Current issue: 56(2)

Under compilation: 56(3)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'survey'

Category: Article

article id 5610, category Article
Timo Tokola, Juho Heikkilä. (1997). Improving satellite image based forest inventory by using a priori site quality information. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5610.
Keywords: forest inventory; stand characteristics; remote sensing; forest surveys; site factors; ancillary data; Landsat TM
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to test the benefits of a forest site quality map, when applying satellite image-based forest inventory. By combining field sample plot data from national forest inventories with satellite imagery and forest site quality data, it is possible to estimate forest stand characteristics with higher accuracy for smaller areas. The reliability of the estimates was evaluated using the data from a stand-wise survey for area sizes ranging from 0.06 ha to 300 ha. When the mean volume was estimated, a relative error of 14 per cent was obtained for areas of 50 ha; for areas of 30 ha the corresponding figure was below 20 per cent. The relative gain in interpretation accuracy, when including the forest site quality information, ranged between 1 and 6 per cent. The advantage increased according to the size of the target area. The forest site quality map had the effect of decreasing the relative error in Norway spruce (Picea abies) volume estimations, but it did not contribute to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) volume estimation procedure.

  • Tokola, E-mail: tt@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heikkilä, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown
article id 5421, category Article
Tiina Tonteri. (1990). Inter-observer variation in forest vegetation cover assessments. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5421.
Keywords: vegetation survey; forest vegetation; canopy-coverage estimation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Differences in vegetation cover estimation by field biologists of the 8th National Forest Inventory in Finland were tested. Eleven observers estimated the canopy coverages of six forests taxa in 25 sample plots, located in one stand. The experiment was arranged after the field work. The coverage of Vaccinium vitis-idaea and the ground layer appeared to be the most difficult to estimate. The mean of the highest estimator was about double that of the lowest one. The least abundant species and the sample plots with the smallest coverages had the largest estimation errors. The most important compositional gradient of the data was natural, even though the test was made in a homogenous area. However, the effect of the observer could be recognized. The differences between observers could be caused by the differences both in visual estimation level and in placing the sampling frame. The results suggest that tests should always be made when several observers are used in vegetation surveys. If calibration is used, it should be made separately for each species.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Tonteri, E-mail: tt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5219, category Article
Simo Poso, Tuomas Häme, Raito Paananen. (1984). A method for estimating the stand characteristics of a forest compartment using satellite imagery. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5219.
Keywords: forest inventories; remote sensing; satellite imagery; survey by stands; compartmentwise forest inventories; relascope plots
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper presents a method based on two phase sampling and applicable to forest inventories. The first phase estimates are obtained from satellite imagery and, if required, from extra material such as maps. Second phase estimates are measured in the field. The method is flexible and also applicable to compartmentwise forest inventories. The experiments were based on six study areas with 439 relascope plots. The correlation coefficients between first and second stage estimates varied largely according to the study area.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Häme, E-mail: th@mm.unknown
  • Paananen, E-mail: rp@mm.unknown
article id 5196, category Article
Simo Poso. (1983). Kuvioittaisen arvioimismenetelmän perusteita. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5196.
English title: Basic features of forest inventory by compartments.
Original keywords: metsänarviointi; metsikkö; kuvioittainen arviointi; luotettavuus; kuvio
English keywords: accuracy; forest mensuration; survey by stands; compartment; stand
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The concepts of the terms compartment and compartment-wise forest inventory have been studied empirically by repeated delineation and intensive systematic plot samples. The material consisted of 16 study areas of some 8–90 hectares in size in Southern Finland and of more than 1,000 relascope plots. Stands and compartments were found to be rather heterogenous. Alternative photographs, working techniques and test persons were studied. An endeavour for better accuracy in compartment inventories is recommended.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5176, category Article
J. Lappi, A. Kotisaari, H. Smolander. (1983). Height relascope for regeneration surveys. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5176.
Keywords: sampling; forest mensuration; seedling stands; measuring instruments; regeneratoin surveys; seedling height; relascope
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The choice of sampling method is of prime importance when seeking relevant information about the height distribution and spatial arrangement of seedlings in the regeneration surveys. It is suggested that the size of sampling plots should depend on the height of the seedlings. Tall seedlings should be sampled from a larger area than short ones since tall seedlings are more important for the future development of the stand. We suggest principles for a technical development task to construct a device which is easy to use in practical regeneration surveys and by which sampling can be made proportional to plant height or any desired function of height.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lappi, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kotisaari, E-mail: ak@mm.unknown
  • Smolander, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown
article id 4917, category Article
Tuomas Heiramo. (1975). Metsätieteellisten tutkimusjulkaisujen lukijatutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4917.
English title: Readership study concerning scientific forestry publications.
Original keywords: metsätiede; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; metsäntutkimuslaitos; tieteelliset julkaisut; lukijatutkimus
English keywords: forest sciences; Finnish Society of Forest Science; Forest Research Institute; scientific publications; reader survey
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to assess the use and importance of forestry publications issued by the Finnish Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) and the Finnish Forest Research Institute in disseminating research information. Another goal is to obtain information required for planning publication policy. The material was collected by means of two postal inquiries. For the first of these, a sample of 200 subscribers was taken from the mailing lists of the publication series in question. Similarly, for the second inquiry a sample of 100 professional foresters was drawn from the membership registers of the Union of Finnish Foresters and of the Union of Forest Technicians, respectively. The reply percentage of the subscribers was 72 and that of the professional foresters 64. The publication series most actively read proved to be Folia Forestalia, which was also estimated to be of the best quality. Differences between the various publication series in relation to properties studied were not very great.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiramo, E-mail: th@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4651, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1956). Outlines of cartographical and timber surveying unit. Silva Fennica vol. no. 90 article id 4651.
Keywords: Finland; remote sensing; forest mensuration; aerial surveying; forest surveys
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

