Current issue: 56(4)
The paper deals with the development of hand tools and their maintenance methods, and the improvement of working techniques in Finland in the era when forest work was mostly done by muscular power. The development was carried out in a close connection with professional training, permitting the results to be distributed widely throughout the country at short duration courses, and simultaneously collecting new information.
The phases of the entire development cycle is described from founding of the development and training organization to standardization of the tools and comparisons to similar foreign and Finnish tools. On the basis of this, along with analyses and synthesis performed, new hand-made prototypes were created and then tested on forest work sites. The knowledge was used to produce test series in a tool factory, and feedback was gathered from skilled workers. On experience gained, best tools selected could be put into manufacturing. This work gave a natural basis to investigate even working techniques. Good results were achieved through cooperation between researchers, users, manufacturing industry and trade, as well as vocational training.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
Alongside the extent of forest production, the demand for labour input in forestry depends on the development of the structure of production and of the productivity of the work. In this, mechanization of harvesting will have long-lasting influence. Despite the growth in forestry production, the number of forestry workers has decreased considerably in many countries, but at the same time the share of professional forest workers has increased. The permanence of work fundamentally affects the life of a forest worker. It has influence on the income level, on the social position of the worker and on the standard of living.
The appreciation of the occupation of a forest worker will be increased mainly within the increasing mechanization of the work. It requires vocational training, and it will improve wages, competition of skilled workers and social appreciation of the vocation. In order to influence their benefits forest workers have organized themselves into trade unions. They activate their members in to helping the unions to attain their aims. Trade unions try to influence the policies of forestry and forest labour. In this respect they are in contact with political parties. The questions of labour policy occupy a central position in the mutual relations of the labour market organizations. Within mutual cooperation much promotion has been achieved concerning wages, working conditions, rationalization, improvement of housing facilities and other living conditions. Especially in some East-European countries attention is being paid to the motivation of forest workers.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
This article is a comment on a previous article in Silva Fennica (vol. 9, no.4) published in 1975, written by professor Pentti Hakkila, titled ‘The status and future prospects of forest work science at the Finnish Forest Research Institute’. It aims at giving some further aspects on the choice of research fields and subjects, and the concepts of result, opinion and research work.
Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.
This presentation describes the development of forest haulage and long-distance transportation of timber. The article gives examples of improving the effectivity of horse hauling, use of tractors, loading of timber and floating, and gives examples of new equipment used in timber transport.