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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'values'

Category : Article

article id 5516, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1993). Yksityismetsätalous ja arvojen muutos. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5516.
English title: Private forestry and the changing values.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsätalous; metsänomistajat; arvot
English keywords: forest management; forestry; values; Finland; forest owners; private forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forests have been economically important for Finnish private forest owners at all times, but the use of forests has changed markedly since 1920s, when forests were mainly used for collecting household timber, and the cuttings were often exploitative because of the farmer’s need for money. The present situation is totally different. Need for household timber is marginally small, and private forestry produces mainly timber for sale. The sales of timber have increased, but due to better forest management the growing stock in the private forests has increased. The article discusses how the changes in values of forest owners has and will affect the stage of private forestry.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5332, category Article
Aarne Reunala. (1987). Metsä arkkityyppinä. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5332.
English title: Forest as an archetype.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsä; kansanperinne; aineettomat arvot; symboliikka
English keywords: forestry; forest; folklore; archetypes; folk tradition; symbolism; intangible values
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to universal primitive beliefs, there was a huge pole or tree in the centre of the universe to support the sky. These beliefs gave rise to innumerable customs where both trees and wood have been used to promote health and good luck. Even today, many such customs exist: the Christmas tree, maypole, Midsummer birches, birch whisks in the Finnish sauna, ritual tree plantings etc. In addition to the tree, also the forest as both a protecting and a frightening maternal symbol can be considered as an archetype. Intensive forestry diminishes the archetypal contents of forests, which may be one reason behind critical attitudes towards modern forestry.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Reunala, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5093, category Article
Ismo Karhu, Seppo Kellomäki. (1980). Väestön mielipiteet metsänhoidon vaikutuksesta maisemakuvaan Puolangan kunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5093.
English title: Effects of silvicultural practises on the forest landscape. A study on attitudes among inhabitants of Puolanka, north-eastern Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; mielipidetutkimus; metsien virkistyskäyttö; metsämaisema; maiseman arvostus; Puolanka
English keywords: forest management; Finland; recreation; forest landscape; scenic values; attractiveness
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The landscape preferences and attitudes of inhabitants of Puolanka, north-eastern Finland, to the effects of silvicultural practice on the forest landscape were studied by a postal inquiry. The effect of silvicultural practice on the forest landscape was mainly negative. Birch (Betula sp.) stands and mixed coniferous and deciduous tree species were the most preferred by the Puolanka inhabitants. The landscape preferences were related to socio-economic background of the inhabitants. The quality of the living environment also influenced the preferences, since uncommon features in the living environment were favoured most.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Karhu, E-mail: ik@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 4824, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1970). Metsä- ja puutalouden tehtävät luonnonsuojelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4824.
English title: The role of forestry and forest industries in conservation.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäteollisuus; luonnonsuojelu; maisema; ympäristöarvot; vesiensuojelu; metsien virkistyskäyttö; metsien monikäyttö
English keywords: forestry; nature conservation; forest industry; recreation; environmental values; water pollution; multiple use of forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of forestry has hitherto been seen mainly as economic conservation, i.e. the use and management of timber resources on a sustainable yield basis. Along with the rising standard of living, however, amenity values of the environment will become more appreciated, which means that forestry and forest industries will be concerned with conservation of immaterial resources of nature as well. Since inland lakes cover some 10% of the surface area of Finland, and forests occupy more than 70% of the land area, forests and lakes are essential constituents of the Finnish environment during both work and leisure.

The main task of the pulp and paper industry in conservation is the control of water pollution. Today some 10% of Finnish lakes are polluted. Pulp and paper industries contribute 75% of the total waste water load of the Finnish lakes. Increasing water pollution can be prevented by improved processing technology, waste water treatment, and economic use of industrial wastes. Thus, the waste water load of the lakes has not increased in the last 10 years, despite doubling of pulp and paper production. According to the prognoses, by the year 2000 the waste water load from pulp and paper industries will be reduced to one half or one fourth of the present level although the capacity will still be increasing.