After the Second World War Finnish Forest Service was faced with large e-mapping and timber surveying project in Northern Finland. The funds for mapping were very limited. In order to re-map the large areas, the only way was to look for alternative methods for the ground methods. The photogrammetric equipment of Finnish Army was made available to the civil service. Consequently, since 1947 several forest mapping projects were carried out in co-operation between the Forest Service and the Army Topographic Service.

When more funds were coming available for the project, new instruments were acquired. The article describes the present mapping procedure and suggests alternative ways in procedure and utilization of new equipment. It concludes that if the forest area under modern timber management plans is several million acres, the ideal implemental framework for mapping and timber surveying unit in Finland should be the following: Radial Secator RS I and slotted templates for the radial line plot, Stereotope Plotter for drafting general maps, the old Delft Scanning Stereoscope for photo interpretation, and Aero-Sketchmaster for transport of the photo details.

  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4579, category Article
Reino Kalliola. (1942). Pyhätunturin kansallispuiston kasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 59 article id 4579.
English title: Vegetation and flora in the Pyhätunturi National Park.
Original keywords: luonnonsuojelualue; kuusi; kasvillisuus; mänty; kasvillisuuskartoitus; Lappi; kansallispuisto; Pyhätunturi; puuraja; tunturikoivu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; vegetation; Scots pine; Lapland; nature reserve; national park; Pyhätunturi; vegetation survey; vascular plant; fell birch; Betula pubescens subsp. Czerepanovii); timber line
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is based on the writer’s visits in the area in 1933 and 1939. Pyhätunturi national park was established in 1938. The fell of Pyhätunturi rises up to 540 meters above the sea level, and 357 meters above the surrounding area. The soil is predominantly stony, and the rock is quartzite. The climate is continental with low rainfall. This results in a barren area, where array of plant species is limited with the exception of few gorges with fertile river valleys. The forests have remained mostly in natural state.

