical maps and forest surveys from the period 1876 to the year 2000. Remaining blazed trees were located during a field study and selected scars were dated. In total 104 scarred living and dead trees were found. The scars originated from the early 1500s to the early 1900s. Analysis of the forest surveys showed that the forest along the trail was dominated by older trees, and that the majority of the scarred trees probably were present, throughout the 19th century. By the mid 20th century logging had begun to affect the tree age along the trail and in 1974 no stands older than 180 years were present. A conservative estimate shows that around 90% of the original blazed trees have vanished. The trail was interpreted as have being lined for centuries with scarred trees which gradually have been destroyed during the 20th century. Culturally modified trees constitute an unique source of information for understanding pattern of old trails as well as of past human land use and movement in the landscape prior to the 20th century. This biological archive have to a large extent been destroyed by forestry activities and it is therefore very important to survey, recount and protect the trees that are still present.
  • Ericsson, SLU, Dept. of Forest Vegetation Ecology, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail: (email)
  • Östlund, SLU, Dept. of Forest Vegetation Ecology, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail:
  • Andersson, SLU, Dept. of Forest Vegetation Ecology, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail:
article id 558, category Research article
Tuomo Wallenius. (2002). Forest age distribution and traces of past fires in a natural boreal landscape dominated by Picea abies. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 558.
Keywords: boreal forest; disturbance dynamics; fire refugia; tree age
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Forest age distribution and occurrence of traces of past fires was studied in a natural Picea abies -dominated landscape in the Onega peninsula in north-west Russia. Forest age (maximum tree age) was determined and charcoal and fire scars were searched for in 43 randomly located study plots. In 70% of the study plots (30/43) trees older than 200 years existed. The largest 50-year age class consisted of plots with 251–300 year old forests. Traces of fires were found in all types of study plots, in forests on mineral soil as well as on peatlands. However, fire has been a rare disturbance factor, as traces of fires could not be found in 35% of the study plots (15/43). Estimated from the forest age class distribution, the fire rotation time for the whole area has been at least 300 years, but possibly considerably longer. This fire rotation time is much longer than fire history studies (largely based on examination of fire scars) commonly have reported for the average time between successive fires in Fennoscandia and Northwest Russia. The results suggest that the often stated generalisations about the importance and natural frequency of fire disturbance in boreal forests do not apply in landscapes dominated by Picea abies.
  • Wallenius, Department of Ecology and Systematics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)

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