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Articles containing the keyword 'crown modeling'

Category : Research article

article id 22007, category Research article
Ilkka Korpela, Antti Polvivaara, Saija Papunen, Laura Jaakkola, Noora Tienaho, Johannes Uotila, Tuomas Puputti, Aleksi Flyktman. (2023). Airborne dual-wavelength waveform LiDAR improves species classification accuracy of boreal broadleaved and coniferous trees. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 4 article id 22007. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.22007
Keywords: crown modeling; laser scanning; photogrammetry; individual tree detection; Scandinavia
Highlights: First study to assess dual-wavelength waveform data in tree species identification; New findings regarding waveform features of previously unstudied species; Waveform features correlated with tree size displaying wavelength- and species-specific differences linked to bark reflectance, height growth rate and foliage density; Effects by pulse length and beam divergence are highlighted.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Tree species identification constitutes a bottleneck in remote sensing applications. Waveform LiDAR has been shown to offer potential over discrete-return observations, and we assessed if the combination of two-wavelength waveform data can lead to further improvements. A total of 2532 trees representing seven living and dead conifer and deciduous species classes found in Hyytiälä forests in southern Finland were included in the experiments. LiDAR data was acquired by two single-wavelength sensors. The 1064-nm and 1550-nm data were radiometrically corrected to enable range-normalization using the radar equation. Pulses were traced through the canopy, and by applying 3D crown models, the return waveforms were assigned to individual trees. Crown models and a terrain model enabled a further split of the waveforms to strata representing the crown, understory and ground segments. Different geometric and radiometric waveform attributes were extracted per return pulse and aggregated to tree-level mean and standard deviation features. We analyzed the effect of tree size on the features, the correlation between features and the between-species differences of the waveform features. Feature importance for species classification was derived using F-test and the Random Forest algorithm. Classification tests showed significant improvement in overall accuracy (74→83% with 7 classes, 88→91% with 4 classes) when the 1064-nm and 1550-nm features were merged. Most features were not invariant to tree size, and the dependencies differed between species and LiDAR wavelength. The differences were likely driven by factors such as bark reflectance, height growth induced structural changes near the treetop as well as foliage density in old trees.
  • Korpela, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID 0000-0002-1665-3984 E-mail: ilkka.korpela@helsinki.fi
  • Polvivaara, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Papunen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID 0000-0001-5383-4314 E-mail: saija.papunen@outlook.com
  • Jaakkola, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: laura.jaakkola@helsinki.fi
  • Tienaho, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID 0000-0002-6574-5797 E-mail: noora.tienaho@uef.fi
  • Uotila, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: johannes.uotila@helsinki.fi
  • Puputti, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID 0000-0003-1972-1636 E-mail: tuomas.puputti@helsinki.fi
  • Flyktman, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID 0000-0002-5235-317X E-mail: aleksi.flyktman@helsinki.fi
article id 156, category Research article
Ilkka Korpela, Hans Ole Ørka, Matti Maltamo, Timo Tokola, Juha Hyyppä. (2010). Tree species classification using airborne LiDAR – effects of stand and tree parameters, downsizing of training set, intensity normalization, and sensor type. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 156. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.156
Keywords: airborne laser scanning; ALS; laser; Optech ALTM3100; Leica ALS50-II; canopy; crown modeling; monoplotting; backscatter amplitude; intensity; discriminant analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Tree species identification constitutes a bottleneck in remote sensing-based forest inventory. In passive images the differentiating features overlap and bidirectional reflectance hampers analysis. Airborne LiDAR provides radiometric and geometric information. We examined the single-trees-level response of two LiDAR sensors in over 13 000 forest trees in southern Finland. We focused on the commercially important species. Our aims were to 1) explore the relevant LiDAR features and study their dependencies on stand and tree variables, 2) examine two sensors and their fusion, 3) quantify the gain from intensity normalizations, 4) examine the importance of the size of the training set, and 5) determine the effects of stand age and site fertility. A set of 570 semiurban broad-leaved trees and exotic conifers was analyzed to 6) examine the LiDAR signal in the economically less important species. An accuracy of 88 90% was achieved in the classification of Scots pine, Norway spruce, and birch, using intensity variables. Spruce and birch showed the highest levels of confusion. Downsizing the training set from 30% to 2.5% of all trees had only a marginal effect on the performance of classifiers. The intensity features were dependent on the absolute and relative sizes of trees, especially for birch. The results suggest that leaf size, orientation, and foliage density affect the intensity, which is thus not affected by reflectance only. Some of the ecologically important species in Finland may be separable, since they gave rise to high intensity values. Comparison of the sensors implies that performance of the intensity data for species classification varies between sensors for reasons that remained uncertain. Both range and gain receiver normalization improved species classification. Weighting of the intensity values improved the fusion of two LiDAR datasets.
  • Korpela, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: ilkka.korpela@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Ørka, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O.Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail: hoo@nn.no
  • Maltamo, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Science, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: mm@nn.fi
  • Tokola, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Science, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: tt@nn.fi
  • Hyyppä, Finnish Geodetic Institute, Department of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, P.O.Box 15, FI-02431 Masala, Finland E-mail: jh@nn.fi

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