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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles by Lars Lönnstedt

Category : Article

article id 5401, category Article
Akmal S. Hyder, Lars Lönnstedt, Markku Penttinen. (1994). Outline of accounting for non-industrial private woodlots. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 2 article id 5401.
Keywords: non-industrial private forestry; financial accounting; net profit of the enterprise; calculated profit of the property; cost accounting; forest management strategies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

For non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners land with its timber production is an example of a capital asset. Developments in the asset’s value and yield depend not only on forest management but also on other factors that the owner cannot control, for example timber prices and the production circumstances, such as soil and climate. One important basis for decision making related to management strategy and, in the short run, to cutting and silvicultural activities is economic analysis and accounting. The owner has to decide whether to invest more in his property (planting, cleaning, building of forest roads) or disinvest (sell timber or the holding). He has to find ways to increase revenue and cut costs.

However, generally accepted accounting practices for NIPF owners are lacking. Applying business economic accounting principles and forestry accounting traditions, we outline a proposal for a profit and loss accounting and balance sheet for NIPF holdings with a view towards increasing economic awareness among private owners. Key concepts are net profit of the enterprise and calculated profit of the property. Other profit measurements that are used are gross margin, forestry margin, operating margin and operating profit. Calculated profit is based on adjusted net profit. The main concern, however, is to consider the change in the holding’s market value caused by changes in stock volume, quality and price. The contents of the accounting framework development here are applied to three management strategies. The return on investment (ROI) of forestry is compared with other investment alternatives.

  • Hyder, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
  • Lönnstedt, E-mail: ll@mm.unknown
  • Penttinen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown
article id 5107, category Article
Lars Lönnstedt. (1981). The influence of Swedish forestry policy on the annual cuts of private woodlot owners. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5107.
Keywords: forest policy; forest legislation; forest owners; Sweden; private forests; small-scale forestry; forestry promotion; annual cut; logging policy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effect that the various measures by society have on bringing the level of the annual cut by private woodlot owners in line with the forestry policy goal of a long-term sustained yield of wood. The objectives and measures of forest policy in Sweden are described, as well as the central relations which explain the development in the logging policies of the private woodlot owners.

The goal of Swedish forestry policy has long been to safeguard a sustained yield of wood. This demand has successively been tightened, defined and detailed. The principle measure employed by the authorities to obtain the goal has been silvicultural legislation.

The author summarises that of all the means available of influencing the logging policy of private woodlot owners the most effective is silvicultural legislation. However, when viewed in an historical perspective, the legislation has not been able to significantly regulate the level of the annual cut. Nevertheless, at a time when there is a shortage of wood materials the legislation will undoubtedly exert a greater influence. Changes in forest taxation could prove to be an effective means in future of, for example, achieving an increase in the annual cut of private woodlot owners.

  • Lönnstedt, E-mail: ll@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 132, category Research article
Mats Berlin, Lars Lönnstedt, Gunnar Jansson, Öje Danell, Tore Ericsson. (2010). Developing a Scots pine breeding objective: a case study involving a Swedish sawmill. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 132.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; economic weights; bio-economic model; tree breeding; multi-trait selection
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The aim of this study was to develop a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) breeding objective for a vertically integrated sawmill in northern Sweden. The production system was defined as comprising the sawmill and the forests supplying it. Volume per hectare, wood density, survival and straightness were used as objective traits and the related selection criteria were measurements, collected at young tree age, of height, diameter, pilodyn penetration, vitality and straightness. A bio-economic model was used to calculate economic weights for the objective traits identified. We also investigated the efficiency of different selection indices based on these economic weights, in combination with available data on genetic parameters. Furthermore, we studied the effect of different discount rates on the calculated economic weights. The results showed that, compared to the full index (which included all selection criteria), omitting either vitality or straightness had a negligible effect, reducing predicted profit gain per hectare by less than one per cent. Height or diameter each had a greater effect, with a loss of predicted profit gain per hectare of up to 6%. Excluding pilodyn penetration from the selection index caused the largest reduction in predicted profit gain per hectare, amounting to over 10%. However, when both height and diameter were removed the predicted profit gain per hectare dropped to one-third of that based on the full index. Finally, ranking and genetic selection for the developed breeding objective was insensitive to changes in the discount rate.
  • Berlin, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: (email)
  • Lönnstedt, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
  • Jansson, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
  • Danell, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
  • Ericsson, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
article id 303, category Research article
Lars Lönnstedt. (2007). Industrial timberland ownership in the USA: arguments based on case studies. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 2 article id 303.
Keywords: forest management; backward vertical integration; pricing; secured supply; owner structure
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The forest product companies’ ownership of timberland is decreasing in the United States as in many other countries. In aggregate the forest product industry owned 26.5 million hectares (11.6% of the U.S. timberland) in 2002 compared with 28.5 million hectares in 1987 (FIA 2006). Reasons for this decrease of timberland ownership are several and complex. This article presents four case studies of U.S.-based forest product companies. The vertical integration theory and empirical studies about timberland ownership give a base for the study. Four hypotheses are formulated on the basis of the literature. The results give support to two of them. An important reason for timberland ownership is a wish to secure deliveries. Market conditions are important for the need of owning timberland. Two of the companies did not own timberland, the main reason being more profitable alternative uses of capital. The ownership structure of the company, tradition, and culture are other important explanations for timberland ownership. This study did not show the advantage of timberland ownership for information and coordination.
  • Lönnstedt, SLU, Department of Forest Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: (email)

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