Current issue: 56(2)

Under compilation: 56(3)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'metsät'

Category: Article

article id 5517, category Article
Tuomo Kotimäki. (1993). Ristipaineet valtion metsien käytön valintatilanteissa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15678
English title: Contradictory targets in the use of state forests of Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsien monikäyttö; aluepolitiikka; maankäyttö; kestävä metsätalous
English keywords: forest management; Finland; forest management planning; Forest Service; state forests; multiple use of forests; conflicting targets; land use; regional planning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper discusses the principles of forest management in the state forests of Finland, and the contradictions in choosing between the different land uses. These principles of the forest management are sustainable use of natural resources, economic and effective management, and taking in account nature conservation, protection of environment, recreation services and employment issues in all activities of the Forest Service. Even regional policy affects the management planning in the state forests.

  • Kotimäki, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5516, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1993). Yksityismetsätalous ja arvojen muutos. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15677
English title: Private forestry and the changing values.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsätalous; metsänomistajat; arvot
English keywords: forest management; forestry; values; Finland; forest owners; private forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forests have been economically important for Finnish private forest owners at all times, but the use of forests has changed markedly since 1920s, when forests were mainly used for collecting household timber, and the cuttings were often exploitative because of the farmer’s need for money. The present situation is totally different. Need for household timber is marginally small, and private forestry produces mainly timber for sale. The sales of timber have increased, but due to better forest management the growing stock in the private forests has increased. The article discusses how the changes in values of forest owners has and will affect the stage of private forestry.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5515, category Article
Seppo Vehkamäki. (1993). Metsien käytön muutospaineet. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5515. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15676
English title: Pressures for changes in the use of forests.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsien monikäyttö; kestävyys; tuottavuus; tehokkuus
English keywords: forest management; productivity; sustainability; forestry; multiple use of forests; effectiveness
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper discusses how the general trend towards increasing growth and productivity in the European societies is expressed also in forestry. It is reflected, for instance, in the increasing production and productivity of forest industries. Technological progress and call for economic growth require great flexibility from all resources. These pressures for effectiveness and production also concern Finnish forestry and forest management. Industrialization, urbanization and development of forestry have increased the pressure to use forests in recreation, preserving human environment and nature conservation in addition to production of timber. Through the development the definition of sustainability has become wider.

  • Vehkamäki, E-mail: sv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5485, category Article
Pekka Ripatti. (1992). Yksityistilojen metsäalan muutokset Kaakkois-Suomessa 1986-1991. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5485. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15646
English title: Forest area changes of non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991.
Original keywords: yksityismetsät; yksityismetsätalous; Kaakkois-Suomi; tilakoko
English keywords: Finland; private forestry; farm size; forest holdings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to describe the total change of forest area in non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991. The average gross decrease of forest area was 1.7 hectares, whereas the average gross increase was 1.2 hectares. Consequently, the average size of holdings decreased from 32.5 to 32.0 hectares. The most important factors affecting the changes of forest area were the inheritance system, resulting in a decrease of 0.7 ha, and reclassification of forestry land, producing an increase of 0.4 ha per holding. The increase of small, under 10 ha holdings accounted for much of the structural change.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Ripatti, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5448, category Article
Markku Penttinen. (1991). Metsäkirjanpidon ja kustannuslaskennan toteuttaminen - 20 vuotta metsätalouden kannattavuuden kenttätutkimusta Itävallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5448. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15602
English title: Implementing forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting – 20 years of field research on the profitability of forestry in Austria.
Original keywords: metsätalous; kannattavuus; yksityismetsät; kirjanpito; metsäekonomia; kustannuslaskenta; kirjapitotilat; Itävalta
English keywords: forestry; profitability; private forests; bookkeeping; forest economics; cost accounting; private forest holdings; accounting holdings; Austria
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The profitability of forestry in the context of recent economic developments in Finland suggest a more systematic analysis of the profit and the cost structure of small-scale forestry than is normally made today. The domestic and international pressure on farming emphasizes the development of rural areas by means of other business than agriculture, in practice this may mean forestry. Financing in terms of the new law concerning agriculture requires projects to be profitable. Thus, the profitability of different lines of production, including forestry, needs to be reported more carefully than is the practice today.

A network of forestry bookkeeping farms covering the whole Austria has existed for 20 years. The organization and the operation of the forestry bookkeeping and the cost accounting system is based on the scientific cooperation and exchange of information between the organizations in charge. The practical experience and recommendations based thereon might be useful for Finland, when implementing a country-wide network of forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Penttinen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5427, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1990). Salama puustokuolemien aiheuttajana. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5427. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15581
English title: Lightning as a cause of death of tree groups.
Original keywords: metsätuhot; salaman isku; kuolleet puut
English keywords: forest damage; lightning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The writer reports in this discussion article of four stands in Finland that have died due to a bolt of lightning. A death of a group of trees because of lightning has been relatively uncommon for the forest professionals. The trees may not have no lightning marks. The four sites are presented in detail. Characteristic for this type of death of trees is, for instance, that trees have died within a circular area (of usually 30 m of diameter), only conifers have died, trees die from the top down, sometimes marks can be found in trees in the centre of the area, and under the bark may be brown patches or stripes.

  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5426, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1990). Pohjoisen havumetsävyöhykkeen suot ja niiden metsätaloudellinen hyväksikäyttö. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5426. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15580
English title: Peatlands of the boreal zone and their utilization in forestry.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäojitus; suot; soiden ojitus; havumetsävyöhyke
English keywords: forestry; peatlands; drainage of peatlands; boreal zone
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper is a review on utilization of peatlands in forestry in the countries of boreal zone: Finland, Norway, Sweden, Canada, the United States and the Soviet Union. First, the concept of peatlands, the types of peatlands throughout the zone are defined, and the use of natural peatlands is described. Finally, the drainage of peatlands for forestry purposes in the countries is reviewed. According to the statistics, a total of 13 million ha of peatlands have been drained in Fennoscandia and the Soviet Union.

  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5394, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1989). Kestävä metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5394. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15552
English title: Sustainable forest management.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäekonomia; kestävä metsätalous
English keywords: forestry; sustainable forest management; forest economics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper is a review on the development of sustainable forest management and what has been meant with the term in different times. The article summarises the birth of sustainable use of forests in the world and in Finland, and discusses sustainability in forest management, for instance from the point of view of one forest holding, large clearcuttings performed in Lapland, biological sustainability, business economics and overall planning.

  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5393, category Article
Erkki Annila. (1989). Metsien kunto ja bioottiset tuhonaiheuttajat. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5393. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15551
English title: Condition of forests and biotic damages .
Original keywords: metsätalous; hyönteistuhot; ilmastonmuutos; ilmansaasteet; sienituhot
English keywords: forestry; climatic change; insect damages; air pollution; fungal pathogens
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This review discusses whether forests are affected by biotic damages due to present or future environmental disturbances, and do environmental threats, such as air pollution and climatic change, weaken the condition of forest in a way that makes them vulnerable to damages by fungi and insect. The defence mechanisms of trees and factors affecting the development of an outbreak are described. Finally, the ways that air pollution and climatic change may affect biotic damages are discussed. 

  • Annila, E-mail: ea@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5380, category Article
Arto Rummukainen. (1989). Moreenimurskeella pinnoitettujen metsäteiden kunnossapito maataloustraktorikalustolla. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5380. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15537
English title: Maintenance of crushed moraine paved forest roads with agricultural tractor implements.
Original keywords: metsätiet; kunnossapito; maataloustraktori; moreenimursketiet; hydraulinen tärytin; lana
English keywords: maintenance; forest roads; tractors; implements; grain-size distribution; vibrating blade; pulled drag
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The condition of forest road pavements was studied in spring, one week after maintenance and in autumn. The effect of vibrating blade was slightly better than that of pulled drag. Large loose stones couldn’t be pressed into pavement with either of the implements. The use of the vibrating blade was three times as expensive as the use of the pulled drag, however, the blade is suitable for other purposes as well.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Rummukainen, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5366, category Article
Pekka Ollonqvist. (1988). Resurssien jakautumisen tehokkuuden ja päätöksentekijöiden tavoitteiden mittauksessa tapahtuneista muutoksista metsäekonomiassa. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5366. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15523
English title: The quarter century development in the paradigms of forestry economics.
Original keywords: tutkimus; metsätalous; metsäekonomia; päätöksenteko
English keywords: decision making; forestry; research; forest economics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The two introductory books written by emeritus professor William Duerr provide an opportunity to scope the research progress in the forest economic discipline during almost a quarter century. This paper gives a presentation of the books (Fundamentals of Forest economics, 1960, and Forestry Economics as Problem Solving, 1984), and the development of forest economics during the period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollonqvist, E-mail: po@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5332, category Article
Aarne Reunala. (1987). Metsä arkkityyppinä. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5332. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15489
English title: Forest as an archetype.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsä; kansanperinne; aineettomat arvot; symboliikka
English keywords: forestry; forest; folklore; archetypes; folk tradition; symbolism; intangible values
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to universal primitive beliefs, there was a huge pole or tree in the centre of the universe to support the sky. These beliefs gave rise to innumerable customs where both trees and wood have been used to promote health and good luck. Even today, many such customs exist: the Christmas tree, maypole, Midsummer birches, birch whisks in the Finnish sauna, ritual tree plantings etc. In addition to the tree, also the forest as both a protecting and a frightening maternal symbol can be considered as an archetype. Intensive forestry diminishes the archetypal contents of forests, which may be one reason behind critical attitudes towards modern forestry.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Reunala, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5324, category Article
Jussi Raumolin. (1987). Metsän suojassa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5324. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15481
English title: Under the shelter of forests: some thoughts about political anthropology and the geopolitics of forests.
Original keywords: metsät; poliittinen antropologia; geopolitiikka; sotahistoria; sissisodankäynti
English keywords: state formation; geopolitics; guerilla warfare; forest warfare; political anthropology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Only a few studies exist concerning the political anthropology and geopolitics of forests. The role of forests in European geopolitics and their role in restraining concentration of power and promoting guerrilla warfare is examined. The shelter of forest cover has been a fundamental factor for the formation of the Finnish people and it has also played an important role in the defence of independent Finland. Clearcuttings, forest roads and modern reconnaissance technology have recently diminished the protective shelter of forests.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raumolin, E-mail: jr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5323, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1987). Metsien hoidon aatehistoriaa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5323. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15480
Keywords: metsät; menetelmät; historia; aatehistoria; kulttuuri; metsänhoito; metsänuudistus; seminaarit
View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5272, category Article
Alli Manninen, Pentti Heikkinen, Kaj Husman, Juhani Kangas, Tapio Klen, Ilkka Mononen. (1986). Klooratuille fenoksihapoille altistumisen vaikutus metsurin terveydentilaan vesakontorjuntatyössä. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5272. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15451
English title: Effect of exposure to chlorinated phenoxy acid herbicides on the health of Finnish forest workers in silvicultural clearing work.
Original keywords: metsätyöntekijät; työterveys; herbisidit; torjunta-aineet; vesakontorjunta; klooratut fenoksihapot; kemiallinen altistus
English keywords: herbicides; forest work; occupational health; MCPA; 2, 4 -D; chemical control; chemical clearing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Exposure to phenoxy acids and their effect on worker’s health were studied among 35 exposed forest workers. The control group was 47 non-exposed loggers. The both groups were medically examined before and after their working period including such laboratory analyses as B-differential count, B-thrombocytes. In addition, the exposure to eight ULV sprayers and two clearing saw sprayers were measured in breathing zone.

The mean of phenoxy acid concentrations in urine among all the exposed workers after the working period was 6.5 μmol/l being significantly below the hygienic limit value (14 μmol/l). The mean concentrations of ULV sprayer workers was 7.3 μmol/l and of clearing saw sprayer workers 2.7 μmol/l. The mean of air concentrations among ULV sprayers was 0.23 mg/m3 and among clearing saw sprayers 0.06 mg/m3. No statistically significant differences were noticed in the hematologic parameters and in the enzyme activities of the liver, kidney and muscles between the exposed and control groups before or after the working period. So, it seems that these low exposure levels don’t cause sudden changes in health.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Manninen, E-mail: am@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heikkinen, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Husman, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown
  • Kangas, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown
  • Klen, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
  • Mononen, E-mail: im@mm.unknown
article id 5263, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1986). Julkaisuohjeet Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran sarjoihin. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5263. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15442
English title: Author guidelines for the publications of the Finnish Society of Forest Science.
Original keywords: Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; tieteelliset julkaisut; julkaisuohjeet
English keywords: scientific publications; Acta Forestalia Fennica; Silva Fennica; author guidelines
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper includes the publishing guidelines for the scientific publications of the Finnish Society of Forest Science. The Society publishes the series of Silva Fennica and Acta Forestalia Fennica.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 5253, category Article
Carl Johan Westman, Matti Leikola, Tapio Nummi. (1985). Käytännön typpilannoituksen vaikutus varttuneiden kuusikoiden kasvuun ja tuotokseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5253. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15432
English title: The effect of large-scale nitrogen fertilization on growth and yield of mature Norway spruce stands in south-western Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; kannattavuus; metsätyyppi; tilavuuskasvu; lannoitus; typpilannoitus
English keywords: Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; volume growth; profitability; nitrogen fertilization
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method for calculation of the effect of practical fertilization for economic evaluation is presented and discussed. 55 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus type sites were surveyed five to eight years after fertilization with nitrogen (90-170 kg/ha). The relationships between the fertilization effect and various stand characteristics were discussed. Fertilization increased the growth of the stands on an average by 2.2 m3/ha/year. In total the increase of tree growth during the research period was 17.5 m3/ha. This corresponds to a yield of 525–659 FIM/ha.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown (email)
  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown
  • Nummi, E-mail: tn@mm.unknown
article id 5225, category Article
Seppo Oja. (1984). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran julkaisutoiminta 1973-1984. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5225. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15404
English title: The publications of the Society of Forestry in Finland in 1973–1984.
Original keywords: Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; Acta Forestalia Fennica; Silva Fennica; tieteelliset julkaisut; julkaisutoiminta
English keywords: Finnish Society of Forest Science; scientific publications; Acta Forestalia Fennica; Silva Fennica
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) publishes two series in the field of forest science, Acta Forestalia Fennica (since 1913) and Silva Fennica (since 1926). In 1972 a list of the publications of the Society from 1913 to 1972 was published in Silva Fennica volume 6 (4). The volume also contained references to about 900 articles and 380 authors.

The present volume includes references to 65 volumes of Acta Forestalia Fennica and 49 volumes of Silva Fennica from 1973–84, which contain over 500 articles. There is also a list of some 410 authors.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Oja, E-mail: so@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5224, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Suomen metsäntutkimuksen kehittämisohjelma. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5224. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15403
English title: Development programme for forestry research in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; metsätalous; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; Suomi
English keywords: forestry; Finland; forest research; forest sciences; Finnish Society of Forest Science
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) has drawn up this development programme primarily for the authorities and decision-makers. Forestry research has been divided into three areas: A) Biological forestry research, B) Research into the management and utilization of forests, and C) Research into forest economics and forest policy. Key research tasks are presented under the above-mentioned headings. The programme also deals with the organization of research, post-graduate education, library and information services, publishing policy and international co-operation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 5223, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Metsäntutkimus metsätalouden tietopohjana. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5223. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15402
English title: The role of forestry research in providing a scientific basis for practical forestry.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; metsätalous; Suomi
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Finland; forest research; forest sciences
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged on 26th April 1984 a Forestry Science Day centred on the theme ”The role of Forestry Research in Providing a Scientific Basis for Practical Forestry”. Specialists in forestry and forest policy reviewed the role, present situation and future tasks of forest research from different points of view, in their papers. This article includes the talks given in the event in Finnish and an English summary.

  • Mälkönen, E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 5222, category Article
Matti Leikola, Aune Koponen. (1984). Metsätalouden harjoittaminen ja metsien hoito. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5222. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15401
English title: Forestry in Finland. Studia Forestalia 1983.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; luentosarja
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Finland; forest research; course of lectures
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

1983 was the so-called ”Year o the Forest” in Finland. To mark the occasion, the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged a series of Studia Forestalia lectures which covered, in general form, a wide range of subjects. 12 of the 14 lectures given in this series are included in this edition.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, E-mail:
  • Koponen, E-mail:
article id 5217, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1984). Pohjoissuomalaisten metsäammattimiesten käsityksiä metsien ja soiden marjantuotoskyvystä. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5217. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15396
English title: Observations of forest specialists in Northern Finland on the berry yield capacity of forests and swamps.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; ojitus; metsätyypit; suotyypit; puolukka; luonnonmarjat; mustikka; marjasato; hilla; karpalo
English keywords: northern Finland; Vaccinium myrtillus; Vaccinium vitis-idaea; wild berries; berry yield; forest types; peatland types; berry crop; Rubus chamaemorus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A survey was carried out among forest foremen and forest technicians to record their observations on the value of various swamp and forest types as producers of berries and on the effect of drainage of peatlands upon the berry yields. Comparative agreement existed on the best blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) forest types and on the best lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) forest types of rather dry upland sites. Fuscum pine swamps or fuscum bogs were considered best for the most part as regards the yield of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.). The replies showed rather great dispersion.

Agreement existed as well on the relation between drainage of peatlands and the yields of our economically most important swamp berries, cloudberry and cranberry. 90% of those responding were of the opinion that drainage reduces the cloudberry yield in the long term and a full 97% indicated that cranberry crop diminishes as well.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sepponen, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5206, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1984). Miten koivuun tulisi suhtautua metsätaloudessa? Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5206. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15385
English title: The proper attitude towards birch in forestry.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; kannattavuus; koivu
English keywords: forest management; Betula; forestry; profitability
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A literature survey based on Nordic literature deals with the biology, use, harvesting and economy of birch (Betula sp.). According to the results, the easily quantified hard facts are against cultivation of birch: lower growth, poorer production of valuable assortments, lower price of pulp, higher planting costs, and higher harvesting and transport costs than for conifers. The soft facts, which may be true, are not easily measured or their importance evaluated: the possible improvement of soil, decreasing risk of insect and fungi attacks, shelter against frost etc. Due to the differences in the nature of the facts the discussion of cultivation of birch will probably continue.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5203, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1984). Viitteiden käyttö Suomen metsäntutkimuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5203. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15382
English title: The use of references in Finnish forest sciences.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; tieteelliset julkaisut; tieteellinen kirjoittaminen; viiteanalyysi
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; scientific publications; scientific writing; references
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to examine the use or citations in Finnish forestry publications using source analysis. The material consisted of three of the four main series published in the field of forestry in Finland. The study was confined to three sample years in the middle of each decade during the period of 1910–1980.