Vegetation is arranged in three zones: forested area, subalpine fell birch area and alpine bare top of the fell. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forms timberline more often than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Coniferous forests rise up to 365 meters on the northern slopes and up to about 385 on the southern slopes of the fell. It is followed by fell birch zone (Betula tortuosa, now Betula pubescens subsp. Czerepanovii) up to about 450-475 meters on the eastern and northern slopes, and 475-490 meters on the western slopes. The most common forest site type is Empetrum-Myrtillus site type. Herb-rich spruce swamps along the rivers have highest diversity of species. The article describes the plant species found in forests, peatlands, fell birch zone and top of the fell in detail. In all 162 different vascular plant species and 16 non-indigenous species were found in the area.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Kalliola, E-mail: rk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4480, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1937). Käytännöllisistä metsänarvioimistavoista. Silva Fennica vol. no. 39 article id 4480.
English title: Practical forest inventory methods.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsänarvioiminen; puuvarat; metsien inventointi; linja-arviointi
English keywords: forest inventory; forest mensuration; forest education; professional development courses; wood resources; strip-survey
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes different forest inventory methods.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4466, category Article
Maatalousyliopistokomitea. (1932). Ehdotus maatalousyliopiston perustamiseksi. Maatalousyliopistokomitean mietintö n:o 2. Silva Fennica vol. no. 25 article id 4466.
English title: Proposal for the establishment of an agricultural university in Finland.
Original keywords: maatalousopetus; metsäopetus; maatalousyliopisto; eläinlääkintä; Helsingin yliopisto; maanmittaus
English keywords: University of Helsinki; agricultural education; forestry education; veterinary sciences; surveying; university of agriculture
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Agricultural University Committee recommended in its first report that the higher education in agriculture and forestry should be transferred to Helsinki, the capital of Finland. The same arguments that were presented on the education of agriculture and forestry can be applied to education of agricultural engineers, surveyors and veterinaries.

According to the proposal of the Committee, the Government reserved in 1931 buildings in Wiik and Malmgård estates for the education of agriculture and forestry. Thus, the higher education of agriculture and forestry have been appointed training areas near Helsinki, where also the education of agricultural engineers, surveyors and veterinaries could be located.

Connections to the University of Helsinki has proven invaluable to the development of higher education of agriculture and forestry. However, the Committee recommends the establishment of separate agricultural university for the sectors, because the other faculties support the separation of the faculty from the university. It seems to the Committee that education in agriculture and forestry no longer poses sufficient opportunities of development within the University of Helsinki. The education in veterinary science should remain in connection to education in agriculture. The education of surveyors and agricultural engineers are at present arranged partly at the Technical University, and their location remains to be decided. A proposal for the organization, staff, education, decrees and professors is included in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Maatalousyliopistokomitea, E-mail: my@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4445, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1927). The scientific foundation of forestry as exemplified by Forest Research Work in Suomi. Silva Fennica vol. no. 4 article id 4445.
Keywords: inventory; Finland; North America; forest mensuration; forest research; forest site type; line plot survey
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a lecture given by A.K. Cajander in the International Congress of Plant Science. The lecture describes results of Finnish forest research that might be regarded significant also for North America. Because of similarities in nature and forest management, forest research may use similar methods in both areas.

For instance, line plot survey in the form used in Finland could well be applied in North America. In Finland, lines were drawn at 26 kilometer intervals. Visual estimates about, for instance, species, tree growth and productivity class, were made along the lines and sample plots were taken every other kilometer. To gain full advantage of the method, a productivity classification and yield tables are needed. When these are known, it is possible to find out how to increase the productivity of forests with suitable tree species and proper forest management. This kind of inventory of forest resources and the state of forests provides reliable information for forest policy. Another important issue for forest research is forest management, which requires understanding on their biology. At the same time, research must provide methods for practical forestry.

A summary in Finnish is included in the PDF.

