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Articles containing the keyword 'supply chains'

Category: Research article

article id 1689, category Research article
Juha Laitila, Eeva Lehtonen, Tapio Ranta, Perttu Anttila, Saija Rasi, Antti Asikainen. (2016). Procurement costs of cereal straw and forest chips for biorefining in South-East Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 1689. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1689
Keywords: supply chains; stumps; young stands; logging residues; delimbed stems; agrobiomass
Highlights: Procurement cost at the plant was 59 € dry tonne –1 when the annual procurement volume of biomass was 100 000 tonnes. Of that amount, the proportion of logging residues was 58.4%, stumps 24.3% and delimbed stems 17.3%; Cereal straw represents an important source of biomass in Kouvola but the cost competiveness is poor compared the procurement costs of forest chips due to high baling and transporting costs.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Finland the increasing use of biofuel in transport presupposes a search for new raw material sources for biorefining. The aim of this study was, at the regional level, to compare the procurement costs of logging residues, stumps, delimbed stems and cereal straw for biorefining. The accumulation and procurement costs of forest chips and cereal straw were estimated within a 100-kilometre transporting distance via existing road network from an end-use-facility located in Kouvola in South-East Finland. The analyses were performed as simulated treatments in thinnings of young stands, cereal fields and regeneration fellings using existing productivity and cost functions and yield calculations based on crop statistics, the forest industry stand data and the sample plots data of the National Forest Inventory of Finland. Accumulation of raw material assortments and costs of production stages were defined per dry tonnes. Subsidies and raw material prices were excluded from consideration in the study. The results indicate that recovering logging residues requires lower costs than utilization of stumps, delimbed stems or cereal straw. Cereal straw represents an important source of biomass in Kouvola but the cost competiveness is poor compared the procurement costs of forest chips. When the annual procurement volume of biomass was 50 000 dry tonnes the cost at the plant was 49 € dry tonne –1 and biomass was comprised totally of logging residues. Procurement cost grew to 59 € dry tonne –1 when the annual procurement volume of biomass was doubled to 100 000 dry tonnes. Of that amount, the proportion of logging residues was 58.4%, stumps 24.3% and delimbed stems 17.3%. First cereal straw dry tonnes were delivered to end-use-facility, when procurement cost grew to 60 € dry tonne –1 and annual procurement volume of biomass was 110 000 dry tonnes.

  • Laitila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based Business and Industry, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: juha.laitila@luke.fi (email)
  • Lehtonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green Technology, Halolantie 31A, FI-71750 Maaninka, Finland E-mail: eeva.lehtonen@luke.fi
  • Ranta, Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Bioenergy, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland E-mail: tapio.ranta@luke.fi
  • Anttila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based Business and Industry, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: perttu.anttila@luke.fi
  • Rasi, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based Business and Industry, Survontie 9A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä E-mail: saija.rasi@luke.fi
  • Asikainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based Business and Industry, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: antti.asikainen@luke.fi
article id 49, category Research article
Kalle Karttunen, Kari Väätäinen, Antti Asikainen, Tapio Ranta. (2012). The operational efficiency of waterway transport of forest chips on Finland’s Lake Saimaa. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 49. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.49
Keywords: barges; discrete-event simulation; forest fuels; logistics; supply chains; tugboats
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
New and cost-efficient methods for use in supply chains for energy wood should be found, to reach the targets of the renewable energy utilisation set by the European Union. The long-distance waterway transportation of forest fuels should be thoroughly investigated, especially in areas where the transport distance is long and waterways could provide a feasible method of conveying forest fuel. In comparison to transport of forest chips by truck, barge-based waterway transport shows a competitive advantage due to the larger loads and higher bulk density of chips it allows. The cost-efficiency of waterway transportation operations related to forest chips in Finland’s Lake Saimaa region was studied using practical demonstrations and discrete-event simulation. The varying demand for fuel wood in three separate bio-power plants on the Saimaa lakeside (near the cities of Varkaus, Mikkeli, and Savonlinna) was addressed in several barge transportation scenarios. Finally, the economy of barge transportation was compared to the economy of truck transportation as a function of transportation distance and in terms of the annual performance of the transportation methods examined. The waterway supply chain of forest chips was cost-competitive to road transport by truck after 100–150 km. According to the simulation study, the most economical waterway transport options were based on fixed barge system and shift-independent harbor logistics where loading and unloading of barges were carried-out with a wheeled loader and a belt conveyor. Total supply chain costs including the best waterway logistics from road side storage to power plant ranged from 10.75 euros to 11.64 euros/MWh in distances of 100–150 km by waterways. The energy-density of forest chips in the barge load was found to be, on average, 25% higher than that in truck hauling, because of the better compaction of chips. Waterway transport is a viable option for long-distance transportation of forest chips in Eastern Finland.
  • Karttunen, Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT Savo Sustainable Technologies, Mikkeli, Finland E-mail: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi (email)
  • Väätäinen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu, Finland E-mail: kari.vaatainen@metla.fi
  • Asikainen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu, Finland E-mail: antti.asikainen@metla.fi
  • Ranta, Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT Savo Sustainable Technologies, Mikkeli, Finland E-mail: tapio.ranta@lut.fi

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