The use of references in Finnish forestry sciences was abundant: from 30 to 60 references per report and from 1.1 to 1.7 references per page. The amount of self-citations varied from 6 to 9%. The half-time of the references was, in general, very long varying from 8–12 years in forest economics to 14–17 years in silviculture and forest biology. The amount of ”classical” publications was 4–11%. The amount to Finnish references was large varying from 30 to 59%. Anglo-Saxon series made 22–24%, Scandinavian 11–13%, German 7–9%, Russian 1–3% and French series less than one per cent of all references.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5190, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1983). Mustikan varvuston biomassamäärän vaihtelusta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5190. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15173
English title: The distribution of blueberry biomass in different forest stands.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsätyyppi; kasvupaikka; pintakasvillisuus; aluskasvillisuus; biomassa; peittävyys; mustikka; varjostus; puulajisuhteet
English keywords: biomass; Norway spruce; habitat; distribution; shading; ground vegetation; Vaccinium myrtillus; forest types; blueberry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study deals with the distribution of above-ground biomass of Vaccinium myrtillus L. along the vegetation continuum segregated by using phytosociological classification method composite clustering. The qualitative characteristics of forest sites corresponding to different vegetational clusters were defined on the basis of indirect gradient analysis of vegetation data and description of tree stand properties in stands in 160 sample areas in Southern Finland.

Six vegetation types differing from each other mainly in abundance of the most constant and dominant plant species were formed. Sample areas with rich grass-herb vegetation, as well as sample areas representing comparatively dry, barren site type were clearly separated from other groups of sample areas. Stand characteristics, particularly the proportional distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seems to be another important factor affecting the vegetation composition.

The lowest biomass values of blueberry were connected with herb-rich vegetation and shady spruce-dominated stands. Comparatively low values were connected to also other spruce-dominated sample areas. Pine-dominant or mixed pine-spruce stands the biomass values were significantly higher. Even if the site quality is essentially equal, the abundance relationships between Vaccinium myrtillus and other components of the ground vegetation may vary in wide ranges and cause difficulties in practical site classification.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusipalo, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5186, category Article
Kaarlo Rieppo, Seppo Väyrynen. (1983). Kuormatraktoreiden huolto-ominaisuusvertailu haastattelemalla. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5186. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15102
English title: Interview survey on the servicing properties of forest tractors.
Original keywords: metsäkoneet; metsätraktorit; ergonomia; huolto; kunnossapito; huoltotyö; kuormatraktori; työolosuhteet
English keywords: maintenance; working conditions; forest machines; forest tractors; ergonomy; serviceability
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this concise interview survey was to collect information about the servicing properties of forest tractors. Ten interviewees gave grades (in a scale from 4 to 10) concerning two servicing properties of various types of forest tractor. The rating covered the general safety during servicing (structural serviceability) and work postures during the work. Four types of forest tractor widely-used in Finland were chosen. The forwarders were of different size and structure.

According to the rating, the lightest forwarder was clearly superior to the other types. This machine was also the smallest in size and the most modern. Differences between the other three forwarders were not quite so clear. The variation between the machines as regards both so-called easy and troublesome tasks was considerable. Lubrication of the articulated shafts and supporting bearings was, however, very troublesome regardless the machine type. The heaviest tractor was considered the most difficult to service.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rieppo, E-mail: kr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väyrynen, E-mail: sv@mm.unknown
article id 5184, category Article
Annikki Karjalainen, Lauri Hyväkkä, Sini Kärki-Folkersma. (1983). Metsätieteellisen kirjallisuuden haku atk-tiedostoista. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5184. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15100
English title: Experiences of some bibliographic databases in forestry.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; tiedonhaku; tietokannat
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; bibliographic databases
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The usefulness of some international bibliographic databases for Finnish forest researchers was studied. In this study, 26 gratis online searches from one or more databases was made. The searches were carried out using mainly AGRICOLA, BIOSIS and CAB databases. The most used database was CAB, which includes Forestry Abstracts. The relevance of the references retrieved was evaluated by the users. Recall, precision, novelty and overlap of the references were measured. The users evaluated the results and costs of their search. Some previous comparable studies are reviewed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Karjalainen, E-mail: ak@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hyväkkä, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
  • Kärki-Folkersma, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5164, category Article
Juhani Kangas, Tapio Klen. (1982). Raivaussahan kantokäsittelylaitteen käyttäjän altistuminen torjunta-aineille. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5164. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15079
English title: Exposure of forest workers to herbicides.
Original keywords: metsätyö; työturvallisuus; torjunta-aineet; raivaussahat; vesakontorjunta; glyfosaatti; torjunta-aineruiskutus; altistuminen
English keywords: herbicides; brush saw; glyphosate; forest work; occupational health; sprout control; arboricides; chemical brush control; MCPA
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to measure workers’ exposure to MCPA and glyphosate when sprayers connected to the brush saws was used. A non-pressurized sprayer with a pump and a pressurized sprayer where dosage was regulated with manual control were studied. Exposure was measured from the breathing zone and urine samples.

MCPA collected from the breathing zone gathered into alcohol was 0.05 mg/m3 for the pressurized sprayer, 0.02 mg/m3 for the non-pressurized sprayer, and 0.04 mg/m3 (average) for both types of sprayers together.

MCPA in the breathing zone, collected from splashes and fog into a glass fibre filter, was 0.18 mg/m3 for the pressurized sprayer, 0.09 mg/m3 for the non-pressurized sprayer, and 0.12 mg/m3 for both sprayers used together. Glyphosate in the breathing zone, collected into sodium hydroxide was below 0.05 mg/m3.

In five urine samples taken after the work day there was on the average 0.4 mg/l MCPA, while in 21 samples the MCPA contents were under the definition limit (0.2 mg/l).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kangas, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Klen, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
article id 5158, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1982). Miten metsää tulisi tutkia. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5158. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15073
English title: How forests should be studied in the future. Seminar on the research policy of the Society of Forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; seminaarit
English keywords: Finland; forest research; forest sciences; Finnish Society of Forest Science; seminar
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the seminar, arranged by the Finnish Society of Forest Science, was to instigate discussions which would bring up new approaches and research methods for studying forestry problems from both the biotechnical and socio-economical fields. Six papers were presented and over 70 opinions aired at the seminar.

The following points were considered especially important from the point of view of the promotion of forestry research

- Improving contacts between forestry and other branches of science and increasing international exchange of ideas and results.

- Improving the effectiveness of research work through sound planning

- Promotion and gaining benefit from diverse forms of research.

- Arranging the further education of researchers in order to improve the professional standards of researchers.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 5156, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1982). Tutkaluotaukseen perustuva metsäautotien kantavuuden arvioimismenetelmä. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5156. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15071
English title: Predicting the bearing capacity of forest roads using a radar sounding.
Original keywords: metsätiet; mittausmenetelmät; kantavuus; tutka
English keywords: radar; bearing capacity; forest roads; measurement methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Good correlation between radar reflection depth when using a FM-CW radar during winter and bearing capacity measurements during spring breakup was found. Therefore, it might be possible to evaluate the bearing capacity of forest roads using the radar sounding technique.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5121, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1981). Metsätöiden palkkauksen ja työolosuhteiden kehitys Suomessa ennen työehtosopimuskautta. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5121. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15062
English title: Development of the wages and work conditions in forest work in Finland prior to the age of agreements on the terms of working.
Original keywords: historia; uitto; metsätyö; palkkaus; työolot; asumisolot
English keywords: Finland; history; floating; forest work; wages; working conditions; lodging
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Finland the first trade union in the field of forest work and timber floating was founded in 1946 and the first formal collective agreement was achieved in 1962. Information about the development of wage payments and work conditions (lodging and food) in forest work prior to the formal agreements was dispersed in a number of different sources, and is already partially in danger of being forgotten. The aim of this study was to bring together all available information concerning the matter in question.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, E-mail: om@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5119, category Article
Kari Puukko. (1981). Okakaarnakuoriaisen, Ips acuminatus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) levinneisyyden nykyinen eteläraja Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5119. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15060
English title: The southern border of the present distribution of Ips acuminatus Gyll. In Finland.
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsätalous; levinneisyys; kaarnakuoriaiset; esiintymisalue; okakaarnakuoriainen
English keywords: bark beetles; forestry; Finland; distribution; Ips acuminatus; loggings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ips acuminatus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) is a bark beetle that causes deep bluing in thin-barked Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood. It has been shown that this decreases pulp yield. The purpose of this study was to map the southern border of the distribution of Ips acuminatus in Finland. It was found that there have been changes in the distribution of this species during the last three decades. Ips acuminatus has now disappeared from southern Finland. On the basis of the sample plots (134 cutting areas) the southern border of this pest lies on the line running through the towns Vaasa–Seinäjoki–Äänekoski–Jyväskylä–Pieksämäki–Savonlinna–Punkaharju. A certain degree of localisation was observed in the occurrence of I. acuminatus in its distribution area, for instance, differences in its occurrence frequency in cutting areas and even in log and cutting residue piles in the sample cutting area.

It is considered that the most important reasons for these changes in distribution are the increase in logging and changes in the location of cutting sites, and resulting competition for breeding material for the increased population of bark beetles. Furthermore, the long-distance transport of unpeeled logs from the north across the present southern borders may, in the future, contribute to local changes in the southern distribution of Ips acuminatus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Puukko, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5112, category Article
Timo Kyttälä. (1981). Yhteistoiminnan kehittäminen puunkorjuuorganisaatiossa työmaatapaamisen avulla. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5112. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15053
English title: Development of cooperation between workers and supervisors in logging through work-site meetings.
Original keywords: metsätyöntekijät; metsätyö; puunkorjuu; yhteistoiminta; tiedonkulku
English keywords: communication; timber harvesting; forest work; working conditions; co-operation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to find out the effect of the working place meetings on the increased cooperation between workers and supervisors, the improved work performance, the intensified use of machines and the improved job satisfaction. In the study loggers, forest machine operators and forement were interviewed. The results showed that the working place meeting is a useful means to realise the above-mentioned aims.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kyttälä, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5094, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1980). Kuka on maanviljelijä? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5094. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15035
English title: Who is a farmer?
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänomistajat; terminologia; maanviljelijä; metsätilanomistaja
English keywords: terminology; forest owners; forest research; farmer; non-farmer; behavioural research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper comments on the article written by Simo Hannelius that is published in the same issue of Silva Fennica (Who is the non-farmer forest owner? Silva Fennica 14 no. 4). Hannelius suggests that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics, and that the recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners would be classified as non-farmers. Veli-Pekka Järveläinen states in his opinion that when distinguishing a farmer and a non-farmer, the key criterion should be the profession, which has been proved to be an important parameter in behavioural research.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5077, category Article
Eero Paavilainen, Kustaa Seppälä. (1980). Toimenpiteet vanhoilla ojitusalueilla. Suomalais-neuvosliittolaisen symposion esitelmät. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5077. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15018
English title: Management of old forest drainage areas – papers presented in Finnish-Soviet symposium.
Original keywords: metsäojitus; Suomi; kokoukset; suometsätiede; soiden ojitus; Neuvostoliitto
English keywords: drained peatlands; Finland; peatlands; forest research; Soviet Union; USSR; symposium
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The forestry working group of the committee for scientific and technical cooperation between Finland and the Soviet Union initiated cooperation work between the two countries in the field of forestry almost ten years ago. The Finnish organizations the Department of Peatland Forestry, the Finnish Forestry Research Institute, and the Institute of Peatland Forestry of the University of Helsinki participated in the activity. From the Soviet Union the participants have been the Ministry of Forestry, the Russian Federation of USSR, and the Forestry Research Institutes of Leningrad and Estonia.

This paper includes the papers presented in the joint symposium arranged at the Forest Field Station of University of Helsinki on 17.9.1979. The 9 Russian lectures and the 8 Finnish ones, are presented either in their entirety or slightly condensed variably in Finnish, English or Russian. The summary of the seminar is presented in English and in Russian.

  • Paavilainen, E-mail:
  • Seppälä, E-mail:
article id 5075, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1980). Kuka on metsätilanomistaja? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5075. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15016
English title: Who is the non-farmer forest owner? The semantic influence of the non-farmer forest owner-concept to research results and published statistics.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänomistajat; yksityismetsänomistajat; metsätilat; terminologia; maanviljelijä; metsätilanomistaja; käyttäytymistutkimus
English keywords: terminology; forest owners; forest research; farmers; non-farmers; behaviour research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Research into the forestry behaviour of private forest owners in Finland began 10 years ago. The private forest owners have been dichotomously classified into two groups, farmers and non-farmers. The farmer forest owner was considered to derive his main income (earnings) from agriculture. This classification is compared to the concepts in statistical publication Farm Economy 1976 (Maatilatalous). On the basis of this examination, it is recommended that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics. The recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners are classified as non-farmers.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5057, category Article
Rainer Rauramaa, Kaj Husman, Katriina Kukkonen, Erkki Voutilainen. (1980). Metsurien ravinto ja seerumin lipoproteiinit - esitutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5057. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14998
English title: Preliminary observations about diet, serum lipids and lipoproteins among lumberjacks.
Original keywords: metsätyöntekijät; metsätyö; ravitsemus; metsurit; kolesteroli; energiantarve
English keywords: nutrition; forest work; forest workers; logger; energy intake; cholesterol; triglycerides
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Energy intake of ten lumberjacks in Eastern Finland was estimated by using 24-hour recall. In addition, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were analysed in different lipoprotein fractions. Average energy intake was according to present recommendations in Finland, although there was great individual variation. Serum triglycerides were in the normal range. Five lumberjacks’ total cholesterol concentration was somewhat increased. Average HDL concentration was clearly greater than in men of the same age.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rauramaa, E-mail: rr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Husman, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown
  • Kukkonen, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Voutilainen, E-mail: ev@mm.unknown
article id 5035, category Article
V. J. Palosuo. (1979). Kehitysmaiden ongelmat metsäkongressin polttopisteessä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5035. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14892
English title: Forests for people - World Forestry Congress.
Original keywords: metsätalous; kehitysmaat; Maailman metsäkongressi
English keywords: forestry; developing countries; World Forestry Congress
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a description of the 8th World Forestry Congress held in October 1978. It gives background information for the papers published in the Silva Fennica issue 13, which includes the Finnish papers sent in the congress from Finland. The paper underlines forest and socio-economic problems of the developing countries, especially in the tropics.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palosuo, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5032, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Heikki Wuorenrinne. (1979). Kaupunkimetsien vaurioitumiseen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5032. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14889
English title: Factors affecting deterioration of urban forests.
Original keywords: taajamametsät; kulutuksenkestävyys; metsien pirstoutuminen
English keywords: fragmentation; fertility; trampling tolerance; urban forests; deterioration of forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the deterioration of urban forests based on literature. Regression analysis is applied to the material obtained from unpublished material of the latter author. The size of forest stand, and its fertility proved to exercise the greater effect on the deterioration of urban forests. A model based on these factors has been developed and its area of applying is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Wuorenrinne, E-mail: hw@mm.unknown
article id 5030, category Article
Camilla Rosengren. (1979). Luonnonkasvillisuus asuntoalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5030. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14886
English title: Natural vegetation within housing areas.
Original keywords: maankäyttö; taajamametsät; seminaari; luonnonympäristö; maisemasuunnittelu; taajamat
English keywords: landscape planning; urban forests; land uses; seminar; MAB; natural envirionment; urban areas
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article describes the results of the studies made in 24 Finnish housing areas. They show that the building density is not as important as the way of building and the site planning, in the view of preserving natural vegetation in the site. Building on slopes was difficult with modern building techniques because of the extensive earthwork required. 

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki. 

The PDF includes a summary in English. 

  • Rosengren, E-mail: cr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5029, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). Metsän tarjoamat fyysiset hyödyt yhdyskuntasuunnittelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5029. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14885
English title: Benefits of forests in urban environment .
Original keywords: kuusi; kaupunkimetsät; maankäyttö; seminaari; meluntorjunta; saasteiden torjunta; metsien ympäristövaikutukset
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; noise abatement; urban forests; land uses; seminar; MAB; air impurities
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The potentials of forests in abatement of urban noise and air impurities are discussed based on literature and calculations. Excess attenuation of 6–7 dB seems to be possible in noise abatement applying Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) plantations. The potential in dust sedimentation is of 10,000–20,000 kg/ha/year and absorbtion to 7 kg/ha/yr. Forests seem also have considerable potential for control of climatic conditions in urban areas. Management of forests in urban environment is discussed. 

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki. 

The PDF includes a summary in English. 

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5026, category Article
Alpo Enivaara. (1979). Pyynikin harjumännikön uudistaminen ja elvyttäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5026. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14881
English title: Regeneration and improvement of the Scots pine forest of Pyynikki esker in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: mänty; uudistaminen; seminaarit; maankäyttö; harju; Pyynikki; taajamametsät
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; Scots pine; urban forests; seminar; MAB; natural park
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Pyynikki is a unique natural park in the centre of the city of Tampere in Southern Finland. Currently, the forest of Pyynikki is losing its vigour because of aging and environmental factors. In 1977 a policy was designed for the regrowth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest and improvement of the condition of the trees to avoid the situation that the whole pine forest (34 ha) would be regrown at one time. The period of regrowth of pine forest is 60 years. It is accomplished by cutting small openings, on which 4-year old potted pine saplings are planted. Birch will be planted only on two spots. The aim is that the forest scenery will be maintained as undamaged as possible. The condition of the growing forest will be improved by fertilization and thinning.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Enivaara, E-mail: ae@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5013, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1979). Tutkimustoiminta Lapin metsien hoidon ja käytön suuntaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1A article id 5013. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14867
English title: The role of forestry in guiding forest policy and management in Finnish Lapland.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; historia; Lappi
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland; Lapland; history; forestry research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The part played by research work in guiding the management and utilization of Lapland’s forests is examined in this publication. The review has been written to mark the 70th anniversary of the Finnish Forestry Society (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science).

The climate in Lapland is very severe and, owing to the lack of experience abroad, forestry has been forced to follow the guidelines set by domestic research activity in Finland. Research work was very active in Lapland the 1910’s, 1920’s and 1950’s, and the main outlines for forestry utilisation were soon established. In the 1950’s, there was a strong trend prevailing to develop forestry, with the result that a change took place in favour of clear-cutting. The cool climate period in the 1960’s caused considerable damage to young plantations. In order to find means to rectifying the situation and to devise new guidelines for forest management, The Finnish Forest Research Institute established a number of research stations in Lapland.

