Current issue: 57(2)

Under compilation: 57(3)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword '3D'

Category: Research article

article id 200, category Research article
Peder Gjerdrum, Mauro Bernabei. (2009). Three-dimensional spiral grain pattern in five large Norway spruce stems. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 200.
Keywords: grain angle; 3D-model; tree helix; split disk
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
There is a great deal of interest involved in investigating and understanding grain angle in trees. The objective of the study presented in this paper has been to identify a joint, three-dimensional model for grain angle in stems of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Five large spruce trees were sampled. Transverse disks were extracted at regular intervals along the stem, split through the pith with a blunt knife, and observed for grain angle and cambial age along the north radius, setting pith observation to zero angle. The overall finding confirmed grain pattern congruent to distance from pith along the stem, a pattern that varies from tree to tree. Models expressing distance from the pith in cambial age performed slightly better than models in spatial distance. Grain pattern changed slightly along the stem, and this change was found to be consistent for the five stems: the left-handed grain angle in the juvenile wood was more pronounced upwards in the stem, and the angle changed faster towards right-handed spiralling. The model did not account for grain variation related to knots, undulating pith or other irregularities. Model residuals were normally distributed and seemingly homogeneous for all trees and for all height levels. The model is an extension of existing two-dimensional models for stem cross-cuts. After verification in a wider sample, the results should be applicable in tree and wood modelling.
  • Gjerdrum, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, P.O. Box 115, N-1431 Ås, Norway E-mail: (email)
  • Bernabei, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, P.O. Box 115, N-1431 Ås, Norway E-mail:
article id 355, category Research article
Ilkka Korpela. (2006). Geometrically accurate time series of archived aerial images and airborne lidar data in a forest environment. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 355.
Keywords: vegetation; canopy; monitoring; laser scanning; change detection; photogrammetry; 3D; aerial triangulation; direct georeferencing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Reconstructing three-dimensional structural changes in the forest over time is possible using archived aerial photographs and photogrammetric techniques, which have recently been introduced to a larger audience with the advent of digital photogrammetry. This paper explores the feasibility of constructing an accurate time-series of archived aerial photographs spanning 42 years using different types of geometric data and estimation methods for image orientation. A recent airborne laser scanning (lidar) data set was combined with the image block and assessed for geometric match. The results suggest that it is possible to establish the multitemporal geometry of an image block to an accuracy that is better than 0.5 m in 3D and constant over time. Even geodetic ground control points can be omitted from the estimation if the most recent images have accurate direct sensor orientation, which is becoming a standard technique in aerial photography. This greatly reduces the costs and facilitates the work. An accurate multitemporal image block combined with recent lidar scanning for the estimation of topography allows accurate monitoring and retrospective analysis of forest vegetation and management operations.
  • Korpela, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)

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