  • Cajander, E-mail: ac@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4440, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1927). The inventory of forest resources. Silva Fennica vol. no. 4 article id 4440.
Keywords: inventory; forest resources; forest mensuration; line plot survey
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Line plot survey has proven the best method to assess forest resources in the Northern countries on a country level; it is cost effective and gives reliable results. The accuracy of the survey depends on, however, how close the lines are set. To get homogenous statistics of an entire country, the survey should not span over too long a period. Thus, the distance between the lines should be chosen wide enough to give accurate results quickly for the whole country, while accepting slightly less exact results for its smaller districts.

If line survey is performed on large areas, it is not possible to count and measure trees, measure the tree growth. etc. along the whole length of the line because of its costs. Therefore, more precise measurements are limited to sample plots, which are spaced evenly along the lines. Between the sample plots, the volume and growth of each stand touching the line are estimated visually. These visual estimates have often systematic faultiness, which can be eliminated with correlation calculations. Visual observations gather information, for instance, about land owner, soil type, land-use class, forest site type, tree species and age class of the stand, density, wood volume ja annual growth per hectare, and the current silvicultural state of the stand. With help of this kind of information it is possible to get sufficient statistics about the forest resources of a country.

A summary in Finnish is included in the PDF.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7168, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Pekka Kilkki. (1966). Estimation of strata areas in forest survey. Silva Fennica vol. 81 no. 3 article id 7168.
Keywords: forest inventory; stratified sampling; sampling; methods; forest survey; strata
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Highest degree of precision in determining the areas of different strata in forest survey is achieved when the areas are measured from a map. However, in practice the stratum-areas usually need to be determined on the basis of samples taken in the field or from aerial photographs. The goal of the present investigation was to determine the precision in stratum-area estimation on the application of different sampling methods.

Three sampling methods were used: 1. sampling with random plots, 2. uniform systematic plot sampling, and 3. sampling with equidistant lines.

The dependence of the standard error of stratum-areas in systematic line and plot sampling was examined by regression analysis. The models for regression equations were derived from random sampling formulae. It appears that the characteristics of these formulae were applicable as variables in the regression equations for systematic samples. Also, some characteristics of the distribution of the stratum was found, which seem to influence the error in sampling with equidistant lines.

The results as regards uniform systematic plot sampling indicate that the use of random sampling formulae leads to considerable over-estimation of the standard error. Nonetheless, unless relatively short intervals between sample plots are used in the forest survey made on the ground, it is of advantage to study the division of the area into strata by measuring the distribution of the survey lines in these strata.

The results can be used in two ways: for estimation of the precision in a survey already made, or to predetermine the sample size in a survey to be made. The results may be applicable to areas ranging from 100 to 1,000 ha in size, as well as to larger areas.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown
article id 7162, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Pekka Kilkki. (1965). Sampling a stand in forest survey. Silva Fennica vol. 79 no. 4 article id 7162.
Keywords: forest inventory; sampling; methods; sample plots; forest survey
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this paper is to review tests made on the basis of Finnish material with regard to the efficiency of the 10-point cluster in sampling a stand in forest inventory. Currently, this system is applied in field work in the national forest surveys in the United States of America. The paper reports on tests, made on the basis of Finnish material, for comparison of the 10-point cluster of variable plots with 13 other designs in sampling a stand in forest survey. The research material consists of 12 stands, with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) as the main species.

The main results are concerned with the ability of different designs to provide gross volume estimates. As a measure of efficiency, three alternative series of variances were used, adjusted by three alternatives of time. The results are applicable, for instance, in double-sampling with photo and field classifications. In the comparisons, no attention was paid to the possibility of systematic errors in various designs.

For inventory volume, the 10-point cluster proved to be about 10 per cent less efficient than the best design of each alternative. The use of a single circular plot of 1,000 m2 can be recommended under the conditions of this test; furthermore, one or two 500 m2 plots were more efficient than any combination of variable plots.

The reason for the use of the 10-point cluster in forest surveying has been the ability of the design to provide simultaneous information on area condition classes. Among the designs tested, the 10-point cluster seems to be the only one capable of application in the estimation of condition classes.