Research activity has had a pronounced effect on the management and utilization of forests in Lapland. Present-day problems have been caused more by the international situation than by difficulties in the management of forests in Lapland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, E-mail:
article id 4999, category Article
Tapio Klen, Veikko Louhevaara. (1978). The additional physical strain caused by safety equipment in logging work. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 4999. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14853
Original keywords: metsätyö; työturvallisuus; työn kuormittavuus; hakkuutyö; turvavarusteet
English keywords: work load; occupational safety; forest work; physical stress; logging work; safety equipment
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The safety clothing, rubber safety boots, belt with lifting hooks and personal protectors can weight about 3 kg more than the normal work clothing including rubber boots. In order to evaluate the increase off the physical strain in logging work due to them, laboratory tests performed on tread mill were made. The physical strain increased 3–11% as estimated from heart rate and 4–8% as estimated from oxygen consumption measurements.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Klen, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Louhevaara, E-mail: vl@mm.unknown
article id 4998, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1978). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran kunnianosoitukset. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4998. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14852
English title: Awards of the Finnish Society of Forest Science.
Original keywords: Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura
English keywords: Finnish Society of Forest Science
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper describes the principals of the awards given by the Finnish Society of Forest Science, and lists the different acknowledgements conferred by the society.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4994, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1978). Seismisten luotausmenetelmien soveltuvuus metsäautoteiden pohjatutkimuksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4994. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14848
English title: Seismic survey methods in forest road construction.
Original keywords: tienrakennus; metsätiet; mittausmenetelmät; seismografi; pohjatutkimus
English keywords: road construction; forest roads; seismographs; sub-surface earth investigations; measurement methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to find out the technical and economical applicability of seismic survey methods of sub-surface earth investigations in forest road planning. Two seismographs, SOIL-TEST MD 1 and BISON 1570, were tested in studyin 31 cuts and 3 gravel areas. The devices proved to be usable in field conditions. Sounding one spot costs about 75 Fmk and methods’ rentability is greatly based on the ration between expected and unexpected events, which depends on the areal geology. It is profitable to purchase the device especially if digging out of unexpected bedrock causes high costs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarilahti, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4991, category Article
Pertti Harstela, Leo Tervo. (1978). Taimikkopuun korjuumenetelmien vertailua. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4991. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14845
English title: Comparison of methods for harvesting in sapling stand.
Original keywords: metsätyö; taimikko; harvennus; koneellistaminen; kustannukset; korjuukustannukset; haketus
English keywords: thinning; mechanization; seedling stand; forest work; harvesting costs
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A theoretical nomogram was made for estimating the costs of fully mechanized thinning and the driving speed of the machine. Based on this nomogram and the previous studies three harvesting methods were compared; systematic fully mechanized harvesting, selective fully mechanized harvesting, and manual felling combined with whole-tree chipping.

The third method was cheaper than the fully mechanized methods in a pole-stage stand. The choice of the most advantageous chipping station depended on conditions, but the smaller tree size and possibly the reduced damage on the remaining stand favour chipping on the strip road rather than chipping on the intermediate landing or at the mill.

Mechanized systematic thinning was the cheapest method for harvesting in the sapling stand. The required driving speed were so low that ergonomic factors should not hinder its use. Factors related to the future production of the stand do, however, limit its use. Mechanized selective thinning does not seem to be an economic method for harvesting in a sapling or pole-stage stand.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Tervo, E-mail: lt@mm.unknown
article id 4986, category Article
John E. Høsteland. (1978). Raakapuun hintasopimukset Norjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4986. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14840
English title: Collective timber price agreements in Norway.
Original keywords: metsätalous; raakapuu; puumarkkinat; puun hinta; hintasopimukset; Norja
English keywords: roundwood market; Norway; timber market; timber prices; timber price agreement
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this paper the system of collective timber price agreement in Norway is described. The history of »collective behaviour» in the roundwood market can be tracked far back in history, with different degrees of importance, and it has totally dominated the price-formation of roundwood from the 1950’s until the present. In trying to answer the question »What has been the effect of the collective price agreements» a few theoretical market models are used and the empirical data are also employed. Both the theoretical discussion and the empirical data seem to indicate that the forest owners are better off with collective price agreements than with a situation where there are no organized price-negotiations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Høsteland, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4985, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1978). Metsätyön kuormittavuuden määrittelyä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4985. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14839
English title: Definition of the amount of strain caused by forest work.
Original keywords: metsätyö; ergonomia; työn kuormittavuus
English keywords: ergonomics; work load; forest work; physical stress
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The concepts central to ergonomic research connected with the amount of strain caused by work was studied. A model was made to describe the process of strain. The model includes the following concepts: load or stress, human input, worker, strain, renewal of human resources, output and their hierarchical units. Based on the quality of human input, the forest work was roughly divided into two categories: (1) work demanding primarily muscle activity and (2) neuro-sensory work. In the first group, especially in cutting work, the main part of the human input is intensive consumption of muscle energy. In addition, work load causes accidents, wear of skeletal and muscular systems and processes by noise, vibrations, and climate. Correspondingly, when operating forest machines, the human input is mainly neuro-sensory functions of the central nervous system. Work load causes directly the effects of low frequency vibration and of other work conditions. The model was tested on data from research of forest work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4982, category Article
Olli Järvinen, Kullervo Kuusela, Risto A. Väisänen. (1977). Metsien rakenteen muutoksen vaikutus pesimälinnustoomme viimeisten 30 vuoden aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4982. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14836
English title: Effects of modern forestry on the numbers of breeding birds in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; linnusto; lintulajit; luonnonmetsät
English keywords: forest management; natural forests; bird populations; commercial forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Pair numbers of breeding land birds were estimated from line transects data collected in Finland in 1936–76. The changes observed in the bird populations are in this paper compared with data obtained in the Finnish forest inventories, particularly made in 1951–53 and 1971–76. It is concluded that modern forestry has considerable impact on the breeding bird fauna. In general, more species have increased than decreased due to changes in the forests. Areas affected by forestry are more favourable habitats for many species than natural forests, but, on the other hand, there are certain species which are greatly harmed by the effects of modern forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järvinen, E-mail: oj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 4979, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1977). Polut ulkoilun kanavoinnissa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4979. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14833
English title: Trails in guiding recreational activity in Helsinki, Southern Finland.
Original keywords: metsien virkistyskäyttö; ulkoilu; kaupunkimetsät; ulkoilureitit; polut
English keywords: recreation; paths; urban forests; recreational activity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the paper was to investigate the potentials offered by trails in guiding recreational activity. The study is based on interviews and questionnaires concerning recreationists using two recreation areas owned by the city of Helsinki in Southern Finland. According to the results, the recreationists visit terrain without trails every time they visit a recreation area. The main reason for this was obtaining varying recreational experiences. The recreationists used, however, the same route nearly every visit, which suggests that trails have a great potential in guiding reacreational activities. Special attention was paid to the role of trails in activities involving physical exercise. The correlation between the socio-economic background of recreationists and their preferences for trails was very low.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4978, category Article
Paavo Valonen. (1977). Ajouraväli ja tekomiehen fyysinen kuormittuminen kuitupuun teossa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4978. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14832
English title: Strip road spacing and the physical strain put on forest workers during pulpwood cutting.
Original keywords: metsätyö; ajanmenekki; kasaus; ajouraväli; työn kuormittavuus
English keywords: time consumption; physical workload; forest work; stacking; strip road spacing; physical stress
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The physical strain put on forest workers and work time consumption during pulpwood cutting were compared when the bolts were stacked at the side of strip road, the strip road spacings being 15–25 m and 26–35 m, and when stacked at scattered points along the cutting strip.

When stacking at scattered points along cutting strip work time consumption was 17–21% and the heart rate 9–12% less than when stacking at the side of the strip road, strip road spacing being 15–25 m. When the strip road spacing was increased to 26–35 m, the time consumption increased by 18–30%, but the heart rate appeared unchanged. This result suggests that the forest worker compensates for increased physical strain caused by an increased stacking distance by changing his working technique and rate and by increasing the number of his breaks.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Valonen, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4976, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1977). Toimittajan havaintoja metsätieteellisistä julkaisusarjoista. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4976. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14827
English title: Editorial observations on scientific series in forestry.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; kustannukset; tieteelliset julkaisut
English keywords: costs; forest sciences; scientific publications
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the use of printed area in some scientific series concerned with forestry. The material consisted of 8 scientific series, the total number of analysed pages being 2,942. According to the results, the use of printed area was more efficient in journals and other similar periodicals which included several scientific papers than in series published as separate issues. The main reason was the more efficient editorial make-up. The Finnish papers included less figures but more tables than foreign series. There were marked differences between series irrespective of the country of origin. The average figure area varied from 60 to 180 cm2 between series, for example. According to the observations there are good possibilities for making more efficient use of the printed area available.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4971, category Article
Aulis E. Hakkarainen. (1977). Metsäteollisuuden tutkimus- ja kehittämistoiminta metsätalouden alalla. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4971. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14822
Keywords: metsäteollisuus; metsäntutkimus; Metsäteho; metsätyö; tutkimustoiminta
View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
  • Hakkarainen, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4969, category Article
Robert J. Rainio. (1977). Tammen levinneisyydestä läntisellä Uudellamaalla ja Turunmaan itäisimmissä osissa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4969. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14820
English title: On the distribution of oak (Quercus robur) in the southwest parts of Finland.
Original keywords: levinneisyys; metsätammi; Lounais-Suomi; Uusimaa
English keywords: Finland; distribution; Quercus robur; oak; southwest Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The maps concerning the natural distribution of oak (Quercus robur L.) have proved most unreliable in detailed examination. In this paper, the author has collected his observations on natural oak in the westernmost parts of the province of Uusimaa and the easternmost parts of province of Turunmaa, the islands included. Furthermore, the paper includes some viewpoints which must be considered as criteria when determining the naturality of the stand in question. Future borders of oak’s distribution range must be moved farther up north to replace the earlier views of the northern limit of natural oak in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rainio, E-mail: rr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4967, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1977). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran tiedepoliittinen periaateohjelma. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4967. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14818
English title: Science policy agenda of the Finnish Society of Forest Science.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; tiedepolitiikka
English keywords: forest policy; forest research; forest sciences; Finnish Society of Forest Science
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper introduces the science policy agenda of the Finnish Society of Forest Science that defines the role of the society and the principals that are required from research work.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4955, category Article
Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto. (1976). Puutavaraselvitys 1976. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4955. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14801
English title: Timber report 1976. – Finland’s roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue balances by 1980 as well as the wood raw material situation of Finnish forest industries by the year 2000.
Original keywords: metsäteollisuus; raakapuu; puuvarat; raaka-aine; metsätase; teollisuusjätepuu; metsätähde
English keywords: Finland; roundwood supply; forest industry; logging residue; timber balance; Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries; industrial residue
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study was carried out on behalf of the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries Federation) in order to obtain information about the wood raw material situation, to serve, in turn, as a basis for the forest industries’ long-term planning. The study deals with the potential supply of roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue by the year 200 by five wood-supply areas. Examination of the situation during the period of 1972–80 is based on available balances and that concerning the period 1985–2000 in the estimated quantities available for industrial use.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto, E-mail:
article id 4951, category Article
Heikki Heiskanen. (1976). Metsätyön palkkauksen perusongelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4951. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14797
English title: Basic problems of the wage system for forest work.
Original keywords: metsätyö; palkkaus; urakkapalkka; aikapalkka; ikääntyvät työntekijät
English keywords: forest work; wages; piece rate; time rate; aging workers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

It has been in Finland discussed to replace the present straight piece rate by a time rate in forest work. The low earnings of aged forest workers, the health hazards, its tendency to cause conflicts and considerable income differences are the main drawbacks of the piece rate and the proneness to increase the labour costs is the essential fault of the time rate mentioned in the discussion. One possible solution for these problems is an efficiency bonus (prevents the labour costs from increasing and decreases the income differences) combined with a bonus for age (guarantees high incomes for aged wage earners), a maximum efficiency standard (prevents health hazards), and a group incentive (prevents conflicts).

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4939, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1976). Metsänomistuksen muutokset ja metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4939. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14784
English title: Forest ownership changes and forestry.
Original keywords: Metsähallitus; metsänomistus; metsätilat; tilakaupat
English keywords: forest ownership; Finland; Forest Service; forest land sales
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper examines the changes in forest ownership and the farm properties for sale from a business economic standpoint. The changes in forest ownership are examined on the basis of statistics and literature. The empirical data both for farms for sale and farms sold are based on the purchases made by the National Board of Forestry in 1972.

There are a number of ownership groups actively buying and selling forest land, thus giving alternatives for ownership changes. The National Board of Forestry has been active in the market since 1960. For instance, in 1972 it purchased 60% of the forest estates it was offered. Of the forest area put up for sale, 75% originated from private individuals, and 20% from inheritance sales.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4935, category Article
Pentti Hakkila. (1976). Metsätyötieteen asema metsäntutkimuslaitoksessa ja tohtori Mikko Kantola. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4935. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14780
English title: On the status of forest work science in the Finnish Forest Research Institute; a comment to professor Mikko Kantola.
Original keywords: tutkimuslaitokset; metsäntutkimus; metsätyö; metsäteknologia
English keywords: forest technology; forest research; forest work; research institutes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper includes the answer of professor Pentti Hakkila for professor Mikko Kantola who in this issue of Silva Fennica gives some critical points on professor Hakkila’s earlier article (Silva Fennica vol. 9, no. 4 in 1975) on the status and future prospects of forest work science in the Finnish Forest Research Institute. He emphasises that the worry about the forest work reseach presented in his earlier article was not directed towards the research work but towards the financing of forest work science in Finland.

  • Hakkila, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4934, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1976). Lisänäkökohtia metsätyötieteen asemasta ja tulevaisuuden näkymistä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4934. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14779
English title: Viewpoint on the status and future prospects of forest work science.
Original keywords: tutkimuslaitokset; metsäntutkimus; metsätyö; metsäteknologia
English keywords: forest technology; forest research; forest work; research institutes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This article is a comment on a previous article in Silva Fennica (vol. 9, no.4) published in 1975, written by professor Pentti Hakkila, titled ‘The status and future prospects of forest work science at the Finnish Forest Research Institute’. It aims at giving some further aspects on the choice of research fields and subjects, and the concepts of result, opinion and research work.

  • Kantola, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4933, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1976). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran tutkijaseminaari "Tavoitteellisuus ja metsäntutkimus" 15.1. 1976. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4933. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14777
English title: Research seminar on goal orientation and forest sciences arranged by the Finnish Society of Forest Science on January 1976.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; seminaarit
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; Finnish Society of Forest Science; seminars
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Finnish Society of Forest Science arranged on 15 January 1976 a research seminar concentrating on forest research policy under a theme of goal orientation and forest sciences. About 70 interested persons participated the day-long seminar. This paper includes the speeches and their summaries, and couple of examples of the results of the workshops.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4928, category Article
Pentti Hakkila. (1975). Metsätyötieteen asema ja tulevaisuuden näkymät metsäntutkimuslaitoksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4928. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14770
English title: The status and future prospects of forest work science at the Finnish Forest Research Institute.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsätyö; puunkorjuu; metsäntutkimuslaitos; metsäteknologia
English keywords: forest technology; timber harvesting; forest research; forest work; Finnish Forest Research Institute
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article reviews the position of the Department of Forest Technology in Finnish Forest Research Institute, among Finnish establishments in research on forest work. In addition, it describes the current research programmes of the departments both in wood harvesting studies and studies on silvicultural work. The equitable aims of the former are to increase productivity, lower the cost level, ease the work and improve job satisfaction, as well as to improve the utilization of wood raw material. The latter aims at e.g. improvement of the biological results.

Future prospects are surveyed from the point of view of the goals imposed by the State on the research and, on other hand, the appropriations earmarked for forest work science. A regrettable conflict has arisen between them.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hakkila, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4927, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Kantojen käytön kehittyminen Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4927. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14769
English title: Development of stump utilization in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätalous; historia; polttopuu; tervanpoltto; polttoaineet; selluteollisuus; kannot; hyötykäyttö
English keywords: stumps; forestry; fuelwood; history; pulp industry; tar; utilization
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The utilization of stump and root wood is analysed in this paper on the basis of literature from middle of 19th century to the present date. According to the information available, the utilization of pine stumps in tar production was small compared to that of peeled Scots pine stemwood in the 19th century. During the 1st and 2nd World War the utilization of stumps for tar production reached its highest levels. Other industrial utilization of stumps has been small up to the present time but now stumps are beginning to be used in the pulp industry.

The greatest amounts of stumps have been utilized by the rural population. Stumps were used as fuel. In the thirties, the yearly amount used was over 200,000 m3 (solid measure), and even in the sixties over 100,00 m3. No industrial utilization method has yet reached these levels.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4926, category Article
Aarne Reunala. (1975). Metsänomistuksen muutokset ja aluepolitiikka. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4926. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14768
English title: Forest ownership changes and regional development in Finland.
Original keywords: yksityismetsät; maatalousväestö; metsänomistus; aluekehitys; aluepolitiikka
English keywords: forest ownership; private forests; rural population; regional differentiation; regional policy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study sought to establish, whether a connection between forest ownership changes and regional differentiation process exists. Data were collected by interviewing fifty persons representing regional planning and forestry. In 1969–72 forest land area owned by the farmers decreased by some 600,000–700,000 hectares. The new owners were non-farmers (400,000–500,000 ha) and the State and forest industry companies (200,000 ha). These figures indicate a possibility for a reduction in the livelihood of rural developing regions in three ways: money incomes with their multiplier effects decrease, possibilities of the rationalization of farming decrease and the population confidence in the future diminishes.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Reunala, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4923, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1975). Puiden lyhytkiertoviljelyn varhaishistoriaa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4923. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14765
English title: Early history of short-rotation forestry.
Original keywords: historia; lyhytkiertoviljely; vesametsätalous
English keywords: coppice; short-rotation forestry; history
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the first place the term short-rotation forestry is being used in the sense of intensive tree growing during a short rotation time using reproduction by coppice shoots from broad-leaved tree material which has been specially bred for this purpose, or of producing fast-growing varieties from planted stock during the course of somewhat longer rotation time (maximum 20 years). However, short-rotation forestry as such has already a long history.

