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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'boron'

Category: Article

article id 5147, category Article
J. Eriksson, J. Bergholm, K. Kvist. (1981). Injury to vegetation caused by industrial emissions of boron compounds. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5147.
Keywords: Betula pendula; boron; soil; Sweden; toxicity; emissions; air pollution; leaves; fiberclass factory
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

At immediate surroundings of a fiberglass plant in Central Sweden, vegetation shows toxicity symptoms. Soils and birch (Betula pendula Roth) leaves were sampled. The soil was analysed for water soluble and organic bound boron, carbon, nitrogen, and pH. Vegetation was analysed for total boron. Both fractions of boron in the soils increased towards the factory. Organic bound boron increased irregularly because of its strong correlation to carbon content which varied in the area. The C/N ratio increased nearer the industry due to the harmful effect of boron on the decomposition of organic matter. No relation between pH and the distance from the emission source was visible, but B/C ratio was found to increase with increasing pH of the soil. Boron levels in birch leaves were elevated very much close to the factory. The geographical distribution of high levels of boron in birch, corresponded well with high values in soils, and also with the main wind directions. The limit values for visible injury on birch were found to be around 5 ppm of water-soluble boron in soil and around 200 ppm in leaves.

  • Eriksson, E-mail: je@mm.unknown (email)
  • Bergholm, E-mail: jb@mm.unknown
  • Kvist, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 208, category Research article
Mikko Räisänen, Tapani Repo, Tarja Lehto. (2009). Cold acclimation of Norway spruce roots and shoots after boron fertilization. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 208.
Keywords: boron deficiency; dieback; freezing tolerance; mineral nutrition
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Boron deficiency, manifested as shoot dieback, is a problem in conifer stands growing on soils with high nitrogen availability in Fennoscandia. Earlier observations on Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) suggest that freezing tolerance is decreased by boron deficiency. Here, the effect of boron fertilization on cold acclimation of Norway spruce was studied in a young stand with initially low boron status two years after fertilization. Buds, stems, needles and roots were collected at five sampling times during cold acclimation and subsequently exposed to series of freezing temperatures. Lethal temperatures of organs were assessed by electrolyte leakage method (EL) and visual scoring of damage (VS). Freezing tolerance of buds was measured also by differential thermal analysis (DTA). The mean boron (B) concentration in needles was 4 mg kg–1 in unfertilized and 21 mg kg–1 in B-fertilized trees while critical level of B deficiency is considered to be 5 mg kg–1. The risk for increased freezing injuries in the low-B trees was not evident since all trees achieved cold hardiness that would be sufficient in central Finland. At two sampling times out of five, shoots or stem of B-fertilized trees were slightly more freezing tolerant than non-fertilized trees. However, the present study does not give strong evidence for the hypothesis that decreased freezing tolerance in B deficiency would be a triggering factor for leader dieback in Norway spruce at the B levels studied.
  • Räisänen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O.Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland; (present address), FAForest, FI-83480 Ahonkylä, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Repo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Lehto, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O.Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 373, category Research article
Anna Saarsalmi, Pekka Tamminen. (2005). Boron, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilization in Norway spruce stands suffering from growth disturbances. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 373.
Keywords: Norway spruce; fertilization; needles; height growth; recovery; boron; growth disorders; soil
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Growth disturbance symptoms typical of B deficiency have been reported on Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees in many parts of eastern Finland. In order to test the B deficiency hypothesis and explore the possibilities of curing the disturbed trees with B fertilization, three experiments were established in October 1999 in young Norway spruce stands growing on fertile sites in eastern Finland. All the stands contained healthy, slightly and severely damaged trees with growth disturbances typical of B deficiency (B < 5 mg kg–1). 40 healthy, 40 slightly damaged, and 40 severely damaged trees were selected as sample trees in each stand. In May 2000, the trees were fertilized with 2.0 kg B ha–1 as borax (B), 2.0 kg B ha–1 and 40 kg P ha–1 as superphosphate (B+P) or 200 kg N ha–1 as urea (N). The control trees were not fertilized (0). The needle response to B fertilization was rapid, relatively high B concentrations being achieved already after one growing season. Boron fertilization cured the growth disorders and increased height growth within four years, but had no effect on diameter growth. The trees also recovered without B fertilization, but to a lesser extent compared to the B fertilized trees. Compared to the control, boron fertilization increased the height growth in all the disorder classes, i.e. 5, 17 and 19 cm yr–1 for healthy, slightly and severely damaged trees, respectively. As the healthy trees also seemed to benefit from B fertilization, this indicates that B deficiency in fact retards height growth before any disorder symptoms become apparent in individual trees. Compared with B alone, the application of P together with B gave no additional benefit. Nitrogen fertilization alone appeared to have a detrimental effect on height growth in the severely disturbed trees.
  • Saarsalmi, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Tamminen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:
article id 532, category Research article
Pedro J. Aphalo, Anna W. Schoettle, Tarja Lehto. (2002). Leaf life span and the mobility of “non-mobile” mineral nutrients – the case of boron in conifers. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 3 article id 532.
Keywords: needle age; conifers; model; boron; leaf life span; nutrient mobility; toxicity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Nutrient conservation is considered important for the adaptation of plants to infertile environments. The importance of leaf life spans in controlling mean residence time of nutrients in plants has usually been analyzed in relation to nutrients that can be retranslocated within the plant. Longer leaf life spans increase the mean residence time of all mineral nutrients, but for non-mobile nutrients long leaf life spans concurrently cause concentrations in tissues to increase with leaf age, and consequently may reduce non-mobile nutrient use efficiency. Here we analyze how the role of leaf life span is related to the mobility of nutrients within the plant. We use optimality concepts to derive testable hypotheses, and preliminarily test them for boron (B), a nutrient for which mobility varies among plant species. We review published and unpublished data and use a simple model to assess the quantitative importance of B retranslocation for the B budget of mature conifer forests and as a mechanism for avoiding toxicity.
  • Aphalo, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland; Current address Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40351 Jyväskylä, Finland. E-mail: (email)
  • Schoettle, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 240 West Prospect Road, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA E-mail:
  • Lehto, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

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