In forest management more emphasis should be paid on the aesthetic and recreational values of forests. Along with increasing leisure the need for recreational areas is growing. Scenic and recreational aspects must be considered in the management of industrial forests, too. With wise management, high timber yield is compatible with the maintenance of an enjoyable environment. Good silviculture takes account of timber production, wildlife management and landscape architecture simultaneously. National forestry development programs must be based on the principle of the multiple use of forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 1140, category Research article
Miguel Fabra Crespo, Olli Saastamoinen, Jukka Matero, Hannes Mäntyranta. (2015). Perceptions and realities: public opinion on forests and forestry in Finland, 1993–2012. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 5 article id 1140.
Keywords: values; correlation; attitude; reflexive groups; social evolution
Highlights: Analysis of the longest-running survey in the world on public perceptions of forestry; Comparison of perceptions with realities in forestry in Finland; The role of the forests and their management is well regarded by the Finns; More protection of the forests and better performance by the wood industry is demanded.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The perception of the Finns about forests and forestry has been tracked over a period of more than 15 years. The results of this survey constitute the longest sequence of data of this type at the national level anywhere in the world. The people’s perception of reality represents a factor that influences decisions about policy. For this reason, it deserves monitoring and analysis. Forests in Finland are highly meaningful to the people, who are generally well informed and link their opinions to the facts that they are able to observe. The variability of the responses over the years of the survey is not significant. Silviculture and forest management are perceived as good by most Finns. Finns are aware that more forest grows than is harvested, and they also know that some raw material is still imported. However, they demand that more forest be protected. Finns are aware that their forest industry is not performing well at the international level. They also demand an increased wood supply for building construction. Forest harvesting is viewed as a source of employment and welfare.
  • Fabra Crespo, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Saastamoinen, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Matero, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Mäntyranta, Finnish Forest Association, Salomonkatu 17 A, FI-00100 Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
article id 984, category Research article
Christian Rottensteiner, Petros Tsioras, Heinz Neumayer, Karl Stampfer. (2013). Vibration and noise assessment of tractor-trailer and truck-mounted chippers. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 5 article id 984.
Keywords: chippers; noise; whole-body vibration; exposure limit values
Highlights: Truck-mounted chippers were associated with higher vibration values, while tractor-trailer chippers had higher noise level; Chipping hardwood produced higher vibration magnitudes than softwood; Vibration and noise values in most cases did not exceed the exposure limit values set by the European Union.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
During chipping, machine operators are exposed to whole-body vibration and noise bearing a risk to health. Vibration on the operator’s seat and noise inside the chipper cab was measured and analyzed. The factorial design considered two setup variants (tractor-trailer and truck-mounted) of two chipper models from different manufacturers during chipping of softwood and hardwood tree species. Furthermore, exposure to noise was measured during chipping of hardwood. Vibration and noise during chipping, driving between wood piles, and operational delays were measured separately. The results associated truck-mounted chippers with higher vibration values and tractor-trailer chippers with higher noise levels. The highest vibration levels were recorded while driving on the forest road from one log pile to another and the second highest during chipping. On the contrary, the lowest vibration levels were measured during operational delays with the chipper in idling condition. Chipping hardwood produced higher vibration magnitudes than softwood. Exposure to noise was significantly higher during chipping compared to driving and operational delays. Vibration and noise data were combined with time studies data, for the calculation of eight-hour energy equivalent total values, both for vibration and noise. In all cases, the exposure limit values set by the European Union were not exceeded, with the exception of truck-mounted chippers, which are likely to exceed the exposure action value for vibration.
  • Rottensteiner, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Institute of Forest Engineering, Peter Jordan Straße 82, 1190 Wien, Austria E-mail: (email)
  • Tsioras, Aristotle University, P.O. Box 227, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece E-mail:
  • Neumayer, Specialist in Occupational Medicine, Wörndlestraße 10, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria E-mail:
  • Stampfer, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Institute of Forest Engineering, Peter Jordan Straße 82, 1190 Wien, Austria E-mail:
article id 127, category Research article
Mika Rekola, Annukka Valkeapää, Tapio Rantala. (2010). Nordic forest professionals’ values. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 5 article id 127.
Keywords: forest professionals; values; cognitive mapping; Nordic countries
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The present study analyses the values held by forest professionals in three Nordic countries: Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The data is from a large (n = 1113) internet survey that used cognitive mapping as a research tool, which is a novelty in value measurement. The questionnaire is based on the organisational value theory of Schein (1992), supplemented with relevant forest-related and environmental values. The forest-related main value factors were in the following order of importance: Expertise, Private forestry, Forest production, Nature conservation, and Tradition. The measurement included two kinds of cases: action values, referring to present decision-making, and ideal values, referring to decisions concerning future ideals. Most of the values’ scores were similar. Almost all values received higher scores of importance in the ideal cases compared to action cases, a fact that can probably be explained by constraints related to the professionals’ current working environment. Some international differences were also found: Sweden and Norway were closer to each other and both differed from Finland, where private forestry, forest production, and traditions are highly valued. Moreover, respondents working in industry were found to be slightly more production-oriented than other forest professionals. The study also revealed several weaknesses of the cognitive mapping method in measuring values.