In the Fertile Crescent in ancient Egypt grew no tree species suitable for short-rotation production, but reeds and bulrushes were used for the same purpose as willow-twigs, e.g. wickerwork or binding. At least in the Fertile Crescent reed harvesting using a rotation of one year was practiced already very long ago. The earliest information about coppice-shoot cultivation is found in Greek literature, but it was the Romans who developed short-rotation forestry based on the trees’ capacity of reproducing through coppice shoots into an extensive economic activity. Willows were by far the most important species used. Twigs intended for wickerwork were harvested once a year and thicker material, to be used for support and in basket framework, every fourth year. Chestnut and oak were used for the production of slightly thicker poles employing a longer rotation. Cypress poles were produced from seedlings using a rotation time of 12–13 years. Roman scholars give us plenty of information concerning the tending of plantations in short-rotation forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, E-mail: om@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4919, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1975). Thaimaalaisten metsänhoitajien yliopistokoulutus Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4919. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14775
Original keywords: metsätieteet; yliopistot; Suomi; kehitysyhteistyö; Thaimaa; koulutusyhteistyö
English keywords: Finland; forest sciences; university; development cooperation; cooperation in education; Thaimaa
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Since the year 1966, fourteen specialists, most of them forestry graduates from Kasetsari University in Bangkok, have studied or will start studying in Finland. The visiting graduate students have completed their program successfully, and are interested, as well as the Thai authorities, in continuing the educational cooperation. However, the Finnish Government now seems to have changed the list of countries which are included in this kind of program. The Thai authorities will possibly grant a limited number of scholarships for studies carried out in Finland. The possible need to develop the study program further is discussed if the educational cooperation with Thailand will continue.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4917, category Article
Tuomas Heiramo. (1975). Metsätieteellisten tutkimusjulkaisujen lukijatutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4917. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14761
English title: Readership study concerning scientific forestry publications.
Original keywords: metsätiede; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; metsäntutkimuslaitos; tieteelliset julkaisut; lukijatutkimus
English keywords: forest sciences; Finnish Society of Forest Science; Forest Research Institute; scientific publications; reader survey
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to assess the use and importance of forestry publications issued by the Finnish Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) and the Finnish Forest Research Institute in disseminating research information. Another goal is to obtain information required for planning publication policy. The material was collected by means of two postal inquiries. For the first of these, a sample of 200 subscribers was taken from the mailing lists of the publication series in question. Similarly, for the second inquiry a sample of 100 professional foresters was drawn from the membership registers of the Union of Finnish Foresters and of the Union of Forest Technicians, respectively. The reply percentage of the subscribers was 72 and that of the professional foresters 64. The publication series most actively read proved to be Folia Forestalia, which was also estimated to be of the best quality. Differences between the various publication series in relation to properties studied were not very great.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiramo, E-mail: th@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4916, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1975). Metsien "moninaiskäytöstä" vanhalla ajalla. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4916. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14760
English title: The multiple use of forests in ancient times.
Original keywords: historia; metsästys; virkistyskäyttö; metsien monikäyttö; suojametsät; metsälaitumet; sivutuotteet
English keywords: history; hunting; recreation; multiple use of forests; protection forest
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

It is possible to show that many of the after-effects resulting from the disappearance of forest cover were well known already in ancient times. The invigorating effect of moving around freely in the forest and its artistic creative ability were also recognized as well as the healing effect of coniferous forest on people suffering from consumption. Hunting and the use of forests for cattle grazing is also an extremely old practice. The so-called by-products of the forest such as tree bark and leaves, as well as berries and fruits, have played an important role in the history of mankind from the very earliest beginnings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, E-mail: om@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4915, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1975). Raakapuukuljetusten optimointi. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4915. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14759
English title: Optimization of roundwood transport.
Original keywords: kaukokuljetus; metsäteollisuus; puunkuljetus; optimointi; kuljetuskustannukset
English keywords: roundwood; timber transport; forest industries; transportation costs; opimization
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper deals with the optimization of roundwood transport in cases where many destinations for it exist and where several means of transport are available. It is also understood that the capacities of the factories to which wood is transported can be used at varying degree. A model was developed for a case such as Finland which sells most of its products abroad.

In the above case, the optimization of roundwood transport does not necessarily mean minimization of transport costs. What is aimed at is to obtain, by using different combinations (mill destinations and the media of transport) the maximum difference between the allowable cut (calculated) and real (actual) transport costs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, E-mail: yr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4913, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1975). Metsäammattimiesten ja luottamushenkilöiden mielipiteet julkisesta metsähallinnosta ja sen kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4913. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14757
English title: Forestry expert’s and appointed representatives’ opinions about official forest administration and its development in Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; yksityismetsät; metsähallinto; metsäammattialiset; luottamushenkilöt; metsäorganisaatiot
English keywords: Finland; state forests; private forests; forestry administration; forest organizations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The task of the study was to describe the opinions of the forestry experts engaged in the State forestry organization and the organization for promotion of private forestry, and of the appointed representatives in the organization for the promotion of private forestry concerning the official forestry administration and its development. The study material was based on two samples, one of 240 forestry experts and the other of 290 appointed representatives. The data was compiled by mail inquiry.

Forestry experts were found to rate the success of the official forestry administration in its tasks lower than did the appointed representatives. Both the forestry experts and appointed representatives were of the opinion that the official forestry administration has been most successful in accomplishing timber production and least successful in the tasks concerning multiple use of forests. The results also indicate that 44% of the forestry experts were of the opinion that the most suitable organization model would be a uniform state organization for both the State, and private owned forests. About a third of the forestry experts considered that the best model would be two different state organizations, one for the State forests and the other for the private forests. 62% of the appointed representatives were of the opinion that the best solution would be to retain the official forestry administration such as it is now.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4909, category Article
Jari Hurskainen, Aarne Reunala. (1974). Metsätalousaluetoiminnan kehitys ja kehittymisen edellytykset Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4909. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14753
English title: Development of regional cooperation of private forest owners in Finland.
Original keywords: järjestöt; metsäteollisuus; yksityismetsät; metsänomistajat; metsätalousalueet; yhteistoiminta; Pohjois-Karjala
English keywords: forest owners; forest industry; private forests; forestry coopearation areas; regional cooperation; interest organizations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Since the end of 1960s some 350 voluntary forestry cooperation areas covering about 10% of Finland’s total private forest area have been established in the country in order to avoid drawbacks of small individual units. The aim of the study was to find out why most of these cooperative areas have been established in the area of northern Karelia forestry board district in Eastern Finland, whereas elsewhere establishing has advanced very slowly. »Soft» research techniques based on free interviews was used to gather the data. Attitudes of the interest organizations of forest owners and forest industry companies, question of organizer of cooperation, and resources for regional forestry planning were found as most important factors to explain the differences in development of cooperation in different areas.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hurskainen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Reunala, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown
article id 4907, category Article
Heikki Wuorenrinne. (1974). Suomen kekomuurahaisten (Formica rufa coll.) ekologiasta ja levinneisyydestä. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4907. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14751
English title: About the distribution and ecology of Formica rufa -group in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätyypit; levinneisyys; biologinen torjunta; kekomuurahaiset; muurahaiset; ekologia
English keywords: distribution; forest types; Formica rufa; ants; wood ants; Formica polyctena; Formica aquilonia; Formica lugubris; Formica nigricans
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the systematics, distribution, abundance and nest sites of Formica rufa -group in different Finnish forest types. In addition, it has been estimated the availability of Finnish ants in the biological competition.

F. polyctena, F. aquilonia and F. lugubris are distributed over whole Finland. F. rufa and F. nigricans to Southern Finland only. The relative abundace of ant nests diminish to Northern Finland. F. rufa -group prefer most forest on moist land (Myrtillus and Oxalis-Myrtillus types), mixed forests of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karsts), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula sp.), and the silvicultural density 0.6–0.7 (good or satisfactory density), but they avoid broadleaved and pure one-tree species forests. For the biological competition the most competitive ant species seem to be F. polyctena and F. aquilonia.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Wuorenrinne, E-mail: hw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4898, category Article
L. E. Mikhailov. (1974). Neuvostoliiton metsäntutkimuksen organisaatio ja kehityssuunnat. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4898. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14742
English title: Organizations and development trends of forest research in the Soviet Union.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; tutkimuslaitokset; metsäntutkimus; Neuvostoliitto
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; research institutes; Soviet Union; USSR
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forest research in the U.S.S.R. aims for increased productivity, improvements in timber quality and forest protection, and for better understanding of the environmental impacts of forests. Research institutes are organized under the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, the State Committee of Forestry, the Forestry Committees of the Soviet Republics, or under some other institutions. Direct government subsidies as well as economic support from production enterprises are available as funding for these institutes. International cooperation in forest research, especially among the S.E.V. countries is strongly emphasized. As regards other countries, the well-established program for mutual exchange for forestry information and forest researchers with Finland should be mentioned.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikhailov, E-mail: lm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4890, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1973). Maaston vaikutuksesta metsäteiden rakennukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4890. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14728
English title: Effect of terrain on forest road construction.
Original keywords: tienrakennus; metsätiet; maastoluokitus; ajanmenekki; maastotekijät; kantoisuus; maan kosteus
English keywords: time consumption; road construction; forest roads; terrain classification; terrain factors
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

As a subproblem in the joint Nordic Terrain-Machine Project the requirements set by forest road construction on the terrain classifications were studied during the summer 1973 in ten operations, in which either a bulldozer or an excavator method was used.

The most important terrain factors of the ground factors affecting the construction time of the road base were the so-called depth index and the moisture content of the soil, and in addition to these the amount of stumps as a ground roughness factor. These variables explained, however, only a rather minor part of the wide variation in the construction output of the practical operations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4884, category Article
Kauko Hahtola, Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Aarne Reunala. (1973). Metsänomistajien puunmyyntikäyttäytyminen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4884. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14721
English title: The timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners.
Original keywords: yksityismetsät; puukauppa; metsänomistajat; hakkuusuunnite; puun tarjonta
English keywords: Finland; forest owners; allowable cut; private forests; timber sales; wood supply
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The task of this study was to gather all available information concerning timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners and to try to find the probable trends in this behaviour. The initiative for the study came from the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries.

In Finland there are areas of timber savings and those of overcutting. These are mainly explained by regional variation in prosperity of forest owners. There are also several individual factors affecting timber sales behaviour. Without major changes in forest policy the annual variation in quantity cut in Finland is increasing and the degree of cutting seem to remain below the allowable cut.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown
  • Reunala, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown
article id 4883, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1973). Näkökohta kuitupuupölkkyjen siirtelymatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4883. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14720
English title: A note on the moving distance of pulpwood bolts.
Original keywords: hakkuut; kuitupuu; metsätyö; puunkorjuu; metsäkuljetus; ajourat; kaato; kasaus
English keywords: forest haulage; pulpwood; timber harvesting; fellings; forest work; off-road haulage; strip road; bunching
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the paper was to analyse, using a computer simulation technique, the moving distance of pulpwood bolts when direct felling of trees is used and the bolts are gathered alongside the strip road. According to the results, the average moving distance of bolts depends in a complicated way on the usable part of the stem and the spacing of strip road. As a rule, the differences between moving distances of two-meter bolts weighted and unweighted by bolt volume of various trees is 0–16% when the strip road spacing is 30 m the reason being the fact that the heaviest butt bolts are often more far away from the strip road than the top bolts.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4878, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1973). Vuonna 1972 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4878. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14711
English title: Forestry papers issued in Finland in 1972.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1975 in five scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4875, category Article
Lasse Lovén. (1973). Metsäammattimiesten maisemanhoidolliset arvostukset. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4875. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14705
English title: Landscape preferences of professional foresters.
Original keywords: metsänhoitajat; metsien monikäyttö; metsämaisema; maiseman arvostus; metsäteknikot
English keywords: foresters; forest officers; multiple use of forests; value of landscape; forest landscape
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper deals with the problem of optimal multiple use of forests. The concept of attractive visual environment is analysed following the framework of conditional reflexes and conditionalization of needs. Uniformity of landscape preferences among a group of persons, forest professionals working in district forestry boards in Southern Finland, who have similar education and working environment is studied in empirical part of this paper. The sample of 154 persons were sent a sociological questionnaire.

The preference distribution of forest officers and forest technicians were found very similar. Only poor condition for wood production as a landscape feature was considered clearly negative. The answers show the demand for rational and active working environment as a factor directing the landscape preferences.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lovén, E-mail: ll@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4873, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1972). Sisällysluettelo sarjoihin. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 4 article id 4873. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14680
English title: Indices to series Acta Forestalia Fennica 1913–1972 and Silva Fennica 1926–1972.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat; tieteelliset julkaisut; julkaisutoiminta
English keywords: forest research; forest science; Finnish Society of Forest Science; bibliographies; scientific publications; Acta Forestalia Fennica; Silva Fennica
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now The Finnish Society of Forest Science) publishes two series: Acta Forestalia Fennica and Silva Fennica. Outside these publications there are even other publications: the bibliography of Finnish forestry literature until 1933, Bibliographia Universalis Silviculturae, Paris I–II, 1967–70, and Research in Forestry and Wood Science in Finland. This paper is a bibliography of the publications, the issues of Acta Forestalia Fennica in 1913–1972 and Silva Fennica 1926–1972.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4869, category Article
Ole Oskarsson, P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1972). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet II. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4869. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14672
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding II. Selection differences and genetic gains in selected seed stands of Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänjalostus; tilavuuskasvu; valintahyöty; siemenkeräysmetsät; fenotyyppi; kuutiokasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; volume growth; genetic gain; forest tree breeding; seed stands; phenotype
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) selected seed stands. To obtain highest possible accuracy, the estimations are based on a large statistical material comprising 197 separate seed stands. It is concluded that the genetic gain of volume growth ranges between 7.4–15.0%. Unwanted pollen contaminations may, however, in the worst case halve this genetic gain.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Oskarsson, E-mail: oo@mm.unknown (email)
  • Tigerstedt, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown
article id 4867, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1972). Näkökohta keskimääräisestä tuotoksesta metsätyötieteessä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4867. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14670
English title: A point of view on the average output in forest work science.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsätyö; työntutkimus; tuotos; ajanmenekki
English keywords: time consumption; time studies; forest research; forest work; work studies; output
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper deals with the concepts of time consumption and output in forest work science. When output is defined as the inverse of time consumption and vice versa, it is possible to show the important consequences in probability functions. For instance, it is not the same if the dependent variable in a regression analysis is output or time consumption. Also, the average differ depending on if they are based on the time consumption figures or on the average output.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4862, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1972). Vuonna 1971 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4862. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14665
English title: Forestry papers issued in Finland in 1971.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat
English keywords: Finland; forest research; forest sciences; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1971 in five scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4857, category Article
Antti Lappalainen. (1971). Metsät ja verot. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4857. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14659
English title: Forests and taxation in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäverotus; verotus; Suomi; pinta-alavero; tuloverotus
English keywords: forestry; Finland; forest taxation; area taxation; tax on income; gross income from timber sales
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There is no clear picture in Finland of how big the revenues are that the State and the local authorities receive from taxation for the part of primary forestry. Conception of taxation varies from 100% to 50%. The paper presents a comparison between the gross income from timber sales as determined according to the method used at the Central Statistics Bureau and the net revenues as calculated on the basis of forest fee.

At 1920s area taxation was introduced in forest taxation. The system is based on forest types and their timber production capacity. According to the principles of area taxation, no tax is paid for overcuts, whereas timber capital savings should be paid for.

According to the calculations of this study, in 1958–62 the gross income from timber sales was about 506 million Fmk annually in Southern Finland, the costs involved in timber production about 437 million Fmk, and the annual taxable income 231 million Fmk. In the period more valuable timber assortments were harvested than those for which taxes were paid according to the old regulations.

Half a century ago, area taxation was a system suited to its purpose. Now, however, forestry is in the hands of another generation, and accounting has been introduced in practical agriculture and forestry. Therefore, a taxation system based on the real income from timber growing should be introduced. The transition period could even be relatively short. It seems probable that a forest owner does not sell timber at a time when this would be required by silvicultural aspects in order to avoid income taxation, he should have to be present an acceptable working plan.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lappalainen, E-mail: al@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4846, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1971). Metsäteollisuutemme laajennukset ja puuraaka-aineen riittävyys. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4846. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14648
English title: Expansion capacity of Finnish forest industries and the sufficiency of wood raw material.
Original keywords: puunkäyttö; metsäteollisuus; Suomi; metsätase; puuntarjonta
English keywords: wood utilization; forest industries; timber balance; wood supply
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Finnish forest industries have doubled their use of wood raw material during the past two decades. The average annual overcut of 4.0 million m3 in 1960–64 has been turned into an average annual surplus of 2.7 million m3 in 1965–69. By 1974 industry’s requirements for domestic roundwood would increase by about 6.3 million m3, if all new capacity can be taken into full production. The MERA allowable cut, if realized, would leave a 1.5 million m3 annual surplus in the forest balance in 1974. Less intensive forestry programs would mean a 1.5 to 4.4 million m3 overcut in 1974.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4843, category Article
Unto Silvennoinen, Rihko Haarlaa. (1971). Metsätraktoreiden liikkuvuus lumessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4843. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14645
English title: The mobility of logging tractors on snow.
Original keywords: puunkorjuu; metsäkuljetus; maastoluokitus; maasto; lumipeite; metsätraktorit; talvikorjuu
English keywords: snow; forest haulage; forwarder; timber harvesting; terrain; forest tractor; skidder; terrain classification
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The mobility of logging tractors was tested in the winter 1969 on difficult snow conditions to gather information for planning of logging operations and for logging machinery design. The tractors tested were Clark Ranger 666, Timberjack C, Valmet Terra, Ford Brunett 5000, Fiskars 510, BM-Volvo SM 660, BM Volvo SM 661, Ford Country 6, MF-Robur I and BM-Boxer T-350.

According to the results, there is a preference of tracked vehicles in difficult snow conditions compared to wheeled tractors. Ford Country with long and bearing full-tracks proved to have the best mobility. On downhill grades it was found significant differences between three-quarter-track-tractors and skidders, although the performance on level ground and uphill grades was relatively similar. The tracked vehicles can easier move on the packed snow layer and reach a higher speed.

The driving speed does not increase significantly until the density of snow has entirely changed through getting wet. Wet top layer of snow affects positively on driving, because it increases packing of the snow. Increasing density of the snow improves especially the mobility of broad-tired wheeled tractors. To be able to predict the driving speed of a tractor in winter working conditions one must know the depth of the snow layer and the density of the snow and the grade of the slope. In addition, the passages on the same route and the packing of the snow must be regarded.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Silvennoinen, E-mail: us@mm.unknown (email)
  • Haarlaa, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown
article id 4837, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1971). Vuonna 1970 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4837. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14626
English title: Forestry papers issued in Finland in 1970.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat; tieteelliset julkaisut
English keywords: Finland; forest sciences; bibliographies; scientific publications
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1970 in five scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4824, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1970). Metsä- ja puutalouden tehtävät luonnonsuojelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4824. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14613
English title: The role of forestry and forest industries in conservation.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäteollisuus; luonnonsuojelu; maisema; ympäristöarvot; vesiensuojelu; metsien virkistyskäyttö; metsien monikäyttö
English keywords: forestry; nature conservation; forest industry; recreation; environmental values; water pollution; multiple use of forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of forestry has hitherto been seen mainly as economic conservation, i.e. the use and management of timber resources on a sustainable yield basis. Along with the rising standard of living, however, amenity values of the environment will become more appreciated, which means that forestry and forest industries will be concerned with conservation of immaterial resources of nature as well. Since inland lakes cover some 10% of the surface area of Finland, and forests occupy more than 70% of the land area, forests and lakes are essential constituents of the Finnish environment during both work and leisure.

