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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'gap dynamics'

Category : Article

article id 5468, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Heikki Hänninen, Taneli Kolström, Risto Lauhanen, Ulla Mattila, Brita Pajari, Hannu Väisänen. (1992). A simulation model for the succession of the boreal forest ecosystem. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 5468.
Keywords: succession; gap dynamics; ecosystems; simulation models; forest ecology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A model for the succession of the forest ecosystem is described. The growth and development of trees and ground cover are controlled by temperature and light conditions and the availability of nitrogen and water. In addition, the effects of the annual cycle of trees including the risk of frost damage, wild fire, and wind damages are contained in the model as factors which control the survival and productivity of trees. The model also makes it possible to evaluated the risk of insect attack assuming that this risk is inversely related to the growth efficiency of trees.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hänninen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown
  • Kolström, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
  • Lauhanen, E-mail: rl@mm.unknown
  • Mattila, E-mail: um@mm.unknown
  • Pajari, E-mail: bp@mm.unknown
  • Väisänen, E-mail: hv@mm.unknown

Category : Research article

article id 7748, category Research article
Dominik Bayer, Hans Pretzsch. (2017). Reactions to gap emergence: Norway spruce increases growth while European beech features horizontal space occupation – evidence by repeated 3D TLS measurements. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 7748.
Keywords: Picea abies; gap dynamics; Fagus sylvatica; crown expansion; crown allometry; TLS; growing area competition; growing space efficiency
Highlights: Analysis of the closure dynamics of a Norway spruce, a European beech and a mixed forest gap by repeated TLS measurements; Norway spruce allocated additional resources predominantly into DBH growth and displayed stronger resilience against mechanical crown damage; European beech allocated resources towards space occupation and displayed higher crown plasticity; Species mixture had no significant effect.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The reach of different tree species’ crowns and the velocity of gap closure during the occupation of canopy gaps resulting from mortality and thinning during stand development determine species-specific competition and productivity within forest stands. However, classical dendrometric methods are rather inaccurate or even incapable of time- and cost-effectively measuring 3D tree structure, crown dynamics and space occupation non-destructively. Therefore, we applied terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in order to measure the structural dynamics at tree and stand level from gap cutting in 2006 until 2012 in pure and mixed stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In conclusion, our results suggest that Norway spruce invests newly available above-ground resources primarily into DBH as well as biomass growth and indicate a stronger resilience against loss of crown mass induced by mechanical damage. European beech showed a vastly different reaction, investing gains from additional above-ground resources primarily into faster occupation of canopy space. Whether our sample trees were located in pure or mixed groups around the gaps had no significant impact on their behavior during the years after gap cutting.

  • Bayer, Address Technical University of Munich (TUM), Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, 85354, Freising, Germany ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Pretzsch, Address Technical University of Munich (TUM), Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, 85354, Freising, Germany E-mail:
article id 82, category Research article
Nicole J. Fenton, Yves Bergeron. (2011). Dynamic old-growth forests? A case study of boreal black spruce forest bryophytes. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 82.
Keywords: disturbances; old-growth forest; succession; boreal; bryophytes; climax; gap dynamics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Old-growth forests have sparked significant interest over the last twenty years and definitions have evolved from structure based to process based, acknowledging the diversity of forests that could be considered old growth. However studies frequently group all forests over a certain age into a single type, negating the dynamic processes that create old growth. In this study we examine a 2350-year chronosequence in boreal black spruce forests in northwestern Quebec to determine whether continued community change can be observed in the bryophyte layer. Bryophytes dominate the understory of boreal forests and influence ecosystem functioning, particularly in paludified forests where production exceeds decomposition in the organic layer. Community composition and richness changed throughout the chronosequence with no evidence of a steady state associated with an old-growth phase. In contrast the bryophyte community continued to evolve with multiple phases being evident. These results suggest that old-growth forests on the Clay Belt of northwestern Quebec and northeastern Ontario, Canada, should be regarded as part of the continuous gradient in forest development rather than a single state. This complicates conservation of these forests as multiple phases should be considered when planning forest reserves.
  • Fenton, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 Boulevard de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec, Canada J9X 4E5 E-mail: (email)
  • Bergeron, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 Boulevard de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec, Canada J9X 4E5 E-mail:
article id 339, category Research article
John W. McCarthy, Gordon Weetman. (2006). Age and size structure of gap-dynamic, old-growth boreal forest stands in Newfoundland. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 2 article id 339.
Keywords: boreal forests; old-growth forests; gap dynamics; age and size structure; rotated sigmoid; Newfoundland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The age and size structure of trees in old Abies-Picea-Betula forests on Newfoundland’s Great Northern Peninsula were examined. It was hypothesized that the size and age structure of both the tree and regeneration “strata” of these stands display the complex structural heterogeneity characteristic of classic, self-regenerating, uneven-aged old-growth stands, and that the development and dynamics of such structures occur over long periods of time. With all tree species combined, dbh (diameter at breast height) and height distributions exhibited a strong reverse-J character, with well-defined, semi-logarithmic rotated sigmoid height and size frequencies. Seedling height and basal diameter frequency distributions were reverse-J in character. Live tree ages for all species, except white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), ranged from 25 to 269 years, and were characterized by all-age frequency distributions. Tree age and size were poorly correlated. On average, balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) required 62 years to reach breast height (1.3 m), with black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) requiring 40 and 48 years, respectively. Total age of dead standing trees ranged from 45 to 232 years. Reverse-J age frequencies characterized the seedling bank, with balsam fir seedlings present in nearly all age classes up to 110, 120 and 85 years in three sample stands. Seedling size (height and basal diameter)-age relationships were characteristic of decades-long suppression. The combination of tree and seedling bank size and age structure provide strong evidence of quasi-equilibrium, small-scale, gap dynamic old-growth boreal forest stands.
  • McCarthy, University of British Columbia, Forest Sciences Department, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1Z4 E-mail: (email)
  • Weetman, University of British Columbia, Forest Sciences Department, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1Z4 E-mail:

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