Current issue: 57(1)

Under compilation: 57(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'threatened species'

Category: Research article

article id 22019, category Research article
Aleksi Nirhamo, Juha Pykälä, Kimmo Jääskeläinen, Jari Kouki. (2023). Habitat associations of red-listed epiphytic lichens in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 22019.
Keywords: boreal forests; deciduous trees; biodiversity; conservation; threatened species
Highlights: We analyzed the habitat associations of 231 nationally red-listed epiphytic lichen species in Finland; Their habitat associations were varying, but deciduous trees, old forests and trees, and microclimates with intermediate or high light availability and humidity were particularly important; The maintenance of the habitats of many red-listed epiphytic lichens is difficult if not impossible to combine with intensive forest management.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The Finnish red list shows that the epiphytic lichen flora of Finnish forests is highly threatened and declining steeply. Red lists provide limited information on the habitat associations of threatened species, which could be relevant in informing management and conservation measures. We used documented empirical data and expert assessments to determine for each red-listed (IUCN categories Near Threatened, NT; Vulnerable, VU; Endangered, EN; Critically Endangered, CR; Regionally Extinct, RE) epiphytic lichen species of Finland the following key habitat associations: host tree species, substrate type, habitat type, geographical distribution, preferred microclimate, and minimum required forest and tree age. The most important host tree species were Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and Populus tremula L. Other tree species of high importance included Sorbus aucuparia L. and Salix caprea L. One fourth of red-listed epiphytic lichens were primarily lignicolous. Most species required old-growth forests (required by 41% of species) or old trees (52%), but many species required only mature forests (36%) or trees (35%). The microclimatic preferences of most red-listed epiphytic lichens consisted of high or intermediate light availability and humidity. Most species whose status had deteriorated were dependent on deciduous trees. The continuous availability of old deciduous trees (especially Populus, Salix and Sorbus) requires special attention in both managed and protected forests. Red-listed epiphytic lichens would be aided by increased forest protection or transitioning to less intensive management regimes.
article id 10001, category Research article
Karoliina Hämäläinen, Teemu Tahvanainen, Kaisa Junninen. (2018). Characteristics of boreal and hemiboreal herb-rich forests as habitats for polypore fungi. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 10001.
Keywords: biodiversity; species richness; coarse woody debris; threatened species; wood-decaying fungi
Highlights: Polypore species richness and diversity were affected positively by dead-wood diversity, and negatively by increasing latitude; Red-listed species responded only to the abundance of large-diameter dead wood; Main factor determining composition of polypore assemblages was host-tree species; High proportion of deciduous dead-wood in herb-rich forests provides complementary effect on polypore assemblages in boreal forest landscapes.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Herb-rich forests are often considered biodiversity hotspots in the boreal zone but their fungal assemblages, particularly those of wood-decaying fungi, remain poorly known. We studied herb-rich forests as habitats for polypores, a distinct group of wood-decaying fungi, and assessed the importance of tree- and stand-scale variables for polypore species richness, abundance, and diversity, including red-listed species. The data include 71 herb-rich forest stands in Finland and 4797 dead wood items, on which we made 2832 observations of 101 polypore species. Dead-wood diversity was the most important variable explaining polypore species richness and diversity, whereas increasing latitude had a negative effect. Red-listed species showed a positive response to the abundance of large-diameter dead wood, which, especially birch, supported also high general abundance of polypores. The composition of polypore assemblages reflected their host-tree species. The red-listed species did not show explicit patterns in the ordination space. Compared to old-growth spruce forests, herb-rich forests seem to host lower polypore species richness and less red-listed species. However, because of high proportion of deciduous trees in the dead wood profile, herb-rich forests have a clear complementary effect on polypore assemblages in boreal forest landscapes.

  • Hämäläinen, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Tahvanainen, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Junninen, Metsähallitus Parks & Wildlife Finland, c/o UEF/Borealis, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 383, category Research article
Lena Gustafsson, Leif Appelgren, Anders Nordin. (2005). Biodiversity value of potential forest fertilisation stands, as assessed by red-listed and ‘signal’ bryophytes and lichens. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 2 article id 383.
Keywords: biodiversity; conservation; hemi-boreal forest; Sweden; threatened species
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In Sweden ca. 20 000 ha forestland is fertilised each year. By using red-listed and ‘signal’ bryophytes and lichens as indicators, we investigated whether forest stands planned for fertilisation have a biodiversity value, and thus if restrictions due to conservation aspects are motivated. Species occurrences were registered in detailed line-transect analysis, with a record size of 10 x 10 m, in 74 coniferous forest stands with a mean age of 57 years in East-Central Sweden. On the 230 ha totally surveyed, 10 red-listed and 37 signal species were found. The mean number of records ha–1 of red-listed bryophytes and lichens was 0.26 ha–1, which is considerably less than previously found in mature production stands and woodland key habitats. Red-listed species were found in 31% of the stands and signal species in 95%. More than 70% of all records of red-listed species and 30% of the records of the signal species were found in moist micro-sites. If rare bryophytes and lichens are to be preserved in fertilisation stands, improved instructions regarding avoidance of important micro-sites are needed.
  • Gustafsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Conservation Biology, Box 7002, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: (email)
  • Appelgren, Belfragegatan 34H, SE-462 37 Vänersborg, Sweden E-mail:
  • Nordin, Museum of Evolution, Botany, Norbyvägen 16, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:

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