The main task of the pulp and paper industry in conservation is the control of water pollution. Today some 10% of Finnish lakes are polluted. Pulp and paper industries contribute 75% of the total waste water load of the Finnish lakes. Increasing water pollution can be prevented by improved processing technology, waste water treatment, and economic use of industrial wastes. Thus, the waste water load of the lakes has not increased in the last 10 years, despite doubling of pulp and paper production. According to the prognoses, by the year 2000 the waste water load from pulp and paper industries will be reduced to one half or one fourth of the present level although the capacity will still be increasing.

In forest management more emphasis should be paid on the aesthetic and recreational values of forests. Along with increasing leisure the need for recreational areas is growing. Scenic and recreational aspects must be considered in the management of industrial forests, too. With wise management, high timber yield is compatible with the maintenance of an enjoyable environment. Good silviculture takes account of timber production, wildlife management and landscape architecture simultaneously. National forestry development programs must be based on the principle of the multiple use of forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4820, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1970). Ideaalinäkemys metsätyöorganisaatioiden kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4820. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14609
English title: The concept of ideal systems in design of forestry work organizations.
Original keywords: metsätyö; puunkorjuu; työn organisointi; suunnittelu; ihanneorganisaatio
English keywords: timber harvesting; forest work; organization of work; planning; ideal organization
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The most effective work organization will be used as a goal in minimizing of logging costs. Some type of problem approach is usually utilized. The concept of the ideal system offers a possibility to get guidance in this difficult task. The idea of an ideal system is based on the fact that an ideal system, even imagined, can be utilized for any purpose. There are checklists in handbooks to accomplish the four existing steps: define of function, design ideal, develop optimum and deliver results.

In this paper two special cases are taken up to illustrate the concept itself, and it’s use in design of forestry work organizations. There were found no such reasons which could limit or even prevent the use of this method for forest technological purposes. That is why the author believes the method to give better results than any other customary approach.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4818, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Moottorisahojen valinnasta teknisten ominaisuuksien ja hinnan perusteella. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4818. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14607
English title: The choice of power saws on the basis of the price and technical properties.
Original keywords: moottorisahat; ostokäyttäytyminen; valintakriteerit; metsätyövälineet
English keywords: forest equipment; power saws; selection criteria; consumer buying behavior
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This investigation studies the effect of the retail price and the technical properties of preference ordering of buyers of power saw. According to the model derived, the preference ordering of power saws is due to technical properties xj. If no such restrictions in the function are supposed that could have bearing on the preferences of the buyers, there may be N ! possible combinations, when there are N power saws. If one can presume that each price corresponds with a technical level it is possible that each buyer has an optimum price of his own. The bigger the difference between the optimum and actual price, the less preferred the actual power saw is. In this case one may notice the amount of possible orderings is much less than that based on the model. Thus, the mode may be used.

In this paper some models are presented for cases when only n pieces of the population of N power saws are studied. 16 power saws of differing ages and technical levels were investigated. It was noted that many criteria of technical goodness were positively intercorrelated. The price correlated positively with every criterium used. According to the profile analysis, it was concluded that there were many development lines. For example, the idea of a light and the idea of an effective power saw.

According to the principal component analysis, it seemed obvious that there was little room for one- or two-dimensional preference ordering by the technical properties and price.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4815, category Article
Heikki Lindroos, Martti Nenonen, Pekka Pesonen. (1970). Tutkimus metsänomistajien koulutustarpeesta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4815. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14604
English title: Observations on the need for education of forest owners.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; maatilametsätalous; metsänomistajat; metsäalan koulutus; koulutustarve
English keywords: forest owners; forest education; farm forestry; forest councelling; training needs
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Finnish advisory organizations of private forestry provide education for forest owners on the problems concerning farm forestry. It is important that the methods in use would be able to prepare for the future development so that the teaching could lead to the most efficient learning. The present study was a survey research directed to all private forest rangers working in the District Forestry Boards in Finnish-speaking areas of the country. The inquiry was answered by 756 rangers, the returning rate being about 80%.

The results indicate that farm-forest owners have to be further educated. The education should be directed in the first place to method of artificial regeneration, cleaning-thinning, cutting operations and to the methods of physical work achievements. Particularly, it would be important to take care of teaching concerning cost calculation and economic planning. On the other hand, the enquiry indicated that, according to the opinions of the forest rangers, such skills belong most for the forest professionals and not for the farmers. According to the results, there is a need for development in the education given to farm-forest owners, as well as education of professional foresters.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lindroos, E-mail: hl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nenonen, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown
  • Pesonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 4814, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1970). Vuonna 1969 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4814. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14603
English title: Publications on forest science research published in Finland in 1969.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1969 in four scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4809, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1969). Polttoaineiden ja puutalouden säännöstely Suomessa toisen maailmansodan aikana ja sen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4809. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14597
English title: Government control of fuels and forestry in Finland during World War II.
Original keywords: metsätalous; toinen maailmansota; polttoaineet; Suomi; energianlähteet; tuontipolttoaineet; puu; puutuotteet; säännöstely; poikkeusolot
English keywords: wood products; forestry; Finland; wood; fuelwood; Second World War; fuels; imported fuels; regulation; reserve stocks
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.

Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.

When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.

In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Osara, E-mail: no@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4801, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1969). Puunkorjuun suunnittelu ja metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4801. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14589
English title: The role of logging in forest management plans.
Original keywords: hakkuu; puunkuljetus; metsäsuunnittelu; puunkorjuu; metsäsuunnitelmat; metsätaloussuunnitelmat
English keywords: logging; timber harvesting; felling; transportation; forest management plan; forest working plan
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to answer questions concerning the basic information in planning of timber harvesting, how this information has to be handled, and how the planning of logging has to be combined with other forest management planning.

A deductive research method was used. By analysing a logging plan, prepared for a certain forest area, general conclusions were reached. To prepare the logging plan in connection with the forest management plan, the following information was found to be necessary: boundaries of the area, extent and ownership of the planned area, maps including information of the location of the timber and the conditions for transportation, road network and a reliable picture of the difficulty of the forest terrain.

Based on the material of the present timber harvesting methods it will be possible to predict the logging methods which will be applicable in the near future. The object to be planned has to be divided to operation areas. The amount of manpower and equipment needed can be estimated for each phase of the timber harvesting chain on the basis of the information calculated in this manner. Investments to machines and basic improvement works have to be planned before the effect of planning can be calculated in the logging costs, which are to be minimized. Due to the rapid development of the field, the handling of the material in connection with a forest management plan has to be left partly unfinished since the development of future logging methods cannot be reliably predicted.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4800, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1969). Metsänhoidolliset mielipiteet ja metsänhoidollinen toiminta maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4800. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14588
English title: Opinions about silviculture in farm forestry in Finland, and practical steps taken.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; maatilametsätalous; Suomi; metsänomistajat; asenteet; asennetutkimus; Jämsä; Karstula; metsäneuvonta; mielipidetutkimus
English keywords: forest management; silviculture; Finland; forest owners; farm forestry; attitudes; opinion poll; opinions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to find out about the forest owner’s views on silviculture and any forest management work he had carried out. The data is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who alone or together with their wives were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forests.

The forest owners’ attitudes towards silviculture were generally favourable. A common opinion was that money spent on silviculture is a paying proposition (88%), that forest management is better today than it used to be (87%), that cultivation of forests is an economic proposition (81%), and that few owners manage their forests properly unless forced by the law (79%). The need for planning silvicultural measures was also generally accepted (78%).

However, few agreed that the legally imposed silvicultural fee is necessary, that the new silvicultural methods were practicable, or that money he invested in silviculture is profitable to the forest owner. Only 45% agreed that forestry experts have sufficient understanding of the owner’s needs. One third of the forest owners had carried out the following silvicultural tasks: forest cultivation, forest drainage or forest fertilization, on a minimum area of five hectares. Forest cultivation had been carried out by 63%, forest drainage by 44% and forest fertilization by 16% of the respondents. Vast majority (90%) had employed forest experts and a many nearly every year, mainly for marking the trees to be felled.

In the more rural municipality of Karstula, the forest owners’ views towards forestry was more favourable than in the semi-industrialized Jämsä.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4799, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1969). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran 60-vuotisjuhlallisuudet 29.4.1969. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4799. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14586
English title: The 60th anniversary of the Society of Forestry in Finland April 29, 1968.
Original keywords: järjestöt; juhlat; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura
English keywords: organizations; The Finnish Society of Forest Science; 60th anniversary
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This article describes the 60th anniversary of the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science). The reception addresses, donations and paying of homages to its members are listed. Also, some of the speeches are published.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4793, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1969). Valtion maatalous-metsätieteellinen toimikunta ja metsäntutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4793. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14579
English title: Forest research and the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; rahoitus; tieteelliset toimikunnat; Valtion maatalous-metsätieteellinen toimikunta
English keywords: forest research; funding; State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The special act passed in 1961 provides for the tasks of the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry. The Commission finances and supervises the activities of the research workers employed by the Commission. In addition, it gives special grants for specific purposes and endeavours to promote progress in research in accordance with the above-mentioned act.

Despite the formal requirement for progress, the real value of the grants given to forest research does not exhibit a rising trend. There seems to be a need for increasing funds both for research and publishing purposes.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4792, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1969). Yliopiston ja metsäntutkimuslaitoksen tutkijain yhteistoiminta. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4792. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14578
English title: Co-operation between research workers at the university and Forest Research Institute.
Original keywords: tutkimuslaitokset; metsäntutkimus; Helsingin yliopisto; metsäntutkimuslaitos; metsätieteellinen tiedekunta; yhteistyö
English keywords: forest research; University of Helsinki; research institutes; Finnish Forest Research Institute; cooperation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper discusses the cooperation between the research workers of the Forestry Departments, University of Helsinki, and of the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Although the fusion of these institutes might even seem to be justified in order to guarantee a coordination of the research work, no drawbacks exist in the present organization which could not be removed with cooperation.

In fact, cooperation has hitherto taken place in many forms both in teaching and research: working groups in the various branches of research have recently prepared a program for the development of research (Silva Fennica 1:4; 1967), leading scientists of the Institute act as lecturers at the University and some university teachers as associate researchers at the Institute.

On the other hand, in some cases lack of cooperation may have led to uncertainty and inconvenience of practical forestry. Therefore, a better system of information between scientists should be created and the continuity of cooperation strengthened. In conferences between the university and institute people, development work within the various fields of research should be cleared up with a long-range aim. The conference day of the scientists in the beginning of each year is mentioned as one possibility to start the cooperation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4791, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1969). Metsäntutkimuslaitos tehostuvan metsätalouden aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4791. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14577
English title: The Finnish Forest Research Institute in the present period of increasing intensity of forestry.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; Suomi; metsäntutkimuslaitos
English keywords: Finland; forest research; forest science; Finnish Forest Research Institute
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Foundation of the Finnish Forest Research Institute in 1917 was one step in the plans of A.K. Cajander to organize Finnish forestry research. Already earlier the highest forestry education had been incorporated into the University of Helsinki (1908) and the Finnish Society of Forestry founded (1909). In conformity with statute of 1962, the task of the Forest Research Institute is “to perform studies and experiments in order to develop Finnish forestry in a manner adapted to the purpose”. Consequently, the task of the institute is to carry out studies explicitly serving practical forestry.

The article describes the actual and required development of the Forest Research Institute. Concerning the most recent steps of development, for instance, four new professorships has been created: Forest Zoology, Tree Breeding, Forest Yield Science and Mathematics. In addition, a few regional research and experimental stations were established.

Strengthening the Forest Research Institute, i.e. increasing its staff of research workers and its funds, must still be continued to make it possible for the Institute to satisfy the great demand for research work of present-day practical forestry. The article also gives attention to the internal scientific development of the institute. Particularly, there is reason to stimulate the extended studies of young research workers as well as international exchange.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4790, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1969). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran kuudes vuosikymmen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4790. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14576
English title: The sixth decade of the Society of Forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura
English keywords: Finland; forest research; forest sciences; 1959-1968; the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences) was founded in 1909. A comprehensive history of the society has been published earlier (Acta Forestalia Fennica 40) which covers the first 50 years of is activity. The tasks of the Society are to work for the development of forestry research in Finland and to be a link between research workers in the field of forestry.

This article summarises the activity with regards of the meetings during the 60th year of the Society, and the two scientific series, Acta Forestalia Fennica and Silva Fennica, it publishes. The characteristics of the development of the publishing activity has been its’ becoming livelier and a shortening of the studies published. In 1960s funds have been granted for the execution of even larger projects. The Society has also treated many questions within the field of policy of science.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4789, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1969). Metsäntutkimus Suomessa ennen ja nyt. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4789. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14575
English title: Earlier and present forestry research in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; tutkimuslaitokset; metsäntutkimus; historia
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; history; research institutes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article gives an account of the organization of research work, which was started in the 18th century at the Academy of Turku. It was later developed in the times of the Forest Institute at Evo, founded in 1862, but it was not until the highest forestry education was transferred to the University of Helsinki in 1908 that it got a more compact form. In 1909 the Finnish Society of Forestry was founded and in 1918, the Finnish Forest Research Institute. In addition, a number of special institutes and organizations have been established.

At first the number of different branches was small, but the number of fields has multiplied until the present day. The article describes development that has taken place within the fields of forest biology, silviculture, forest protection, soil science, peatland forestry, forest mensuration, forest management, forest technology, forest economics, and multiple-use forestry.

Development was promoted by the organization of research work and its division into branches. Improvement of vehicles used in collection of study material as well as of the equipment used for this purpose and for handling the material have been important for the development. Funds for research have increased. Contacts with other fields of science and participation in international research work, especially through IUFRO, team work and schooling new scientists, have been influential. In 1960 a State committee appointed for further development of forestry research presented a plan to this end.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4787, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1969). Vuonna 1968 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4787. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14573
English title: Publications on forest science research published in Finland in 1968.
Original keywords: metsätiede; bibliografiat; metsäntutkmus
English keywords: forest research; forest science; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the articles of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1968 in the following scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports, included are also recensions on forest literature.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4779, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Sisäisen korkokannan käsite metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4779. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14564
English title: Internal rate of return in forestry.
Original keywords: metsätalous; käsitteet; kannattavuuslaskenta; korkokanta; sisäinen korkokanta
English keywords: terminology; internal rate; rate of interests; concepts
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The concept of the internal rate can be defined as the rate of interest, which if applied to expenditures incurred at different times, gives a compounded sum equal to revenues compounded at the same rate for the same time. This concept has long been used in forestry, particularly concerning the development of a stand, because in this case there is a time difference between many items of expenditure and revenue. Several terms have been used or the notions derived on this basis. The term internal rate of return has begun to appear only recently. This article explains different variations of the concept and its different names, together with some related concepts and terms.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, E-mail: es@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4773, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Totte Vadén. (1968). Ammattitietous ja sen leviäminen maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4773. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14558
English title: Professional insight and its diffusion within farm forestry.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; maatilametsätalous; metsänomistajat; ammatillinen tieto; metsäosaaminen; tiedonlähteet; metsäkoulutus
English keywords: forest professionals; forest owners; forest education; forestry skills; forestry knowledge; farm forestry; information source
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to describe the diffusion of the professional insight in forestry taking place among forest owners and as factors attached thereto. The material is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forest.

Mass media (papers, radio and television) was an important source of information for the forest owners. Forest educational events are specially planned to spread information on forestry to forest owners, but 40% told that they had never participated any such event. Only 8% had got professional forest education. Knowledge concerning forests and forest management may also be inherited from the forest owner’s parents, or in discussions with professional forest officers or neighbours. About 73% of the forest owners had been in touch with professional foresters at least once during the last three years.

A third of the forest owners regarded professional insight their most important source of information on forestry, a little smaller group considered instruction in forestry questions the most important source. The third largest group had achieved their knowledge on forestry on own experience and inherited knowledge. Forest owners favouring mass media, own experience and inherited knowledge were often owners of a small forest holding.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Vadén, E-mail: tv@mm.unknown
article id 4770, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1968). Ennakkotuloksia suometsiköiden ojituksen jälkeisestä kehityksestä ja siihen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4770. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14555
English title: Preliminary results of post-drainage development of peatland stands in Finland.
Original keywords: kasvu; suometsät; turvekankaat; ojitetut suot; kuivatustehokkuus; ojaväli
English keywords: drained peatlands; increment; draining intensity; ditch interval; drainage effect; stand recovery
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present paper is a preliminary report of a project designed to determine the order of profitability of various forest improvement measures – seeding and planting, drainage, and fertilization – in various types of stands and in different parts of the country on drained peatlands. Sample plot data on the effect of draining on increment was derived from areas drained 28– 36 years ago. The study was carried out in the southern half of Finland.

The observations on increment changes are based on two measurements of the sample stands 12 years apart. Supplementary calculations indicate that the stands on drained peatland, depending on site quality and tree species, have either continued to grow like mineral-soil sites of similar fertility or have somewhat increased their growth rate.

The effect of draining intensity was studied using strip measurements. It was found that both the total amount of wood produced (current stand + cutting removal + natural removal) and the current annual volume increment for the 5-year period systematically decrease as the ditch interval increases. The decrease is, however, relatively slight. In Eriophorum vaginatum pine swamps, the total amount of wood produced and the increment show a decrease of ca. 20% with an increase in ditch interval from 20 to 60 metres. In other sites, the decrease is ca. 5-10%

It can be concluded that if the increase in ditch interval do not result in considerably poorer timber assortment distributions than indicates by stand production and increment, it is profitable to pan for a relatively large ditch interval and a slightly smaller than maximum wood production. Supplementary data and check calculations may cause some changes in these preliminary results.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppälä, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4763, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1968). Vuonna 1967 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4763. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14547
English title: Forest scientific research published in Finland in 1967.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsätiede; bibliografiat
English keywords: forest research; forest science; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the papers of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1967 by the scientific series Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4762, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1968). Kehitysvaihtoehtoja Suomen metsätalouden organisaatioketjuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4762. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14546
English title: Development alternatives in the organization chains of Finnish forestry.
Original keywords: metsäteollisuus; kilpailu; puumarkkinat; metsänomistajat; organisaatiot; edunvalvonta
English keywords: forestry; Finland; competition; forest owners; forest industry; organizations; timber sales; timber market; lobbying
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this paper was to shape and analyse certain alternatives in the development processes in the organization chains of Finnish forestry. The material was collected by analysing market structures and characteristics of competition with regard to raw wood and forest industry products.

