Current issue: 56(4)
Under compilation: 57(1)
Four teams of two workers were time-studied in clearcutting of a cypress plantation and three teams in sulky skidding. The heart rate was recorded every 30 s. The average heartrate in timber cutting was 117.5 ± 13.4 P/min, and it was mainly dependent on worker’s working capacity. Average work load index was 41 ± 3% when working at 97% performance. The production rate was then 2.5 m3/h (crew). In sulky skidding the heart rate was lower, 106 ± 1.1 P/min, as well as the work load (WLI 30 ± 1%) and performance rating (87%). The low production rate (1.1 m3/h) (crew)) over 45 m distance is mainly due to under-dimensioned load size. The energy expenditure in timber cutting was 21.4 kJ/min and in sulky skidding 16.3 kJ/min. Daily energy expenditure was 15.0 MJ/d, and most of the timber cutters belonged to the class ”exceptionally active”.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
This paper is a report of the authors visits to over 80 forestry nurseries in 20 countries mostly in the tropics or subtropics. The article aim is to describe the methods used in the various countries and compares them to the conventional methods of cool and temperate countries. The article introduces nurseries of Africa south of the Sahara, Mediterranean area, Australian and New Zealand and Latin America.
A complete revolution has taken place in the Finnish nursery practice, which used to raise the seedlings in natural field soil in open-air nurseries. The seedlings were usually transplanted into transplant beds at the age of two years. Now the use of plastic greenhouses of light construction and an artificial soil substrate (fertilized peat) are essential. The new technique has some similarities to the practises of the tropical and subtropical nurseries. In Finland cultivation in greenhouses has hastened the development of the seedlings and shortened the nursery rotation from four to two years, and provided better control of watering and fertilization.
Peat beds in greenhouses are used also in Swaziland. The advantage of peat is that it is free of weed seeds, which eliminates weeding. Peat substrate gives also better yield of seedlings, which decreases the need of seeds, which is important in Finland. Another technique common with tropical silviculture is the production of potted seedlings, which are easy to handle and transport. In tropics, peat pots (jiffy pots) have made it possible to grow plantable seedlings in one season without transplanting. The present Finnish technique means a decreased degree of mechanization compared to the conventional technique of modern European and American nurseries.
Accurate estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB) strongly depend on the suitability and precision of allometric models. Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A. DC. is a key component of most sub-Sahara agroforestry systems and, one of the most economically important trees in Africa. Despite its importance, very few scientific information exists regarding its biomass and carbon storage potential. In this study direct method was used to develop site-specific biomass models for D. mespiliformis tree components in Burkina Faso. Allometric models were developed for stem, branch and leaf biomass using data from 39 tree harvested in Sudanian savannas of Burkina Faso. Diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, crown diameter (CD) and basal diameter (D20) were regressed on biomass component using non-linear models with DBH alone, and DBH in combination with height and/or CD as predictor variables. Carbon content was estimated for each tree component using the ash method. Allometric models differed between the experimental sites, except for branch biomass models. Site-specific models developed in this study exhibited good model fit and performance, with explained variance of 81–98%. Using models developed from other areas would have underestimated or overestimated biomass by between –72% and +98%. Carbon content in aboveground components of D. mespiliformis in Tiogo, Boulon and Tapoa-Boopo was 55.40% ± 1.50, 55.52% ± 1.06 and 55.63% ± 1.00, respectively, and did not vary significantly (P-value = 0.909). Site-specific models developed in this study are useful tool for estimating carbon stocks and can be used to accurately estimate tree components biomass in vegetation growing under similar conditions.