Most of the information obtained by means of the 10-point cluster can be gained through ocular estimation, and from the sample trees to be measured in any design, but a cluster of several points appears to offer good means of estimation, for instance, of the presence of clumps and gasps in a stand.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown
article id 7433, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1954). Nationwide surveys of forest resources and wood utilization in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 21 article id 7433.
Keywords: forestry; National Forest Inventory; Finland; forest resources; wood utilization; forest balance; National Forest Survey; growth balance
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The first estimates on the forest resources of Finland were presented in the middle of the 1900th century. The first line survey was conducted in 1912 in Central Finland. In 1921-1923 a survey of the forests of the whole country was commenced. The method consisted in measurement of sample plots in conjunction with ocular estimation of all the stands within the range of the lines. The methods were further developed in the second National Forest Survey in 1936-1938, which payed special attention to the silvicultural condition of the forests, and the growth in the light of climatic variation. When 3.3 million ha of forests were ceded to the Soviet Union in the peace treaty of 1944, the results of the survey had to be recalculated. The next survey was conducted 1951-1953. In this survey, the recovery of stands on drained peatlands was studied. The results of the inventories show that forest resources of Finland had icreased since the 1936-1938 survey.

The first investigation of wood utilization in Finland was carried out in 1927, after the first National Forest Survey had provided information on the forest resources, and knowledge of the other side of the forest balance was desired. The most difficult part was to determine the domestic wood consumption of the rural population. This was accomplished by studying 1,337 sample farms. The second investigation was commenced in 1938, and third in 1954.

These two investigations have made it possible to determine the annual removal and annual growth, and by comparing these results, growth balance. A forest balance is an essential condition for judicious forestry.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7205, category Article
J. W. Lindeberg. (1926). On theory of strip-survey. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 6 article id 7205.
Keywords: ; strip-survey; method development; standard error
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There has been earlier publications on calculating the standard error of the strips. However, they have been calculated with very small amount of data. In the article the confidence of standard error will be examined throughout. The article is a response to the article written by A. Langsaeter on the theme.  

  • Lindeberg, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7090, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1923). Tutkimuksia yksityismetsien tilasta Hämeen läänin keskiosissa. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 7090.
English title: Studies on the condition of private forests in the central part of the Häme province.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsät; linja-arviointi; inventointi
English keywords: forest management; inventory; private forests; strip-survey
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A strip survey was performed in the counties of Sahalahti and Kuhmalahti in Häme, situated in Central Finland, to study the condition of the private forests. The forests cover 78% of the total land area of 37,420 hectares. The forest site types were relatively fertile. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forest covered 43%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) 30% and Betula sp. 23% of the forest land. The productivity of the forests could be improved by changing the species so that they suit the site. The volume of the standing crop is 67.2 m3 per hectare. The volume of the growing stock in the area could be 1 million m3 larger if the forests were nearer to the natural state. The annual growth of the forests is low, and could be much improved by correct forest management.

One of the aims of the survey was to study how the distance between survey lines should be adjusted to give acceptably accurate results, in a way that the strip-survey method can be adapted to large areas. The largest distance between the lines that gave results that differed less than 10% from the correct results, varied between 10 and 1.5 kilometres depending on the variables. For instance, to get accurate results for the rarest forest site types required line distance of 1.5 kilometres, but accurate results for the most common forest site types could be achieves with line distance of 10 kilometres.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7080, category Article
J. W. Lindeberg. (1923). Calculating the standard error in the strip-survey results. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 5 article id 7080.
Keywords: strip-survey; methodology; standard error
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article features a critical observation on used methods for calculating the errors and a trial to improve it. The article describes the calculation method used in Sweden, county of Värmland and another method used by Ilvessalo and developed by Cajanus. The shortcomings of these models are discussed. An improved calculation is presented.  