The paper presents two alternative ways to rationalize the organization chains between the forest owner’s organizations and forest industry. In the price mechanism of raw wood originating from Finnish private forests there there has been increasing influence of the central organizations of the private forest owners and forest industry. In their relationship, the model of bilateral monopolistic competition can be chosen as a conceptual framework.

Under bilateral monopoly price is fixed as a result of negotiations between competitive parties, and the position and tactics within the negotiations are of great importance for the negotiating parties. Because of the competition, Finnish forest industry cannot compensate the increase in the production costs by raising independently the export prices of its products. This and the fact that the annual earnings of forest workers are fixed by law to the earnings of the workers in wood-processing industry, will cause pressure on stumpage prices.

In the paper two schemes are outlined. In the Scheme 1 a development alternative is described in which the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the industry growing direction. In the Scheme 2 the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the organizational orientated direction.

It is concluded that as long as the forest owners’ organizational orientated central organization is too weak to form a monopoly as counterweight to the monopsol of forest industry (except the industries of forest owners), it will consider the industry growing direction superior to the organizational orientated alternative.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, E-mail: ir@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4743, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1967). Metsämaaston luokittelun yhtenäistämispyrkimyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4743. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14453
English title: Attempts to unify the classification of forest terrain.
Original keywords: metsätyö; kokoukset; maastoluokitus; maasto
English keywords: forest work; meetings; classification of forest terrain
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a report from the meeting of the Section 32 of the IUFRO in Canada on September 15.–25. 1964, which three Finnish forestry experts participated. The theme of the meeting was classification of forest terrain.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, E-mail: om@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4739, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1967). Vuonna 1966 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4739. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14449
English title: Publications on forest science research published in Finland in 1966 .
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1966 in alphabetic order by the different scientific series, Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports. It also includes book reviews on forest literature. 

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4734, category Article
Yrjö Kangas. (1966). Valtion metsien hakkuupoistuma ja sen rakenne : Vuosiin 1954-1958 kohdistuva selvittely. Silva Fennica vol. no. 120 article id 4734. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14292
English title: Felling volume and its structure in the Finnish State Forests in 1954-1958 .
Original keywords: hakkuut; valtionmetsät; hakkuumäärät; jätepuu; 1954-1958; hakkuupoistuma; hakkuukertymä
English keywords: Finland; state forests; waste wood; loggings; merchantable timber; felling volume
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this investigation was to study the felling volume and its structure in the State forests of Finland. Special attention was paid on the proportion of waste wood within the felling volume. This information was in demand for the general plan of the State forests that was being prepared at the same time. The survey was performed using a sampling method, and it represented the districts in the northernmost Finland, Ostrobothnia, Eastern Finland and Western Finland of the Forest Services.

The proportion of merchantable timber of the total felling volume was lowest in the northernmost Finland, less than 2/3 of the total cut. In Ostrobothnia the share was ¾, Eastern Finland 4/5 and in Western Finland 5/6. When the tree species were compared, the proportion of waste wood was largest in broadleaved trees, especially in the Northern Finland, while for Scots pine it was lowest. For Norway spruce the share of merchantable timber is markedly lower in the northernmost part of the country, where, for instance, decay increases the proportion of waste wood. For birch, demand of wood influences most the proportion of waste wood.

In general, the proportion of waste wood and merchantable timber in the felling volume was influenced by changes in the demand of timber, structure of the stands, and the felling method. The demand of the timber assortment affects most in the amount of waste wood. The more valuable the timber assortment is, the less waste wood is left in the cutting area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, E-mail: yk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4733, category Article
Mikko Ilvessalo, Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1966). Suomen pienmetsätalouden tutkimuksessa v. 1930 inventoitujen pienmetsälöiden kehityksestä vuodesta 1930 vuosiin 1963-64. Silva Fennica vol. no. 119 article id 4733. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14291
English title: Development of small forest holdings between 1930 and 1963–64 in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsät; metsävarat; pientilat; Suomi; pienmetsätalous
English keywords: forest management; Finland; forest resources; private forests; small holdings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the 1930s studies showed that state of the standing crop and forests of small private forest holdings in Finland was weak. In 1960s it was regarded necessary to study the possible change in the silvicultural state of these forests. Therefore, sample stands of the small holdings surveyed in 1930 by Osara were surveyed anew in the areas of Karelia and Savo, and in Central Finland in 1963–1964. A line plot survey was combined with ocular estimation as in 1930, but in 1963–1964 the lines and sample plots were placed denser than in 1930 to reach similar number of sample plots.

In 1930 the state of the forests of the small holdings was in average very weak, but according to Osara, the age classes younger than 50 years had similar stand volume than in the all the forests of the southern half of the country. The results of this survey show that the volume, structure, growth and development class structure of the forests in average have improved since 1930. In many respects the forests have reached the average state of forests in the southern half of Finland. The most serious problem is the large proportion of broadleaved trees. Thus, the silvicultural state of the forests should be further improved.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: mi@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown
article id 4728, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1966). Polttopuun käyttö Euroopassa vv. 1950.1960 sekä mahdollisuudet polttopuun teolliseen käyttöön v. 1975. Silva Fennica vol. no. 117 article id 4728. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14286
English title: Use of fuel wood in Europe in 1950-60 and possibilities of converting fuelwood to industrial uses by 1975.
Original keywords: metsäteollisuus; polttopuu; raaka-aine; Eurooppa
English keywords: firewood; Europe; fuel wood; wood consumption; 1950-1960; forest industries; raw material
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to the statistics, the fuel wood consumption in Europe has declined since 1925/1929, when the total fuel wood consumption was 144 million m3. In 1960 the consumption was 108 million m3. Because of insufficient statistics in the early years, the drop may even be larger than shown by the figures. The aim of this paper is to assess what part of European fuel wood removals in 1960 could be used for industrial purposes by 1975.

It was estimated that in 1975 the use of fuel wood in Europe will be about 45–55 million m3 less than in 1960 and about 10 million m3 of this amount will consist of coniferous species. It is believed that about 45 million m3 could be transferred to industrial use by 1975, and 55 million m3 is supposed to be the maximum reduction achievable by 1975. The estimates are based on the revised European fuel wood removal figures.

The new European timber trends and prospects study reveals a shortage of small-sized coniferous wood of about 25–43 million m3, depending on whether the exports from Europe are curtailed or not. The decrease of coniferous fuel wood of 10 million m3 could almost entirely be transferred for the use of industry.

A more important question is, is there demand for the extra small-size broadleaved wood. It is important to note that there is no longer any technical limitations on the use of this kind of wood for producing pulp, paper paperboard and wood-based panel products.

Fuelwood is often collected by the farmer and used near the farm. If the wood is to be used in the industry, harvesting and transport costs need to be decreased. However, productivity of the logging and transportation may be significantly improved by cutting the trees into longer lengths and professional harvesting. About 40% of the potential transfer of fuelwood to industrial uses is concentrated in Finland (7 million m3), France (5 million m3), and Italy (7 million m3). Other countries with significant potential shifts could be Romania, Spain and Yugoslavia.

The PDF includes a summary in French, German, Dutch, Russian and Finnish.

  • Roitto, E-mail: yr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4724, category Article
Seppo Ervasti, Lauri Heikinheimo, Viljo Holopainen, Kullervo Kuusela, Gustaf Sirén. (1965). The development of Finland's forests in 1964-2000. Silva Fennica vol. no. 117 article id 4724. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14282
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsänhoito; metsätalous; puunkäyttö; metsäteollisuus; metsävarat; Suomi; ennusteet; puuntarve
English keywords: forest management; Finland; forest resources; allowable cut; wood utilization; 1964-2000; forecast; removal
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Economic Council asked Heikinheimo, Holopainen and Kuusela to prepare a report on the development of Finland’s forest resources up to the beginning of the next century. The expansion of forest industry beyond the level foreseen in earlier forecasts, the large-scale removal and neglect of the basic improvements required have weakened the condition of the wood production to such an extent that extensive measures are needed to ensure the continuity of the supply of wood. The results of the calculations are formed in three separately analysed alternatives.

Alternative I: Realisation of the Teho programme and the removal corresponding to it. The development of the growing stock according to the programme would only permit a cut amounting to an annual drain of ca. 51 million m3 up to the year 2000. After that it would be possible gradually to increase the removal. This drain would not itself to utilise fully the already existing production capacity of the industry.

Alternative II: Consequences of the predicted removal if the Teho programme is realised as such. The wood utilization forecast based on the premises given to the team show that the annual drain will grow in 1964–1975 from 52 to 58 million m3, and thereafter by 0.5% annually. This would lead to over-cutting, and exhaust the present growing stock by the turn of the century. If annual total drain of ca. 58 million m3 would after 1975 be sufficient, exhaustion of the growing stock would be postponed for 4–5 years.

Alternative III. Teho programme expanded in conformity with the removal forecast. A new programme is proposed, which includes, among others, large scale fertilization of fully grown firm forest land at about the rate of 100,000 ha/year, intensified artificial regeneration, assurance of the supply of planting stock and seed, increase of forest drainage from the present 155,000 to 250,000 ha/year by 1970, site preparation of the cutting areas for artificial regeneration, increase of tending or seeding stands to 300,000 ha/year, replacement of fuelwood by other fuels, increase of wood import and new forest roads.

  • Ervasti, E-mail: se@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown
  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Sirén, E-mail: gs@mm.unknown
article id 4723, category Article
Toivo Matilainen. (1965). Kasvutappiosta ja sen määrittämisestä Etelä-Suomen talousmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 117 article id 4723. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14281
English title: The increment loss and its determination in economically exploited forests in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; menetelmät; vajaatuottoiset metsät; kasvutappiot; uudistaminen
English keywords: regeneration; Southern Finland; methods; under-productive forests; deficient stock volume; increment loss
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present study is an attempt to clarify the decrease in growth, or the increment loss, caused by sudden reduction of growth of the growing stock below a certain level, and to find a method for its determination. Increment loss is defined as a decrease in growth during the rotation due to a deficient stock volume. The material consists of Koivisto’s yield tables for repeatedly thinned stands in Southern Finland, and the results of the Third National Forest Inventory concerning the mean volume and increment in the productive sites.

For the calculation of increment loss three formulae were constructed where the increment loss is calculated 1) as the difference between the removal by thinnings in normally developed stands during a time equal with the period of deficient stock and the suddenly removed stock, 2) according to the compound interest calculation principle as the sum of the differences which are obtained by subtracting from the removal in each thinning during the period of deficient stock its initial value, and 3) as the straight interest of the stock deficiency during the period of deficient stock.

According to the calculations, the increment loss is greatest in stands to be grown, viz. 50 m3 solid measure excluding bark per hectare tended Norway spruce stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus type sites at 40% deficiency below minimum stock. In stands to be regenerated the losses are, too, greatest in the similar stands. It exceeds 200 m3/ha when stands younger than 50 years have to been regenerated and the removal amounts to 50% of the stock. In stands to be regenerated the increment loss for spruce, due to the slow initial development by the species, is greater than for Scots pine and birch. The loss is the same at different period of age if the relative deficiency of the stock is of equal size.

According to the study, each stand has a characteristic variation in the increment loss which depends mainly on the relative degree of deficiency from the minimum stock. The formulae and methods can be used to determine the increment loss in average and better stands in Southern Finland when the stock suddenly decreases.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Matilainen, E-mail: tm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4721, category Article
S. A. Wilde. (1965). Theory of relativity, soil science, and forest mensuration. Silva Fennica vol. no. 115 article id 4721. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14276
Original keywords: metsätyypit; maaperä; metsänarviointi; kasvupaikat; kasvukyky; tuottokyky
English keywords: soil; forest mensuration; forest type; forest site; productive capacity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

No other manifestation of life is allied more conspicuously to the theory of relativity as the growth of forest stands which is a function of the inherent growth potential of trees, the productive capacity of environment, and time.

The height over age quotient of a forest stand is usually the most reliable indicator of the productive forces of the habitat. Stem analysis have shown that increment of a tree at different ages is closely correlated with the extension of roots into individual geological horizons of different productive capacity. Growth curves of stands of a same tree species growing on different soils can be disparate due to different conditions. The temporal variety of tree growth on different sites is of prime importance in the construction of yield tables. Investigations of natural plant communities of Finland provided one rational approach towards the construction of yield tables. By confining mensuration analyses to define floristic types, the Finnish foresters harmonized their records with Einstein’s formula for space-time matrix of material events.

  • Wilde, E-mail: sw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4720, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1964). Aikatutkimuksia koivun karsimisesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 115 article id 4720. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14279
English title: Time studies in the pruning of birch.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätyö; työntutkimus; aikatutkimus; karsinta
English keywords: forest management; pruning; time studies; forest work; work studies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

On the basis of time studies on pruning, one thousand stems in four stands was pruned, carried out in 1962. The work was done in two phases with Olli pruning saw, first attached to a shaft about 1.8 metres long and the to a shaft about 4 metres long.

The total time of moving from one stem to another when pruning the stem varied from 0,28 to 0.31 min per stem in the different working sites. The resting time was 19–20% of the effective working time, which included actual pruning time and the moving time. In average, 7.5% of the actual pruning time was unproductive. The actual pruning took in average 0.75–1.1 min/stem in the different sites. The time depended on size of the tree, the DBH, and on the length of the part to be pruned. The total working site time for the pruning was in average 1.34–1.98 min/stem. The output of the work per 7 hours’ working day varied from 226 to 280 stems, and the costs from 10 to 14 pennies per stem.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4719, category Article
H. K. Seip. (1964). Methods and possibilities of long-term forecasts in forest management planning. Silva Fennica vol. no. 115 article id 4719. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14278
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäsuunnittelu; ennusteet
English keywords: forest management; forest planning; forest management planning; forecasts
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper describes different methods of long-term forecasts in forest management planning with a special attention on intention forecasts for a total forest property or district. Methods for calculating the sustained yield on the basis of the actual increment or the yearly area cut are discussed. It is concluded that a better estimate of the sustained yield is obtainable by the application of a long-term forecast technique. Forecasts for 100 years should not be viewed as plans, but as a background for making short-term decisions. Some of the long-term-type programmes, such as the programme of maximum profit, sustained yield in volume and in money are discussed briefly.

It is pointed out that there is often present a conflict between the various elements of the policy formulated by a forest owner. This leads to the conclusion that the calculations of the profitability of single projects may be misleading.

The precision of a long-term forecast is discussed, and how under certain assumptions the error of the allowable cut is influenced by errors in area, volume, age etc. It is shown that the precision in area and volume is more important in this connection than, say, the precision in increment. In conclusion, existing knowledge, methods and equipment for calculations constitute a basis for long-term forecasts which make them an important instrument in forest management planning.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seip, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4717, category Article
Aarne Laitakari. (1964). Suomen metsien tila 1730-luvulla ruotsalaisen geologin ja vuorimiehen, Daniel Tilas’in kuvaamana. Silva Fennica vol. no. 115 article id 4717. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14275
English title: The condition in Finland’s forests in the 1730s as described by Daniel Tilas, a Swedish geologist and mineralogist.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; historia; Suomi; 1730-luku
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Finland; history; 1730s
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present article reviews a geological report given by Daniel Tilas, a Swedish mining manufacturer, towards the end of the 1730s as the report regards information on the Finnish forests. His report gives at hand that forests in several localities southwest of the region demarcated by the towns of Loviisa, Äänekoskei and Kristiina were seriously diminished or burdened by tar burning and shifting cultivation. Larger saw log stands were found mainly in the scaterly populated parishes of Central Finland. Thus, in the chain of ridges between Orivesi and Ruovesi, covering an area of about 4,000 km2, there was a heavily stocked Scots pine forest, as reported by Tilas.

The report given by Tilas is kept in the files of the Geological Research Institute in Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laitakari, E-mail: al@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4715, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo, Leo Heikurainen, Viljo Holopainen, Matti Keltikangas, Kullervo Kuusela, Tatu Möttölä. (1963). Metsätalouden parannusten työllisyys- ja tulovaikutukset. Silva Fennica vol. no. 114 article id 4715. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14273
English title: Effects of forest improvement on employment and income.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäpolitiikka; komiteanmietinnöt; metsätyö; työllisyys
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland; employment; forest work
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The agricultural committee appointed by the Finnish Government in 1958 pointed out a problem that the rural population needed to be ensured employment and earnings from forestry. A forestry study group was called to investigate the effects of forest improvement on employment and income, on four fields: a) forest drainage, b) afforestation, c) thinning of young stands, and d) construction of forest roads. Items a, b and c increase output, and d creates outlets for timber and increases stumpage value.

The study outlined three alternative silvicultural programmes. The Basic Programme corresponds average forest management in Finland in 1953–1959. The Medium Programme can be seen conditional to the realization of the felling plan worked out in a study group Heikurainen-Kuusela-Linnamies-Nyysönen in 1961 in a committee report of Forestry Planning Committee. Finally, according to an Intensive Programme to which forest management, especially afforestation and forest drainage, will be raised to the highest possible level.

The costs of different silvicultural measures of the three programmes were estimated. The allowable cuts were calculated corresponding to the silvicultural programmes for the period 1961–1970 and 2001–2010. After calculating labour input and costs, could the increase in employment and income be estimated for the whole economy, and separately in forestry, communications and industry. When calculating the labour input required for the forest management work and road construction, the probable rise in productivity following mechanization and rationalization has been taken into account.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown
  • Keltikangas, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Möttölä, E-mail: tm@mm.unknown
article id 4714, category Article
B. L. Dzerdzeevskii. (1963). Study of the heat balance of the forest. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 113 article id 4714. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14272
Keywords: temperature; forests; forest ecology; metsät; lämpötila; metsäekologia; taseet
View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
  • Dzerdzeevskii, E-mail: bd@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4713, category Article
Metsäalan organisaatiokomitea. (1963). Metsäalan organisaatiokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 113 article id 4713. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14271
Keywords: metsätalous; komiteanmietinnöt
View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
  • Metsäalan organisaatiokomitea, E-mail:
article id 4712, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1963). Trends in South America's coniferous forest resources. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 113 article id 4712. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14270
Keywords: Etelä-Amerikka; havumetsät; metsävarat
View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4710, category Article
Paavo Ennevaara. (1963). Suhdanteiden vaikutus puutavaran myynteihin Keski-Pohjanmaalla hakkuuvuosina 1927/28-1931/32. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 113 article id 4710. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14268
Keywords: Suomi; metsätalous; 1927-1932; historia; Keski-Pohjanmaa; puukaupat; suhdanteet
View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
  • Ennevaara, E-mail: pe@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4706, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1963). Aikakello- ja pistokoemenetelmän vertailu. Silva Fennica vol. no. 112 article id 4706. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14233
English title: A comparison between the stop-watch method and the random-sample method.
Original keywords: metsätyö; työntutkimus; aikatutkimus; menetelmät
English keywords: time studies; forest work; methods; work studies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to find out to what extent it is possible to time phases of work by making instant observations at regular intervals according to the principles of the method of random samples, and arrive at similar results as obtained by timing continuously with a decimal-minute stop watch. In the first mentioned method the observer of the time study is given a sound signal at even intervals, in this case each 1/10-minute period, during the signal he records the phase of work (element) the object is performing.