  • Rekola, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki E-mail: (email)
  • Valkeapää, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki E-mail:
  • Rantala, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki E-mail:
article id 467, category Research article
Annika Kangas, Ruut Haapakoski, Liisa Tyrväinen. (2008). Integrating place-specific social values into forest planning – Case of UPM-Kymmene forests in Hyrynsalmi, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 5 article id 467.
Keywords: collaborative planning; experienced values of forests; social value mapping; survey
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In participatory forest management planning, the perceived values of local inhabitants concerning the area under planning are collected. The results may, however, depend on the methods used. In this study, values of residents of Hyrynsalmi municipality concerning the nearby forests owned by UPM-Kymmene Ltd. were evaluated with a questionnaire consisting of general value questions and mapping of social values of forests. The data was collected from a public meeting and from a mailed survey from randomly sampled people and from members of municipal council. The aims of the study were to 1) test the social value mapping method in commercial forests in a rural-urban interface as well as to examine the benefits and drawbacks 2) in place-specific and non-specific data collection, and 3) in different data collection methods, from the viewpoint of forest management planning. We noted that while all respondents can claim to represent local values, different data collection methods produced statistically significantly different local values. This needs to be accounted for when planning a participatory process. In operational forest planning, place-specific information is more useful than questions concerning the general values, while the latter may help in defining forest policy goals. The social values mapping method is also relatively easy for the participants. However, in the studied case about one fifth of the area was delineated by the participants per each positive value. The answers were quite scattered, suggesting that most of the area had some social values for local people. This indicates that utilising a social values mapping method in planning needs further development in rural areas, where distinctive patches can not be easily detected.
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki E-mail: (email)
  • Haapakoski, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki E-mail:
  • Tyrväinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland. E-mail:
article id 430, category Research article
Mårten Hugosson, Fredrik Ingemarson. (2004). Objectives and motivations of small-scale forest owners; theoretical modelling and qualitative assessment. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 430.
Keywords: forest management; small-scale forest owners; professional foresters; forest owners’ objectives; forest owners’ motivations; forest owners’ values
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Forest management changes with societal change, and it has been debated if economic development in society places material objectives in a less preferable position: it is assumed this is also the case as regards forest management. The aims of this study were to propose a theoretical model for empirical studies of objectives and motivations within this field and to depict motivations and objectives of small-scale forest owners in Sweden. Comparative literature studies were undertaken and qualitative methodology was used for the empirical studies. Firstly, to depict general trends among forest owners, interviews with professional foresters were conducted. Secondly, forest owners throughout Sweden were interviewed to compare the results of the interviews with the professional foresters on the motivations and objectives of small-scale forest owners. Within the literature, there were no consistent views on the subjective grounds for owning and managing small-scale forest estates. The proposed theoretical model originated from the cultural concept. Sets of interpretive and normative qualities were seen as underlying people’s actions, and such sets were related to basic values. The ‘objectives’ were clustered into groups creating four clusters i.e. ‘motivations’. The four motivations depicted were: Conservation; Utilities; Amenities and Economic Efficiency. The empirical results highlighted that the objectives and motivations of forest-owners covered a broad field and a move towards conservation interests was indicated. The theoretical model presented here is suggested a suitable tool for both depicting the motivations and objectives of forest owners and for making future comparisons.
  • Hugosson, Department of Forest Products and Markets, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
  • Ingemarson, Department of Forest Products and Markets, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: (email)
article id 699, category Research article
Heimo Karppinen. (1998). Values and objectives of non-industrial private forest owners in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 1 article id 699.
Keywords: non-industrial private forests; landowner objectives; forest values; owner characteristics; forestry behavior
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The purpose of the study was to create an empirical typology of non-industrial private forest owners based on forest values and long-term objectives of forest ownership, to identify these types by owner and holding characteristics, as well as to analyze silvicultural and harvesting behavior in these groups. The analysis was based on survey data on 245 forest owners in southeastern Finland. The results indicated that general forest values and long-term objectives of forest ownership are not strongly correlated. The results further suggested that the sole emphasis on economic benefits of forests does not lead to the most active silvicultural and harvesting behavior. Multiobjective owners, who underlined both monetary and amenity benefits of their forest property, were the most active in their silvicultural and cutting behavior. Non-timber objectives seemed not to exclude wood production: a group called recreationists harvested slightly less than other owners. Recreationists were willing to invest in forestry but were selective with respect to management practices. The results can be used in planning and implementation of public forest policy such as allocation of the resources of forestry extension services. Forest industries should also benefit from a knowledge of the objectives of roundwood sellers.
  • Karppinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki Research Centre, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)

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