  • Lindeberg, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7020, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1919). Tutkimuksia metsien tilasta Savossa ja Karjalassa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 7020.
English title: Studies on state of forests in Savo and Karelia.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; linja-arviointi; metsävarat; metsätyyppi; metsänarviointi; puulajisuhteet
English keywords: forest management; forest resources; forest mensuration; forest site type; strip survey; distribution of tree species
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A strip survey was made to define the forest and peatland site class distribution and the condition of the forests in Savo and Karelia in central and eastern parts of Finland. According to the survey, 24% of the forested lands are peatlands. Fresh mineral soil sites (26%) were the most common mineral soil site type. Intermediately dry forest soil sites covered 22% of the area, forest sites with grass-herb vegetation 12,79%, rich grass-herb forest soil sites 3,16% and dry forest soil sites 9,59% of the forested area. The most common tree species were Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 39%, Betula sp., 26%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), 18%, and grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), 10% of the forest land. The article includes a review about the wood harvesting in the forests, and their present silvicultural state. According to the study, about 30% of the forested lands (not including peatlands) were unproductive; mostly mixed alder and birch stands of poor quality or open lands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, E-mail: sm@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Special section

article id 287, category Special section
Mikko Peltoniemi, Juha Heikkinen, Raisa Mäkipää. (2007). Stratification of regional sampling by model-predicted changes of carbon stocks in forested mineral soils. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 287.
Keywords: uncertainty; soil carbon; anticipated variance; forest soil; monitoring; repeated measurement; soil survey; stratified sampling
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Monitoring changes in soil C has recently received interest due to reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. Model-based approaches to estimate changes in soil C stocks exist, but they cannot fully replace repeated measurements. Measuring changes in soil C is laborious due to small expected changes and large spatial variation. Stratification of soil sampling allows the reduction of sample size without reducing precision. If there are no previous measurements, the stratification can be made with model-predictions of target variable. Our aim was to present a simulation-based stratification method, and to estimate how much stratification of inventory plots could improve the efficiency of the sampling. The effect of large uncertainties related to soil C change measurements and simulated predictions was targeted since they may considerably decrease the efficiency of stratification. According to our simulations, stratification can be useful with a feasible soil sample number if other uncertainties (simulated predictions and forecasted forest management) can be controlled. For example, the optimal (Neyman) allocation of plots to 4 strata with 10 soil samples from each plot (unpaired repeated sampling) reduced the standard error (SE) of the stratified mean by 9–34% from that of simple random sampling, depending on the assumptions of uncertainties. When the uncertainties of measurements and simulations were not accounted for in the division to strata, the decreases of SEs were 2–9 units less. Stratified sampling scheme that accounts for the uncertainties in measured material and in the correlates (simulated predictions) is recommended for the sampling design of soil C stock changes.
  • Peltoniemi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Heikkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:
  • Mäkipää, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:

Category: Research article

article id 6989, category Research article
Åsa Gustafsson. (2017). Assessing work order information quality in harvesting. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 6989.
Keywords: survey study; logging contractor; work orders; work order information components; factor analysis
Highlights: This paper concludes that information quality with regards to accuracy in work order information components pertaining to “Landing – placement and size”, “Cleaning understory trees – not conducted and of low standard”, are lacking and need to be improved in harvesting.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Being a logging contractor involves several uncertainties, amongst others, information quality in the work order received from customers. The information quality of work orders is of the utmost importance for logging contactors, in order to be able to plan and conduct work properly. The purpose of this paper is three-fold: 1) identifying work order information components in harvesting, 2) identifying work order information quality dimensions in harvesting and 3) assessing work order information quality in harvesting. The paper is based on interviews and a survey. Various interviews took place in Sweden with professionals within the harvesting industry as well as logging contractors, and thereafter a survey was developed. Random selection was conducted and 100 Swedish logging contractors were contacted by telephone in order to answer the survey, with a response rate of 82% from the sample. The paper concludes that the information quality dimension of accuracy concerns the individual work order information components, whereas timeliness is related to receiving the complete work orders. A factor analysis has been conducted with five factors emerging. The assessment of work order information quality in harvesting implies that the potential for improvement exists with regard to increasing the accuracy of the order information for the components of “Cleaning under story trees – not conducted” and “Cleaning under story trees – of low standard” as well as “Landing – size”, and “Landing – placement”. However, their effect on capacity is utilization needs to be explored.