The material of the study consists of studies in skidding and loading in connection with transportation by tractor during a period of 8 days. The duration of each element in using tractor hand in skidding and hauling was measured with an ordinary stop watch using repetitive timing. This material was then converted into random sample material.

The analysis of the material showed that the method of random samples yielded observations from all phases of work present in the material obtained by measuring with the stop watch. The duration of elements as determined by the random-sample method were of the same order as determined with stop watch. The results did not cause any observable systematic deviation or rhythmic repetition of elements.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nisula, E-mail: pn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4698, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1961). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran 50-vuotisjuhlallisuudet 29.4.1959. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 111 article id 4698. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14229
English title: 50 years’ jubilee of the Society of Forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: järjestöt; metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; kokoukset; 1909-1959; vuosijuhla
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; Finnish Society of Forest Science; the Finnish Society of Forestry; associations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Finnish Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) celebrated its 50 years’ jubilee in 29th April 1959. This publication includes description of the ceremony. Included are also the greetings, and speeches held at the celebration meeting.

The PDF includes some of the texts in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4697, category Article
Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea. (1961). Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 110 article id 4697. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14228
English title: Report of the forest planning committee.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäpolitiikka; komiteanmietinnöt
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present publication concerns the report of the committee appointed by the Finnish Government to draft a programme or the development of Finnish forestry and increase of its production.

Part I of the paper reviews the development of forestry and forest policy in Finland. After the World War II – following the land settlement – ca. 1.5 million hectares of land, mostly owned by the state, was transferred to private ownership. The committee states that because the division of small farms and land settlement policy private forests have tended increasingly to become small forests. The decrease in size of forest units has interfered development of forestry. In part II, the forest utilization programme for the period 1963–1972 is outlined. In the country, logging in 1953–1958 was carried out on a fairly sustained yield basis. The regional picture is, however, not as good, and in Southern Finland there has been over-cutting.

A long-term logging plan was prepared on the request of the committee. The allowable cut following this plan would suffice the calculated wood requirement for the years 1963–1972. In the part III, the committee introduces a silvicultural program for the years 1963–1972 to increase the yield of wood. The targets of logging, sowing and planting, and silvicultural work are considerably greater than what was achieved in the 1950s. To speed up the realisation of the silvicultural programme, working plans should be prepared on a large scale for forest enterprises, afforestation and forest drainage should be increased, and a national seed storage should be established.

Part IV discusses the forest work situation from the stand point of the realisation of the forest utilisation programme and silvicultural programme. Part V introduces a host of recommendations concerning forest policy and economic policy.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea, E-mail:
article id 4690, category Article
Metsäntutkimuskomitea. (1960). Metsäntutkimuskomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 109 article id 4690. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14222
English title: Report of the forest research committee.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; metsäpolitiikka; Helsingin yliopisto; komiteanmietinnöt; metsäntutkimuslaitos; tutkimusrahoitus
English keywords: forest policy; Finland; forest research; University of Helsinki; forest sciences; research funding; Forest Research Institute
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In 1956 the Finnish Government appointed a committee to plan the promotion of forest research in accordance with the needs of the national economy. The present publication contains an account of the committee’s work and its recommendations.

Attention is drawn to the fact that forestry in Finland is a natural and important means of livelihood. Hence forestry research must be effective and versatile, for extensive forestry calls for intensive research. In the subsequent chapters, a historical survey of forest research in Finland is presented, including a list of the institutes, organisations and other bodies active in this work. Finnish forest research is mainly centred around Forest Research Institute, which was founded in 1918, and similar research is also pursued at the University of Helsinki, as well as by many other institutes and scientific societies.

After a reviewing the present needs for research and the demands intensive forestry sets upon scientific investigation, the committee concludes that contemporary forest research in Finland cannot completely satisfy these demands. Consequently, the country’s research institutes should be expanded and developed considerably.

The recommendations concern mainly the development of the Forest Research Institute. The committee suggests doubling the personnel of the institute, creating several new departments and increasing the financial allocation to the institute. Certain reforms in the administration of the institute is also recommended. Special attention is drawn to the development of the publicity service. Also, the research in the forestry departments University of Helsinki should be developed. National and international co-operation between various research institutes and organizations should be improved.

The report is supplemented by a draft proposal concerning legislation on the Forest Research Institute, a plan for developing the training of research workers and a recommendation on the retention of certain land areas for scientific and experimental work carried out by the Forest Research Institute.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsäntutkimuskomitea, E-mail:
article id 4702, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1961). Kääpiöviljelmäväestön ansiomahdollisuudet tilojen alueittaisen sijainnin valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4702. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9137
English title: The earning opportunities of the population of small farms as reflected in their regional location.
Original keywords: metsätalous; maatalous; asutus; maatilat; pientilat; 1950-luku; elinolot; kääpiöviljelmät; pienviljelijät; tulot
English keywords: forestry; Finland; agriculture; settlement; farms; small farms; income; living conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Finnish legislation concerning settlement states that a farm should be able to provide, according to the various local conditions, their owners together with their families possibilities for a) living based on agriculture and forestry, b) part of their living the bulk of it acquired outside the farm, or c) part of their living from the garden, and possibly part of it by livestock, in addition to from work outside the farm. The present analysis discusses the earning opportunities of the inhabitants of small farms, characterized by the fact that generally they are not able to ford their owners living obtained principally from agriculture and forestry.

According to the results of the 1950 General Agricultural Census of Finland, there exists in the country 74,134 holdings the size of 0.5–1.99 ha (dwelling farms), and 99,400 holdings the size of 2–4.99 ha (dwelling-and-cultivation farms). These small farms accounted for 37.2% of all farms in Finland. As a rule, it is possible to run a small farm only in such region, where favourable conditions give possibilities both for farming and for sufficient amount of wage-earning work outside the farm. Thus, location has a big influence on the financial status.

Dwelling farms were common in urban municipalities and near the coastal areas. Those situated in countryside were located in Eastern and Northern Finland. Dwelling-and-cultivation farms were few in the coastal regions, but they predominated the municipalities of the watershed districts near Jyväskylä, and eastern and northern parts of the country. The forests of the small farms were too small to provide additional income to the farms. Farms owning relatively larger forest areas were situated in the counties of Lapland, Oulu, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and farms with little forests in Turku and Pori County. Net out-migration has been substantial in the districts with a relatively large number of small farms.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halmekoski, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4696, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1960). Suometsätieteen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4696. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9135
English title: Swamp forestry research in Finland.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; suot; suometsätiede; soiden kuivattaminen; soiden ojitus
English keywords: forestry; Finland; peatlands; forest research; draining of peatlands; research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

About one third of the land area of Finland is covered by peatlands, furthermore, some mineral soils are troubled by excess water. Due to the prevalence of peatlands, forest drainage has been the most important form of forest improvement work. Consequently, peatlands have been an extensively studied topic within forest sciences in Finland. This paper gives a review on the central research subjects in science of peatlands, introducing little less than a hundred of the hundreds of publications published in the field. The author describes in more detail research on the formation and area of peatlands, peatland types and their suitability for forest draining, site factors on peatlands, techniques of forest ditching and the management of peatland forests.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4689, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1960). Metsähallinnon vuosisataistaival 1859-1959. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 107 article id 4689. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14130
English title: A century of Finnish State forestry 1859-1959.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; historia; metsähallinto; Suomi
English keywords: Finland; Forest Service; forest administration; state forests; history
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This book deals with the Finnish Forest Service, organization responsible for the management of the State forests of Finland, since its establishment in 1859 up to the present time. Attention is paid especially to the following topics: the area of State Forests and its changes; the organisation of Forest Administration; the promotion of transportation conditions for State forestry; silvicultural treatment of State Forests, their management and commercial activity; the Forest Service as an employer; the State Schools for training forest foremen; the activity of the Forest Service as regards private forests.

The PDF includes a short summary in English, a more comprehensive history of the Forest Service is published in Silva Fennica no. 112.

  • Laitakari, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4688, category Article
L. Heikurainen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1960). Symposio metsätyypeistä ja metsäekosysteemeistä Motrealissa elokuun 24. päivänä 1959. IX Kansainvälisen kasvitieteellisen kongressin yhteydessä. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 105 article id 4688. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14129
English title: Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems during the IX international botanical congress Montreal, August 24th 1959.
Original keywords: kasvillisuus; metsätyypit; bibliografiat; ekosysteemit; kasvupaikkaluokitus; kokoukset; metsäekologia
English keywords: vegetation; ecosystems; forest types; bibliographies; site classification; Symposiums
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper is a review on the topics of Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems, held in connection to the IX internal botanical congress in Montreal in August 1959, the chairman of which was Ilmari Hustich. The article includes 18 preparatory papers that were distributed among the participants of the symposium. The common theme of the papers was the question of finding common platform for the different schools of forest types and forest ecosystems. In addition to the papers, the article includes a summary of the proceedings and discussions of the symposium.

 

The following papers were presented in the symposium:

Aichinger, E. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Arnborg, T. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Dansereau, P. A combined structural and floristic approach to the definition of forest ecosystems.

Daubenmire, R. Some major problems in vegetation classification

Ellenberg, H. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Hills, G.A. Comparison of forest ecosystems (vegetation and soil) in different climatic zones

Kalela, A. Classification of the vegetation, especially of the forest, with particular reference to regional problems

Krajina, V.J. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Kühler, A.W. Mapping tropical forest vegetation

Linteau, A. Y. a-t-il. Un terrain d’entente possible entre les différentes écoles au sujet de la classification de types forestiers?

Medvecka-Kornaś, A. Some problems of forest climaxes in Poland

Ovington, J.D. The ecosystem concept as aid to forest classification

Puri, G.S. The concept of climax in forest botany as applied in India

Rowe, J.S. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Scamoni, A. Können wir eine gemeinsame Grundlage für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Sukachev, V.N. The correlation between the concept ’forest ecosystem’ and ’forest biogeocoenise’ and their importance for the classification of forests

Webb, L.J. A new attempt to classify Australian rain forest

  • Heikurainen, E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4692, category Article
Mauno Forsström. (1960). Maanhankintalain ja siihen liittyvien lakien toimeenpanon vaikutuksista valtion metsätalouteen. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 104 article id 4692. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9131
English title: Influence of the Settlement Act and the related regulations on the State forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätalous; valtion metsät; asutus; Suomi; maanhankinta; maanluovutus
English keywords: forestry; state forests; settlement; Settlement Act; land acquisition
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Settlement Act (332/36) of Finland that regulated land-acquisitions was repealed by the Land Use Act (353/58), effective from the beginning of 1959. This paper deals with the effects land settlement and implementation of the acts has had on State forestry. The investigation concentrates on the magnitude of the losses caused by the land reform, initiated by The World War II, in time period of 5.5.1945–31.12.1957, during which time the evacuees from the areas transmitted to Soviet Union were settled. The first part of the paper summarises the history of landholding and the State Forests in Finland.

According to the study, the total area of cessions of the state forest land, based on land-acquisition legislation, rises to over 1 million hectares, about 10% of the land area. It seems that these lands have been better than the average forest lands of the state. In addition, about 100,000 ha of jointly owned forests were established on former state lands on the basis of the Settlement Act. Timber has also been collected for construction of the settlement from the State forests. The value of the land and the construction timber is estimated to be about 3,759 million Fmk.

It has been stated that settlement has increased supply of forest labour in rural areas, where there has been labour shortage in forestry. On the other hand, the State Forests have given seasonal work opportunities for the rural population.

The state forest holdings in Southern Finland are at present so small that it limits rational forest management in the area. It is concluded that it is possible that the state forests in Southern Finland will be used to provide supplemental land for the small farms. In the State Forests of Northern Finland are plans for establishment of new jointly owned forest and settlement. This poses a threat for the state forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Forsström, E-mail: mf@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4691, category Article
Arvo Seppälä. (1960). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran julkaisusarjojen sisällysluettelo : Acta Forestalia Fennica 51-70 (1942-1959), Silva Fennica 61-103 (1945-1960). Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 103 article id 4691. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9130
English title: Publications of the Society of Forestry in Finland. Index.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura
English keywords: forestry; bibliographies; bibliografiat; The Finnish Society of Forest Science
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present bibliography is an index of publications brought out by the Society of Forestry in Finland (now The Finnish Society of Forest Science) in 1945–1960, a sequel of a similar index published in 1946. It consists a classification of the parts according to subject treated, based on the Oxford system, a system used in international forestry literature. The studies have been provided with Oxford numbers. The index includes the publications of Acta forestalia fennica (AFF), Silva Fennica (SF) and the Commentationes forestales.

The PDF includes a summary in English and German.

  • Seppälä, E-mail: as@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4686, category Article
Kalle Putkisto. (1959). Puutavaran valmistus- ja metsäkuljetustöiden koneellistumisen vaikutus metsätalouden työvoiman tarpeeseen : ennuste vuoteen 1972. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 101 article id 4686. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9127
English title: Effect of the mechanization of timber preparation and forest transport on the need of labour force in forestry. Prognosis up to 1972.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsätyö; työvoima; puunkorjuu; koneellistuminen; ennusteet; metsäkuljetus
English keywords: forestry; forest transport; mechanization; wood harvesting; fellings; workforce; forest work; prognosis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In 1957 the annual cuttings in Finland were 40.2 million m3 without bark. The aim of the study was to estimate the rate of mechanization of harvesting of timber in Finland, and make a prediction of the state of mechanization by 1972. According to the study, harvesting and transportation of the felling volume in 1957 would have required about 25.5 million working hours. Mechanization of forest work has decreased it only by 0.32 million working hours. The profitability of forest work has improved in 1950s, which is mainly due to changes in harvesting, such as shifting to longer lengths of pulpwood and props and cutting unbarked timber.
The study predicts that in 1972 it will take 14.8 million working hours to harvest and 5.4 million working hours to transport a corresponding felling volume as in 1957. However, a new way of producing timber or a working method of wood may change the picture completely. Reduction in harvesting expenses through mechanization may lead to diminishing the minimum diameter of logs, which affects profitability of work. It is also probable that mechanization of wood transportation will lead to working sites with longer distances of forest transportation. Also, industry using wood as raw material will also obviously expand.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Putkisto, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4687, category Article
V. Sukatsev. (1960). Metsätyyppien tutkimisen opas. Suomentanut Erkki Laitakari. Silva Fennica vol. no. 99 article id 4687. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14125
English title: A guide to the study of forest types.
Original keywords: kasvillisuus; metsätyypit; oppaat; eliöyhteisöt
English keywords: community; forest site type; forest type; site factors
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Professor V. Sukachev, a Soviet developer of the doctrine of forest types, published a guide to the study of forest types in 1931. He states in the introduction of the guide that his aim is to facilitate the work of beginners in determining forest types and to instruct them in developing methods for their description and classification.
This Finnish edition of the guide includes new picture material and has an extensive supplementary preface, written by the author, that presents his view on forest types. The guide describes the concept of forest types, methods of describing forest types, guidelines to material collected in the forests and principles of classification of the different forest types.

  • Sukatsev, E-mail: vs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4683, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1959). Suomen metsien luovutusmäärä hakkuuvuosina 1955/56-1956/57. Hakkuutilaston metodia käsittelevä koetutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. no. 97 article id 4683. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14128
Keywords: Suomi; 1955-1957; hakkuu; metsätalous; metsät; tilastot
View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4682, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1959). Suomen metsäteollisuuden laajentamismahdollisuudet tuotteiden käytön kehityksen kannalta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 97 article id 4682. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14127
Keywords: markkinat; metsäteollisuus; Suomi; tuotanto
View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
  • Ervasti, E-mail: se@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4679, category Article
Esko Hellén, Gert Blåfield, Martti J. Havukkala, Olavi Sajama. (1958). Metsä- ja uittotyöpalkkatarkkailu vuosina 1932-1957. Silva Fennica vol. no. 96 article id 4679. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9125
English title: Wage control in forestry and log floating in Finland.
Original keywords: uitto; metsätyö; palkat; palkkasäännöstely; palkkataso; ammattiliitot
English keywords: floating; forest work; wages; pay rate; labour market organizations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The state of Finland had to intervene in the forest wages after the wages had dropped very low during depression in 1932-33. Even able-bodied workers were forced to resort to communal poor aid. Therefore, the Ministry of Communications and Public Works imposed in winter 1932-33 a study on the level of forest wages. Based on the investigations it was decided to develop control and guidance of forest and floating wages. A committee was appointed to follow the development of forest wages and to promote the formation of the wages on a reasonable level.
The country was divided into 14 wage districts, and for each district was confirmed an own norm of wages in accordance with the costs of living in the area. Inspectors controlled the wages primarily in such work places that were complaind of. Consequently, the earnings increased yearly in the 1930s.
During the Second World War, the main objective of economic policy of the government of Finland was to prevent inflation. The regulation of wages strived to compensate workers for the war-time rise in the cost of living. The Econimic Powers Act issued in 1941 was the first legislation that concerned regulation of wages. The Wages Commission prepared from the winter 1942 onward the wage tables per unit of forest works for employers. During the war, the employers were prepared to pay higher wages than the wage authorities considered possible.
Right after the war the main concern of wage control was that because of labour shortage forest and floating wages rose too high. From the end of 1948 onward, however, the principal task was to prevent paying of too low wages. Regulation did not succeed in preventing inflatory rise in wages in postwar conditions, and it was necessary to rise wages continually.

