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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'stand characteristics'

Category: Article

article id 5610, category Article
Timo Tokola, Juho Heikkilä. (1997). Improving satellite image based forest inventory by using a priori site quality information. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5610.
Keywords: forest inventory; stand characteristics; remote sensing; forest surveys; site factors; ancillary data; Landsat TM
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to test the benefits of a forest site quality map, when applying satellite image-based forest inventory. By combining field sample plot data from national forest inventories with satellite imagery and forest site quality data, it is possible to estimate forest stand characteristics with higher accuracy for smaller areas. The reliability of the estimates was evaluated using the data from a stand-wise survey for area sizes ranging from 0.06 ha to 300 ha. When the mean volume was estimated, a relative error of 14 per cent was obtained for areas of 50 ha; for areas of 30 ha the corresponding figure was below 20 per cent. The relative gain in interpretation accuracy, when including the forest site quality information, ranged between 1 and 6 per cent. The advantage increased according to the size of the target area. The forest site quality map had the effect of decreasing the relative error in Norway spruce (Picea abies) volume estimations, but it did not contribute to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) volume estimation procedure.

  • Tokola, E-mail: tt@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heikkilä, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown
article id 5575, category Article
Gintautas Mozgeris. (1996). Dynamic stratification for estimating pointwise forest characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5575.
Keywords: stand characteristics; forest mensuration; SMI forest management planning system; dynamic stratification; static stratification
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper deals with the testing of dynamic stratification for estimating stand level forest characteristics (basal areas, mean diameter, mean height and mean age) for a 117 ha study areas in Finland. The results do not show possibilities to achieve more accurate estimates using only Landsat TM principal components as auxiliary data opposed to static stratification. It was found that in dynamic stratification non-measured observations should be assigned the mean characteristics of the measured observations that belong to the same cube (class) instead of stratification variable classes until a certain limit. If only one principal component is used the number of classes has, however, little influence. Low field values are overestimated and high values underestimated.

The only successful results were obtained using two variables of different origin – the qualitative development stage class and the quantitative 1st principal component. The lowest root mean square error in estimating basal area was 6.40 m2/ha, mean diameter 3.34 cm, mean height 2.65 m and mean age 14.06 years. This increase of stratification accuracy is mainly resulted by the use of development stage class as an auxiliary variable.

  • Mozgeris, E-mail: gm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5307, category Article
Simo Poso, Raito Paananen, Markku Similä. (1987). Forest inventory by compartments using satellite imagery. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5307.
Keywords: forest inventory; stand characteristics; remote sensing; Landsat 5 TM; forest inventory and monitoring; two phase sampling; ancillary information
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method for using satellite data in forest inventories and updating is described and tested. The stand characteristics estimated by the method showed high correlation with the same characteristics measured in the field. The correlation coefficients for volume, age and mean height were about 0.85. It seems that the method is applicable to practical forestry. Extensive work in programming, however, is required.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Paananen, E-mail: rp@mm.unknown
  • Similä, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown
article id 5306, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Taneli Kolström. (1987). Competition indices and the prediction of radial growth in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5306.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; stand characteristics; simulation; tree growth; competition; radial growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of competition on the radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied in three naturally regenerated stands located in North Karelia, Finland. The competition situation of an individual tree was described with various competition indices which depended on the sizes and distances from the neighbouring trees. One competition index explained about 50% of the variation in 5-year radial growth in one stand. If all stands were combined, one index explained 43.5%, two indices 48.9% and three indices 51.2% of the variation. In one stand, the best competition indices accounted for about 20% of that variation which could not be explained by tree diameter. If all three stands were combined, the best index explained 11% of the residual variation. About 40% of the variation in 5-year radial growth could not be explained by the diameter and competition indices.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kolström, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
article id 5201, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1983). Distribution of vegetation on mesic forest sites in relation to some characteristics of the tree stand and soil fertility. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5201.
Keywords: Finland; ground vegetation; indicator species; fertility; forest types; forest site classification; TWINSPAN; Oxalis-Myrtillus type; Myrtillus type; tree stand characteristics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Vegetation data collected from a random sample of mature forest stands representing mesic upland forest sites in Southern Finland were analysed and classified using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). The variation of some characteristics of the tree stand and soil fertility between the produced vegetation units were analysed statistically.