  • Gustafsson, Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden E-mail: (email)
article id 144, category Research article
Markku Oikari, Kalle Kärhä, Teijo Palander, Heikki Pajuoja, Heikki Ovaskainen. (2010). Analyzing the views of wood harvesting professionals related to the approaches for increasing the cost-efficiency of wood harvesting from young stands. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 144.
Keywords: cost-efficiency; energy wood; early thinnings; industrial roundwood; costs; gap analysis; opinion survey
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
A lot of viable guidelines are currently available for more cost-effective harvesting of energy wood and industrial roundwood (i.e. pulpwood) from young stands. The study ranked the proposed potential approaches for increasing the cost-efficiency of small-diameter (d1.3 < 10 cm) energy wood and industrial roundwood harvesting from early thinnings. Research data, based on a total of 40 personal interviews, was collected in early 2008. The interviewees were divided into four wood harvesting professional groups: 1) Managers in wood procurement organizations, 2) Forest machine contractors, 3) Forest machine manufacturers and vendors, and 4) Wood harvesting researchers. In the opinion of the respondents, there is great potential to increase the cost-efficiency of wood harvesting through improving harvesting conditions (i.e. effective tending of seedling stands, delaying harvesting operations, and pre-clearance of dense undergrowth). The interviewees also underlined that harvesting methods can be rationalized, e.g. multiple-tree handling in industrial roundwood cuttings, crane scale measurement, integrated wood harvesting, and careful selection of stands for harvesting. The strong message given by the interviewees was that the education of forest machine operators must be made more effective in the future. There would be significant possibilities for cost savings in young stands, if methods and techniques with the most potential were utilized completely in wood harvesting.
  • Oikari, Karelwood, Kontiolahti, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Kärhä, Metsäteho Oy, Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Palander, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Pajuoja, Metsäteho Oy, Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Ovaskainen, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 217, category Research article
Ville Kankaanhuhta, Timo Saksa, Heikki Smolander. (2009). Variation in the results of Norway spruce planting and Scots pine direct seeding in privately-owned forests in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 217.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; quality control; forest regeneration survey; forest regeneration inventory; quality management
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This study describes the variation in the planting results for 3-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and 4-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) using direct seeding in privately-owned regeneration areas in southern Finland. The study material consists of operative forest regeneration quality management inventory areas from the years 2000–2006. The effect of both the regional and the administrative levels as well as ecological factors was modelled on the basis of the hierarchy structure forestry centre, Forest Owners’ Association (= FOA), forestry professional, regeneration area and sample plot. The major part of the variation occurred at the sample plot and regeneration area level. Particular attention was paid to observation of the clustered spatial distribution of Scots pine seedlings. The FOA and forestry professional levels explained 5% of the variation in Norway spruce planting and 11% of the variation in Scots pine direct seeding. Applied forest regeneration operations, site and soil characteristics were included in the fixed effects. In the planting of Norway spruce the most important factor explaining the regeneration result was soil preparation. Mounding produced better results than patching and disc trenching. The site and soil characteristics were other important factors in the operations. The selection of direct seeding of Scots pine on too fertile, fine textured or moist sites yielded poor results.
  • Kankaanhuhta, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:
  • Smolander, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:
article id 467, category Research article
Annika Kangas, Ruut Haapakoski, Liisa Tyrväinen. (2008). Integrating place-specific social values into forest planning – Case of UPM-Kymmene forests in Hyrynsalmi, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 5 article id 467.
Keywords: collaborative planning; experienced values of forests; social value mapping; survey
