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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles by Hilkka Haatainen

Category : Research article

article id 9933, category Research article
Timo Saksa, Jari Miina, Hilkka Haatainen, Kauko Kärkkäinen. (2018). Quality of spot mounding performed by continuously advancing mounders. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9933.
Keywords: soil preparation; slash; logging residues; forest regeneration; mixed modelling
Highlights: The number and quality of mounds varied considerably according to the operating conditions;The main factors reducing the quality of spot mounding were steep terrain, a thick humus layer, fresh logging residues, stoniness and soil texture;With careful selection of timing and conditions for mounding, the quality obtained by continuously advancing mounders can be improved.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Operating conditions affecting the quality of spot mounding by Bracke continuously advancing mounders were investigated on 66 regeneration areas (124 ha) in eastern Finland. The quality of mounds was classified as suitable (good or acceptable after additional compression) or unsuitable for planting. Models were constructed for the number of suitable planting spots obtained per hectare (good and acceptable mounds), the probability of successful mounding (≥1600 planting spots ha–1) and the probability of creating a suitable mound as a function of terrain, site and soil characteristics, as well as slash conditions (removed, fresh or dry logging residues). The average number of mounds created was 1892 ± 290 mounds ha–1, of which 1398 ± 325 mounds ha–1 (74%) were classified as suitable for planting. The quality of spot mounding was reduced by steep terrain, a thick humus layer and fresh logging residues. Stoniness and soil texture also affected the number of planting spots created. Mounding after logging residues had dried increased the number of planting spots by 191 spots ha–1 compared with mounding in the presence of fresh residues. Removing residues did not significantly increase the number of planting spots compared with mounding amongst dry residues. A thick humus layer, very stony soil, steep slopes and valley terrain decreased the number of planting spots by 150–450 spots ha–1. The number and quality of mounds varied considerably according to the operating conditions, but with careful selection of timing and sites the quality obtained by a continuously advancing mounder can be improved.

  • Saksa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Miina, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Haatainen, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, Tornator Oyj, Muuntamontie 2, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

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