Both the species list and the sample list arranged by TWINSPAN reflects the overall site fertility considerably well. The results are in agreement with the main division of mesic forest sites in the Finnish forest site type classification: vegetation units which can be assigned to the Oxalis-Myrtillus site type are clearly separated from the remaining units, and the overall site fertility indicates a statistically significant difference. The within-type variation in the vegetation composition in the Oxalis-Myrtillus site type reflects the variation in site fertility, whereas the within-type variation in the Myrtillus site type is mainly caused by the tree stand factor.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4949, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Antti Haapanen, Hellevi Salonen. (1976). Tree stands in urban noise abatement. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4949.
Keywords: stand characteristics; noise abatement; urban forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to determine which characteristics of tree stands could be used in urban noise control and to develop guidelines for practical urban forestry. The attenuation of artificially produced noise was measured in various types of stands. The effect of tree stands on noise attenuation has been analysed using a model based on the physics of sound propagation.

The results show that the excess noise attenuation caused by trees can be in good situations 60% measured in energy units, compared with the attenuation caused by geometric spreading. This is 5–8 dB. The total amount of needles, leaves and branches of a stand proved to be the most important factors in noise attenuation. However, the density and height of a stand had rather high value in predicting the behaviour of noise in tree stands. Based on multiple regression between noise attenuation and tree species composition, density and height of a stand it was developed the nomograms with which the noise level at a certain point can be predicted when the tree stand characteristics, the distance and the noise level of the noise source are known and on the opposite way.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Haapanen, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown
  • Salonen, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown

Category: Article

article id 7579, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Markku Siitonen. (1975). Metsikön puuston simulointimenetelmä ja simuloituun aineistoon perustuvien puustotunnusmallien laskenta. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 145 article id 7579.
English title: Simulation of artificial stands and derivation of growing stock models from this material.
Original keywords: puulajit; menetelmät; metsikkö; puusto; simulointi; puustotunnukset
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; birch; Picea abies; stand characteristics; tree species; growing stock; methods; simulation of stands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was that of providing a long-term timber production model (Kilkki and Pökkälä 1975) with growing stock models. The paper is divided into two parts; the first is concerned with generation of the stand data through Monte-Carlo simulation. The growing stock of each stand was described by a DBH-height distribution. The necessary information on the relationships between the stand characteristics was derived from sample plots measured in the national forest inventory of Finland. A total of 1,500 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst), and birch (Betula sp.) stands, each comprising 100 trees were provided by simulation.