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In participatory forest management planning, the perceived values of local inhabitants concerning the area under planning are collected. The results may, however, depend on the methods used. In this study, values of residents of Hyrynsalmi municipality concerning the nearby forests owned by UPM-Kymmene Ltd. were evaluated with a questionnaire consisting of general value questions and mapping of social values of forests. The data was collected from a public meeting and from a mailed survey from randomly sampled people and from members of municipal council. The aims of the study were to 1) test the social value mapping method in commercial forests in a rural-urban interface as well as to examine the benefits and drawbacks 2) in place-specific and non-specific data collection, and 3) in different data collection methods, from the viewpoint of forest management planning. We noted that while all respondents can claim to represent local values, different data collection methods produced statistically significantly different local values. This needs to be accounted for when planning a participatory process. In operational forest planning, place-specific information is more useful than questions concerning the general values, while the latter may help in defining forest policy goals. The social values mapping method is also relatively easy for the participants. However, in the studied case about one fifth of the area was delineated by the participants per each positive value. The answers were quite scattered, suggesting that most of the area had some social values for local people. This indicates that utilising a social values mapping method in planning needs further development in rural areas, where distinctive patches can not be easily detected.
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki E-mail: (email)
  • Haapakoski, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki E-mail:
  • Tyrväinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland. E-mail:
article id 592, category Research article
Marja-Liisa Juntunen. (2001). Use of pesticides in Finnish forest nurseries in 1996. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 2 article id 592.
Keywords: herbicides; fungicides; insecticides; seedlings; survey study
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In 1996 a questionnaire on seedling production and use of pesticides was sent to 33 forest nurseries in Finland. Twenty-eight nurseries answered the questionnaire; thus the survey covered about 80% of the Finnish production of forest seedlings. According to this study, the Finnish nurseries together are using about 1000 kilograms of pesticides (as active ingredient, a.i.) annually. The most used herbicide was terbutylazine (Gardoprim-Neste®), and half of the total amount of fungicide used was chlorothalonil (Bravo 500®). Three fourths of the insecticide products had permethrin as the active ingredient. The nurseries applied, on average, 1.7 kg pesticides (a.i.)/ha annually, although the amount varied considerably between nurseries. In production of container seedlings the highest mean amounts of pesticides were applied to pine seedlings (9.5 kg/ha) and the lowest to spruce seedlings (0.9 kg/ha). To the fields of bareroot seedlings the nurseries applied, on average, 3.9 kg pesticides (a.i.)/ha. Mean amounts of pesticide (a.i.) per 1000 seedlings grown in containers were almost the same for birch and pine production, 1.6 and 1.7 grams, respectively; for production of spruce seedlings the comparable values were less than 0.5 grams. For production of bareroot seedlings the nurseries used about four times more pesticides than for container seedlings.
  • Juntunen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: (email)
article id 692, category Research article
Eero Mattila. (1998). Use of satellite and field information in a forest damage survey of eastern Finnish Lapland in 1993. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 2 article id 692.
Keywords: National Forest Inventory; remote sensing; forest damage survey
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The study area consists of the Finnish part of a Landsat 5 TM image from 1990. Three independent field samples were measured during 1991–93 in the study area. The first sample was used to compile training areas for supervised maximum likelihood classification of the image. Classification accuracy was studied in the second sample. The spectral separability of the forest strata usable in practical forestry was poor. The extent of the damage area was estimated by the principle of stratified sampling. The estimate included considerable bias because the field sample had not been objectively selected from the image classes. The third field sample was measured as part of the National Forest Inventory of Finland. It is wholly objective, and about ten times larger than the two earlier field samples. The poor spectral separability of the forest strata was confirmed by the NFI sample. However, this sample could be used in stratified sampling with little or no bias in the estimation of the damage area estimate. 14 different damage types were separated according to specific damaging agent. A thematic map was produced which presents the spatial distribution of two damage-rich image classes. The study area comprises 18 300, of which 38% were damaged. At first sight it would appear that the proportion of damaged forest has tripled in ten years. However, this is not the case because now special attention was paid to forest health in the field work. Despite this, it is possible that some damage caused by unfavourable climatic phenomena in the ’80s was still perceptible in 1993. No damage caused directly by air pollution has yet been verified in the study area.
  • Mattila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)

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