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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'harvesting costs'

Category : Article

article id 4991, category Article
Pertti Harstela, Leo Tervo. (1978). Taimikkopuun korjuumenetelmien vertailua. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4991.
English title: Comparison of methods for harvesting in sapling stand.
Original keywords: metsätyö; taimikko; harvennus; koneellistaminen; kustannukset; korjuukustannukset; haketus
English keywords: thinning; mechanization; seedling stand; forest work; harvesting costs
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A theoretical nomogram was made for estimating the costs of fully mechanized thinning and the driving speed of the machine. Based on this nomogram and the previous studies three harvesting methods were compared; systematic fully mechanized harvesting, selective fully mechanized harvesting, and manual felling combined with whole-tree chipping.

The third method was cheaper than the fully mechanized methods in a pole-stage stand. The choice of the most advantageous chipping station depended on conditions, but the smaller tree size and possibly the reduced damage on the remaining stand favour chipping on the strip road rather than chipping on the intermediate landing or at the mill.

Mechanized systematic thinning was the cheapest method for harvesting in the sapling stand. The required driving speed were so low that ergonomic factors should not hinder its use. Factors related to the future production of the stand do, however, limit its use. Mechanized selective thinning does not seem to be an economic method for harvesting in a sapling or pole-stage stand.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Tervo, E-mail: lt@mm.unknown
article id 4830, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Optimaalisesta vinssausmatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4830.
English title: The optimum winching distance.
Original keywords: puunkuljetus; harvennushakkuu; puunkorjuu; ajourat; vintturit; vinssausmatka; korjuukustannukset
English keywords: forest haulage; forwarders; terrain transportation; strip roads; winching distance; harvesting costs
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model for determination of the optimal winching distance in different conditions as based on harvesting costs. In the thinned forest the strip roads are parallel and the winching routes perpendicularly to them. A directed felling of trees is used so that it is easy to make loads to be winched. The stems can also be prepared to timber assortments on the stump area and gathered to loads for skidding alongside the winching routes.

After winching the timber is transported using a forwarder mowing on the strip roads. If the stems have not been bucked in the forests, they are to be prepared to timber assortments before the following transportation, because the problem of turning whole stems in a thinned forest has not yet been solved.

In the mathematical model the formation of the costs was described using 18 variables of which 15 had an effect on the optimum winching distance. Some empirical values were estimated concerning these variables, and the corresponding optimum winching distance were computed. The optimum was mainly determined by the quantity of timber harvested per unit area, the size of the winching load, the regression coefficient of the times which were depended on the winching distance.

According to the model, the deviation from optimum winching distance does not cause a very great change in the analysed total costs. When the winching distance is longer, the increase of the costs is smaller than if it is shorter than optimum. In general, the increase of the costs was so small that in practice one obviously can be satisfied with rather approximate methods in determining the suitable winching distance.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 23018, category Research article
Anssi Ahtikoski, Kari Väätäinen, Perttu Anttila, Juha Laitila, Antti Mutanen, Jari Lindblad, Lauri Sikanen, Johanna Routa. (2024). The effects of the EU’s forest-related policies on harvesting costs in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 3 article id 23018.
Keywords: forests; scenario approach; harvesting costs; directives and regulations; EU legislation; structural systems analysis
Highlights: The EU’s forest-related policies set direct and indirect limitations on the harvesting operations and operating environment; The effect on harvesting costs of Directives and Regulations depends on the magnitude of policy implementation; In a high-impact scenario, harvesting costs could increase by as much as 18% from the current level of costs.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The EU’s influence on national forest policies is growing, and the implementation of forest-related policies proposed by the Commission will affect the practice of forestry in Europe. For instance, the Nature Restoration Law sets concrete areal goals for restoring forest ecosystems and for conservation, the Deforestation Regulation requires meticulous tracking of wood’s origin, and the renewed Renewable Energy Directive (RED III) sets new criteria to sustainable forest biomass procurement. So far there have been no studies that have looked into the impacts from the economic and operational point of view. In this study, structural systems analysis was first performed to discover the relevant variables (and their functioning) associated with the roundwood harvesting operations and the operating environment. A scenario approach was then applied to capture the potential levels of implementation of the EU’s forest-related policies. Finally, using different scenarios (low-, moderate- and high-impact) and a systems analysis framework, the impact of alternative levels of implementation was quantified in terms of harvesting costs, measured in € m–3. The results indicate that with the low- and moderate-impact scenarios the harvesting costs would increase by less than 10% from the current levels in three different regions in Finland. Such an increase (less than 10%) could be tolerated over a period of a few years, but a sudden increase is likely to lead to challenges to the running of businesses. With the high-impact scenario the harvesting costs would increase by between 15% and 18%, depending on the region. This magnitude of increase (of approximately a sixth) corresponds to a severe change in the roundwood harvesting operations and operating environment.

  • Ahtikoski, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Tekniikankatu 1, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Väätäinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistonkatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID E-mail:
  • Anttila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID E-mail:
  • Laitila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistonkatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Mutanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistonkatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID E-mail:
  • Lindblad, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistonkatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID E-mail:
  • Sikanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistonkatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Routa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistonkatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID E-mail:

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