In the second part, models predicting the form factor, timber assortment distribution, and value of the growing stock were derived through regression analysis for each species of tree. The predicting variables included the form factor of the basal area median tree, basal area median diameter, and height in the form factor models. In the timber assortment and value models, the only predicting variable was the volume of the basal area median tree. The Matchcurve-technique (Jensen 1973) was employed in derivation of the regression models.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Siitonen, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 1057, category Research article
Jouni Siipilehto, Lauri Mehtätalo. (2013). Parameter recovery vs. parameter prediction for the Weibull distribution validated for Scots pine stands in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 1057.
Keywords: linear prediction; diameter distribution; Weibull; stand characteristics; parameter recovery
Highlights: A parameter recovery method (PRM) was developed for forest stand inventories and compared with previously developed parameter prediction methods (PPM) in Finland; PRM for the 2-parameter Weibull function provided compatibility for the main stand characteristics: stem number, basal area and one of the four optional mean characteristics; PRM provided comparable and at its best, superior accuracy in volume characteristics compared with PPM.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The moment-based parameter recovery method (PRM) has not been applied in Finland since the 1930s, even after a continuation of forest stand structure modelling in the 1980s. This paper presents a general overview of PRM and some useful applications. Applied PRM provided compatibility for the included stand characteristics of stem number (N) and basal area (G) with either mean (D), basal area-weighted mean (DG), median (DM) or basal area-median (DGM) diameter at breast height (dbh). A two-parameter Weibull function was used to describe the dbh-frequency distribution of Scots pine stands in Finland. In the validation, PRM was compared with existing parameter prediction models (PPMs). In addition, existing models for stand characteristics were used for the prediction of unknown characteristics. Validation consisted of examining the performance of the predicted distributions with respect to variation in stand density and accuracy of the localised distributions, as well as accuracy in terms of bias and the RMSE in stand characteristics in the independent test data set. The validation data consisted of 467 randomly selected stands from the National Forest Inventory based plots. PRM demonstrated excellent accuracy if G and N were both known. At its best, PRM provided accuracy that was superior to any existing model in Finland – especially in young stands (mean height < 9 m), where the RMSE in total and pulp wood volumes, 3.6 and 5.7%, respectively, was reduced by one-half of the values obtained using the best performing existing PPM (8.7–11.3%). The unweighted Weibull distribution solved by PRM was found to be competitive with weighted existing PPMs for advanced stands. Therefore, using PRM, the need for a basal area weighted distribution proved unnecessary, contrary to common belief. Models for G and N were shown to be unreliable and need to be improved to obtain more reliable distributions using PRM.
  • Siipilehto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Mehtätalo, University of Eastern Finland, School of Computing, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 99, category Research article
Jouni Siipilehto. (2011). Local prediction of stand structure using linear prediction theory in Scots pine-dominated stands in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 99.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; linear prediction; diameter distribution; Weibull; Johnson’s SB; height curve; stand characteristics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
This study produced a family of models for eight standard stand characteristics, frequency and basal area-based diameter distributions, and a height curve for stands in Finland dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The data consisted of 752 National Forest Inventory-based sample plots, measured three times between 1976 and 2001. Of the data, 75% were randomly selected for modelling and 25% left out for model evaluation. Base prediction models were constructed as functions of stand age, location and site providing strongly average expectations. These expectations were then calibrated with the known stand variables using linear prediction theory when estimating the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP). Three stand variables, typically assessed in Finnish forest management planning fieldwork, were quite effective for calibrating the expectation for the unknown variable. In the case of optional distributions, it was essential to choose the weighting of the diameter distribution model such that the available input variables and the model applied were based on the same scale (e.g. arithmetic stand variables for frequency distribution). Additional input variables generally improved the accuracy of the validated characteristics, but the improvements in the predicted distributions were most noteworthy when the arithmetic mean and basal area-weighted median were simultaneously included in the BLUP estimation. The BLUP method provided a flexible approach for characterising relationships among stand variables, alternative size distributions and the height–diameter curve. Models are intended for practical use in the MOTTI simulator.
  • Siipilehto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: (email)
article id 334, category Research article
Jouni Siipilehto. (2006). Linear prediction application for modelling the relationships between a large number of stand characteristics of Norway spruce stands. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 334.
Keywords: Picea abies; stand characteristics; prediction; calibration estimation; interdependence
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The aim was to produce models for a large number of stand characteristics of Norway spruce dominated stands. A total of 227 national forest inventory based permanent stand plots, dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies), were used in modelling eight stand variables as a function of the stand mean biological age and site characteristics. The basic models were able to characterize the average development of the modelled stand variables, but resulted in a relatively high RMSE. Basal area (G) and stem number (N) were the most inaccurate, having a RMSE of 34–41%, while that of mean diameter and height characteristics varied between 16–20%. The expectations and error variances of the basic models were calibrated with known stand variables using linear prediction theory. The best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) with a single stand variable used for calibration proved to be ineffective for unknown G and N, but relatively effective for the unknown mean characteristics. However, calibration with one sum and one mean characteristic proved to be effective, and additional calibration variables enhanced the precision only marginally. The BLUP method provided a flexible approach when characterizing the relationships between a large number of stand variables, thus enabling multiple use of these models because they were not fixed to a specific inventory system.
  • Siipilehto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: (email)
article id 514, category Research article
Jukka Malinen. (2003). Locally adaptable non-parametric methods for estimating stand characteristics for wood procurement planning. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 514.
Keywords: stand characteristics; local non-parametric estimation; MSN method; wood procurement planning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the local adaptation of the non-parametric Most Similar Neighbour (MSN) method in estimating stand characteristics for wood procurement planning purposes. Local adaptation was performed in two different ways: 1) by selecting local data from a database with the MSN method and using that data as a database in the basic k-nearest neighbour (k-nn) MSN method, 2) by selecting a combination of neighbours from the neighbourhood where the average of the predictor variables was closest to the target stand predictor variables (Locally Adaptable Neighbourhood (LAN) MSN method). The study data used comprised 209 spruce dominated stands located in central Finland and was collected with harvesters. The accuracy of the methods was analysed by estimating the tree stock characteristics and the log length/diameter distribution produced by a bucking simulation. The local k-nn MSN method was not notably better than the k-nn MSN method, although it produced less biased estimates on the edges of the input space. The LAN MSN method was found to be a more accurate method than the k-nn methods.
  • Malinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)

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