Current issue: 56(4)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'balsam fir'

Category: Article

article id 7529, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1913). Experiments with foreign tree species in state forest Vesijako, Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 7529.
Keywords: larch; Abies balsamea; Picea glauca; Pinus mugo; white spruce; balsam fir; Abies alba; Abies pectinata; Picea alba; Pinus strobus; Pinus montana; Pinus mugho; Siberian stone pine; Siberian fir; Abies sibirica o. pichta; white fir; Weymouth pine; European
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study area is state owned forest of Vesijako in southern middle Finland that has earlier been intensively managed with slash-and-burn agriculture and then partly reforested with foreign coniferous tree species after controlled burnings. The total area planted with foreign species consists of 66 sample areas, altogether 28 hectares. The data has been collected in summer 1909. 

The most of studied sample areas have been unsuccessful, but there are still many areas that are too young to be assessed. The originally with foreign species reforested areas are now pine stands. The tree species in experiments have been e.g. larch (Larix sibirica and L. europaea), Siberian stone pine (Pinus cembra sibirica), Siberian fir (Abies sibirica o. pichta), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white fir (Abies pectinate also Abies alba), white spruce (Picea alba also Picea glauca), Weymouth pinen (Pinus strobus) and European / Swiss mountain pine (Pinus montana  also P. mugo, P. mugho).

The most important result of the experiments with controlled burning is that stand of grey alder (Alnus incana) with only low economic value can be effectively altered into coniferous forests (Pinus silvestris).
  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: li@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 1267, category Research article
Caroline Mary Adrianne Franklin, Karen A Harper, Liam Kyte Murphy. (2015). Structural dynamics at boreal forest edges created by a spruce budworm outbreak. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 3 article id 1267.
Keywords: edge influence; balsam fir; insect disturbance; structure; forest influence
Highlights: Insect outbreak edges were 10 m wide with different canopy cover, stem density and tree structural diversity than adjacent ecosystems; Although edge influence on forest structure was weak, forest influence was stronger and extended further, creating an edge zone skewed towards the disturbed area; After thirty years, high-contrast and structurally-diverse transition zones persist on the landscape.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Natural disturbances such as insect outbreaks create boundaries that influence vegetation patterns and ecological processes.  To better understand the effects of natural edge creation on relatively intact forests and adjacent disturbed areas, we investigated forest structure on both sides of 30 year-old forest edges created by a spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens) outbreak in the boreal forest of Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Canada.  Our objectives were: 1) to determine edge influence (compared to interior forest) and forest influence (compared to disturbed areas) on vegetation structure, and 2) to gain insight into the structural development of the edges.  Canopy cover, tree density, radial growth and deadwood were sampled in 5 m x 20 m plots along 120 m transects across six edges.  Randomization tests were used to estimate the magnitude and distance of edge and forest influence.  Narrow transition zones approximately 10 m wide characterized the spruce budworm-induced edges.  Edge influence did not extend into the forest; however, forest influence on structure was detected up to 40 m from the edge into the disturbed area.  We found evidence of the insect outbreak in the form of reduced radial growth during the disturbance across the entire disturbed area-forest gradient, which indicates that spruce budworm activity may not have ceased directly at the edge.  Tree mortality caused by the insect outbreak resulted in snags, many of which have transformed into logs since the outbreak collapsed.  Spruce budworm outbreak-induced forest edges are narrow but dynamic boundaries separating two distinct vegetation communities in the boreal landscape.
  • Franklin, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 751 General Services Building, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2H1, Canada E-mail: (email)
  • Harper, School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, Suite 5010, 6100 University Ave., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5, Canada E-mail:
  • Murphy, Department of Environmental Science, Saint Mary’s University, 923 Robie St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3C3, Canada E-mail:

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