The Union of the Finnish Forest and Floating Workers was founded in 1946, and it concluded a collection agreement with the Employers’ Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries in 1947. After 1949 the forest workers were represented in the Central League of Finnis Trade Unions (SAK). The regulation of wages ended in 1955, and after that the level of wages were negotiated by the labour market organizations.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Hellén, E-mail: eh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Blåfield, E-mail: gb@mm.unknown
  • Havukkala, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown
  • Sajama, E-mail: os@mm.unknown
article id 4674, category Article
Erkki Kivinen, Erkki Laitakari. (1958). Helsingin yliopiston maatalous-metsätieteellisen tiedekunnan vaiheita 50-vuotiselta taipaleelta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 95 article id 4674. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14110
English title: 50 years of education in agriculture, forestry and home economics at the University of Helsinki.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsätalous; historia; maataloustieteet; yliopisto; maatalous; kotitalous; kalatalous; korkeakouluopetus
English keywords: forestry; forest education; university; agriculture; education; limnology; house education
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Agricultural education in Finland begun in 1840, when an agricultural college started its activity in the estate of Mustiala in Southern Finland. A decree published in 1896 stated that the highest agricultural education should be transferred from Mustiala to the University of Helsinki, and two professorships and an assistant professorship should be established. The first professor of agricultural chemistry was appointed in 1900, and the work to compile the scheme for the agricultural university studies was started. By 1957 the personnel had increased to ten professorships and 23 docents.

In 1924 the section of agriculture of the Philosophical faculty was changed to the Faculty of agriculture and forestry. By the spring 1957 a total of 2,180 Bachelor of Agriculture Examinations, 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations and 1,198 Candidate’s Examinations had been attained. Experimental farms were established in Viik an in Malminkartano in 1931, however, the areas were in the beginning leased to the Prison Administration. The farm in Viik had also laboratories for research purposes. In 1949 it was decided that also the agricultural institutes should be placed in Viik.

The highest forest education was established in a forest college in Evo in Central Finland in 1862. In 1900 it was suggested that also the highest forest education should be transferred to the University of Helsinki. It was affirmed by a decree in 1906. In 1957 there was 8 professors and 15 lecturers in the faculty. A large adjustment in the content of the examination was performed in 1951. Up to spring 1957 a total of 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations was achieved in the faculty.

The education of home economics commenced in the faculty of agriculture and forestry in 1946.

The article includes an English summary.

  • Kivinen, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laitakari, E-mail: el@mm.unknown
article id 4667, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1957). Metsätalouden edistämistoiminta Suomessa : Tapio 1907-1957. Silva Fennica vol. no. 94 article id 4667. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14126
English title: Promotion of private forestry in Finland, Tapio 1907-1957.
Original keywords: metsätalous; historia; yksityismetsät; Tapio; Keskusmetsälautakunta Tapio
English keywords: forestry; Finland; private forests; promotion of forestry; Central Forestry Association Tapio; Tapio
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

For many decades Finland’s forest policy has been focused on private forestry, accounting for approximately 60% of Finland’s forest area. The objective has been to regulate forest management by legislation and to promote private forestry. The aim of the study was to explore the role of the Central Forestry Association Tapio in promoting private forestry.

A detailed synthesis of Tapio’s 50 years long history and activities is drafted. According to the three forest inventories (in 1921-24, 1936-37 and 1951-53), big improvements have been made in cutting methods, mainly in the sense that selective cuttings have decreased. The condition of private forests is, however, not as good as that of the state and company forests. Improvements introduced in the legislation in 1928 have had great influence in forestation and drainage of peatlands in private forests. The private forests, however, suffer from a lack of planning.

Through Intensified forest policy it has been possible to ensure supply of roundwood for forest industry. An efficient information service on timber markets have been organized, and the measurement of roundwood has been standardized. Progress in the promotion of forestry has suffered from unfavourable trends in forestry, mainly from the nearly doubling of the number of forest holdings in the present century and from the contraction of their size.

The article includes an English summary.

  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4657, category Article
Viljo Lilja. (1957). Asutustilojen metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 92 article id 4657. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14058
English title: Forestry on settlement farms.
Original keywords: metsätalous; kannattavuus; metsäopetus; asutustoiminta; jatkokoulutus; asutustilat
English keywords: forestry; profitability; forest education; agriculture; settlement; settlement farms
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses the conditions of forestry in the small resettlement farms in Finland. The silvicultural condition of small farm forests has been found to be worse on average than that of big holdings. A difficult economic situation often forces the owner into excessive fellings. The forest owner of a settlement farm should, therefore, be given possibilities to adequate living opportunities. Therefore, the new Resettlement Act aim at supporting a so-called forest principle, which is based on a view that it is not possible on a small farm to earn a living by agriculture only and some forests must be connected to it.

  • Lilja, E-mail: vl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4655, category Article
A. Lifländer. (1957). Keskitetty hakkuutoiminta Perä-Pohjolassa ja asutuskysymys. Silva Fennica vol. no. 92 article id 4655. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14056
English title: Centralized fellings in Northern Finland and the settlement question.
Original keywords: hakkuut; Pohjois-Suomi; valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsäopetus; asutustoiminta; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: fellings; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; settlement; settlement activities
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

In 1950s in the administrative region of Northern Finland 2,951 million ha of state forests awere under economic management while 3,285 million ha were not managed. Settlement activities mostly took place in the area that was managed, and where fellings were arranged in a centralized way. In these areas logging costs were minimized by, for instance, constructing roads, improving floating channels and constructing camps. This presentation describes ways to coordinate and rationalize both the settlement activities and fellings in these areas.

  • Lifländer, E-mail: al@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4653, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1957). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit : 1956. 8. Silva Fennica vol. no. 92 article id 4653. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13981
English title: Professional development courses for the state forest officers in 1956.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; asutustoiminta; metsänhoitajat; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; foresters; forest officers; settlement work
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

 

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

 

Marjanen, T.  Establishment of holdings and supplementary land lots on state land

Lifländer, A. Centralized fellings in North Finland and the settlement question

Väisänen, P.O. Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland

Lilja, V. Forestry on settlement farms

Hyttinen, O. Valuable timber trees on settlement farms

Piepponen, P.  Marking of construction and other valuable timber in the forests of settlement farms

Kotiaho, A. Arability research, its execution and information on the result

Karisto, U. Economic viewpoints in the establishment of a farm or a supplementary land lot

Linnamies, O. Calculation of yield value of forest land

Johansson, E. Viewpoints on evaluating settlement farms

Klemetti, V-K. Evaluation of growing stock in the pricing of settlement farms and composition of the total price of a farm

Leino, P.K. Special offices for settlement boards, their employees and the organization of field work

Nieminen, E. Charging for travel, daily allowances and fees in settlement work

 

The issue includes short English summaries of the presentations.

  • Metsähallitus, E-mail:
article id 4670, category Article
Maatalousväestön taloudellista asemaa selvittävä komitea. (1957). Maatalousväestön taloudellista asemaa selvittävän komitean mietintö. 2. Käsittelee pääasiassa metsä- ja sivuansiotuloja. Silva Fennica vol. no. 91 article id 4670. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9117
English title: Proceedings of the committee on economic status of the Finnish agricultural population.
Original keywords: komiteanmietinnöt; metsätyö; metsätulot; maatalousväestö
English keywords: private forestry; forest work; rural population; forest income; farm economy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Finnish Government appointed a committee in 1955 to analyse the economic status of the population living from agriculture. The present paper contains Part II of the proceedings of this committee. It discusses the earnings of the agricultural population from forestry and occasional work.

Agricultural population was defined as all people living from holdings of at least 2 hectares of agricultural land. Forestry income includes, besides the value of stumpage sold, earnings from logging in connection with delivery contracts. Earnings from occasional work include wages for logging made to the account of someone else, as well as wages for agricultural work, floating, carpentry, road construction and maintenance work etc.

In 1951–1954, the farms in Finland received an average aggregate of 29 milliard Fmk for stumpage, 10 milliard Fmk of which consists of the value assigned to the timber consumed by the farms themselves. The average income from stumpage was 110,000 Fmk per farm. The earnings from logging in connection with delivery contracts amounted to 3.3 milliard Fmk, and the earnings from occasional work to 6.7 milliard Fmk. The income from stumpage together with the earnings from delivery loggings amounted to 123,000 Fmk per farm. Adding the earnings from occasional forest work, an aggregate forestry income of 150,000 Fmk per farm has been obtained, 70–75% of which accounts for stumpage price.

The occasional earnings from sources other than forestry were on average 12–13 milliard Fmk, or 45,000–50,000 Fmk per farm. The agricultural income of the farms was 60.4 milliard Fmk, or 230,000 Fmk per farm. Thus, the aggregate income of the farms was 110 milliard Fmk, or 420,000 Fmk per farm.

The financial surplus from forestry per farm for the farms included in the study in 1951–1954 was on average 21, and the income from forestry 18 times as high as in 1934–39. The income from stumpage at the end of the same period was 18, and the earnings from occasional work 27 times as high as at the beginning of the period.

The agricultural income has the greatest relative importance in Southern Finland and Eastern Bothnia. The income from stumpage, in turn, has the greatest relative significance in supporting agriculture in the inner part of Finland, while the occasional income plays its most vital role in northeast Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Maatalousväestön taloudellista asemaa selvittävä komitea, E-mail:
article id 4650, category Article
Metsätilastokomitea. (1956). Metsätilastokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. no. 89 article id 4650. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9112
English title: Report on Committee on Forest Statistics.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsätalous; tilastot; komiteanmietinnöt; Suomi; metsätilastot
English keywords: forestry; forest research; statistics; forest statistics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The ministry of agriculture appointed a committee to prepare a proposal for the reorganization of Finnish forest statistics. The committee suggests that the forest statistics will be prepared by forest district board areas. National forest surveys and national wood consumption surveys should be carried out at intervals of 10-15 years by Forest Research Institute.

Felling and price statistics for private forests should be prepared by using a sampling method described in the report. The statistics of total commercial roundwood felling will be obtained by adding to the result the annual felling from state and company forests. Also, wage and employment statistics in forestry will be prepared by a sampling method.

Statistics concerning timber transportation should be improved, and finally, a central organ for forest statistics should be established within the Forest Research Institute to collect and develop forest statistics. The statistics should be published as an annual yearbook. To ensure co-operation between the authorities, a special sub-committee should be appointed to collaborate with the permanent committee of statistics in Finland.

  • Metsätilastokomitea, E-mail:
article id 4647, category Article
Pekka Sainio. (1955). Hirven talvisesta ravinnosta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 88 article id 4647. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9109
English title: Winter nutrition of elk.
Original keywords: paju; metsätuhot; mänty; koivu; hirvi; taimikkotuhot; talviravinto; hirvituhot
English keywords: Scots pine; seedling damage; Alces alces; nutrition; moose; forest damage; elk; elk damage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Increase in the elk (Alces alces L.) population and the problems of its grazing has called for detailed research. The present study concentrated on three observation areas representing northern, western and eastern parts of Finland. There were 28 field observers watching 68 elks.

Earlier investigations in Finland indicate that aspen (Populus tremula L.) is the staple diet of elk. This study reached different conclusions, probably largely because of aspen is gradually becoming an increasingly rare tree species in Finland. According to this study, the principal food of elk in the winter is willow (Salix sp.). In the whole country, willow accounts for about 70% of elk’s nutrition. In the Far North the percentage is approx. 90. Of the other tree species, the order of preference is: aspen, Scots pine, mountain ash, juniper and birch. In addition, in Western Finland where snow is less deep, lingonberry and blueberry shrubs are on the menu. Beard moss on the spruce was frequently eaten locally. Elk seems to have eaten mainly the last annual shoot of trees and bushes. In few cases it has gnawed the bark of Scots pine, aspen and willow. Elk consumes in average 340 twigs or terminal shoots per day in the winter. This corresponds to about 1.8 kg of food.

The problem of elks damaging Scots pine seedlings has been observed in Western Finland, were the elk population is higher. The article suggests that suitable feeding places would be left for elk in places that are unsuitable for agriculture or forestry. Leaving, for instance, birch seedlings in Scots pine stands has been noticed to attract elks and to increase the damage to pine.

The article includes an abstract in English and a summary in Swedish.

  • Sainio, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4646, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1955). Tutkimuksia metsänhoitolautakuntien ja -yhdistysten leimaustoiminnan kehityksestä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 87 article id 4646. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9108
English title: Studies on crop marking of District Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsät; puukauppa; tukkipuu; leimaus; metsälautakunnat; metsänhoitoyhdistykset; pinotavara
English keywords: logs; silviculture; private forests; timber sales; marking of timber; stacked wood; District Forestry Boards; Forest Management Associations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Wood demand and practices in the marking of trees for cutting have affected the silvicultural state of the forests of Finland in the early 1900s. The aim of the study was to study the development of timber sales and the marking of trees for logging, with a special emphasis on variation in the volume of the sales and assortment range. The study is based on statistics of the District Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations about timber marked for cutting in 1931-1953.

The professionals in the District Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations have marked annually in average 9 million stems of heavy timber and about 7 million m3 of stacked wood for sales. The volume  follows business cycles, the changes in the volume of stacked wood being larger than of heavy timber. When demand was high, the number of professional workers limited the supply of wood. There were large differences in the volumes marked within the country. The share of small diameter stacked wood has increased since 1930s compared to heavy timber.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4645, category Article
Oiva Suominen. (1955). Metsätyömieskylät : ehdotus vakinaisten metsätyömiesperheiden asuntokysymyksen järjestelyksi. Silva Fennica vol. no. 86 article id 4645. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9107
English title: Forest worker villages: Permanent accommodation of forest worker’s families.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; metsätyöntekijät; metsätyö; asutus; asuminen; asunto-olot; metsätyömieskylä
English keywords: settlement; stateforests; forest workers; accomodation; labour; forest worker village
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The remote areas of Eastern and Northern Finland are mostly owned by the state. Forestry in these areas has been mainly managed by arranging temporary lodgings for the forest workers. A report on the suitability of forest worker villages as a more permanent solution to the accommodation problem was commissioned from forest officer Oiva Suominen.

Seasonal work, arduousness of the work and distance from home have decreased the attractivity of forest work as a profession. On the other hand, forestry has provided rural population work during winter, when there is little work in agriculture. To be able to increase permanent labour in state forestry, it is necessary to arrange permanent lodging to the workers and their families. Permanent workforce is needed to arrange wood harvesting and manage the state forests effectively. The article includes a suggestion of how to establish the forest worker villages. It suggests the locations and sizes for villages for the districts of Eastern Finland, Ostrobothnia and Perä-Pohjola.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Suominen, E-mail: os@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4642, category Article
Einar Maliniemi. (1954). Tilastollinen tutkimus sahapuiden hakkuusta ja ajosta Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 82 article id 4642. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9103
English title: Statistical analysis on felling and haulage of sawlogs in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; Perä-Pohjola; metsätyö; puunkuljetus; palkkaus; tukkipuu; puunkorjuu; työntutkimus
English keywords: northern Finland; work study; timber harvesting; sawlogs; haulage; forest work; wages; wood transportation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The wages of logging and haulage has been dependent on the decisions of foremen. The aim of this study was to provide better insight on how working conditions in a logging site affect productivity of the work. Six working sites operated by Forest Service, Veitsiluoto Oy and Kemi Oy in the communes of Salla, Muonio and Kolari in Lapland were studied. The forests in the area were mostly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

The effect of average volume of the stems, the average daily haulage over distances of various lengths, density of the stand and shape of the stem on effectivity was calculated. The size of the team was of considerable importance to the felling and haulage result in the Northern Finland where the feller assists in loading of the logs. One of the aims of the study was to find out what size of team is most advantageous for each haulage distance. The results show the optimum distance of haulage for teams of different sizes.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Maliniemi, E-mail: em@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4635, category Article
Paavo B. Mansner. (1953). Suometsien hoito. Silva Fennica vol. no. 80 article id 4635. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14051
English title: Forest management of peatland forests.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsäojitus; jatkokoulutus; suometsät
English keywords: forest management; peatlands; forest education; draining of peatlands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the factors that limit growth of trees in peatlands, and principles of draining of peatlands.

  • Mansner, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4634, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1953). Valtion metsien nykyiset metsänhoitotyöt. Silva Fennica vol. no. 80 article id 4634. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14049
English title: Forest management in state forests of Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; hakkuutavat; metsäopetus; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; felling methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes history of wood harvesting and logging methods used in the state forests in Finland. The article discusses  the problems caused by, for instance, of light sellection fellings to the silvicultural state of the forests. The silvicultural state of the forest could be improved by introducing silvicultural logging methods, and selection of seed trees to improve the genetic quality of seeds used in regeneration.

  • Ahola, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4633, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1953). Syrjäisten metsien hoito-ongelmia. Silva Fennica vol. no. 80 article id 4633. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14048
English title: Forest management of remote forest areas.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; jatkokoulutus; syrjäseudut
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; remote areas
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes problems specific to forest management of remote forests areas. The growth of the forests in these areas are often low due to, for instance, northern location.

  • Kalela, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4632, category Article
Viljo O. Sierla, J. J. Arvela. (1953). Metsäkouluun pyrkijöiden esiharjoittelu metsähallinnon hoitoalueissa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 80 article id 4632. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14047
English title: Practical training of applicants of forest schools in the districts of Forest Service.
Original keywords: Metsähallitus; metsäopetus; hoitoalue; jatkokoulutus; harjoittelu; metsäkoulu; metsätyönjohtaja
English keywords: training; Forest Service; forest education; forest foreman
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes practical training of applicants of forest schools in districts of Forest Service, and suggest improvements in the training. The forest schools, operated by the Forest Service, educate forest foremen. Before the applicants can enrol in the school, they are required a 2 to 4 years long training.

  • Sierla, E-mail: vs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Arvela, E-mail: ja@mm.unknown
article id 4631, category Article
Toivo J. Komsi. (1953). Oikeustapausten selostuksia metsänhoitajille. Silva Fennica vol. no. 80 article id 4631. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14046
English title: Forestry related legal cases for forest officers.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäopetus; puukauppa; jatkokoulutus; oikeustapaukset
English keywords: forestry; forest education; timber sales; lecal cased
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses legal cases of the supreme court of Finland that are related to forestry and handle subjects that can be of interest to forest officers working in Forest Service. The subjects vary from sale of timber to unauthorized harvest of timber.

  • Komsi, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4630, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1953). Suhdannevaihteluista, erityisesti metsätalouden kannalta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 80 article id 4630. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14045
English title: Effects of business cycles on forestry.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäteollisuus; metsäopetus; jatkokoulutus; suhdannevaihtelut
English keywords: forestry; forest industry; forest education; business cycles
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation introduces the principles of business cycles and describes how they have affected forestry in Finland.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4629, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1953). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit : 1952. 7. Sil