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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles by Simo Poso

Category: Article

article id 5554, category Article
Simo Poso, Mark-Leo Waite. (1995). Calculation and comparison of different permanent sample plot types . Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 5554.
Keywords: forest inventories; forest monitoring; sampling; optimum sampling unit; permanent plot analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A calculation procedure is presented for calculating and analysing remeasured permanent sample plots. Data for eight different fixed and variable size plot types were simulated on the basis of two stands whose trees were mapped and measured in 1982 and 1986. The accuracy and efficiency of the plot types were assessed and compared.

The calculation procedure is based on tree-wise expansion factors and the division of tree sampled into state/measurement classes. Nine classes were required for variable size plots and six for fixed size plots. A relascope plot with basal-area factor 1 (m2/ha) proved to be most efficient for estimating basal-area at a given time and a fixed size circular plot with radius 10 m for estimating basal-area increment over a given time period.

The main problems were related to the estimation of non-measurable variables, e.g., the initial diameters of ingrowth trees, i.e., trees having passed the threshold size during the measurement period. Most problematic were cut trees belonging to the ingrowth or sample enlargement classes. It is nevertheless thought that the system is appropriate for monitoring forest changes and making sensitivity analyses with permanent sample plots.

  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Waite, E-mail: mw@mm.unknown
article id 5307, category Article
Simo Poso, Raito Paananen, Markku Similä. (1987). Forest inventory by compartments using satellite imagery. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5307.
Keywords: forest inventory; stand characteristics; remote sensing; Landsat 5 TM; forest inventory and monitoring; two phase sampling; ancillary information
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method for using satellite data in forest inventories and updating is described and tested. The stand characteristics estimated by the method showed high correlation with the same characteristics measured in the field. The correlation coefficients for volume, age and mean height were about 0.85. It seems that the method is applicable to practical forestry. Extensive work in programming, however, is required.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Paananen, E-mail: rp@mm.unknown
  • Similä, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown
article id 5219, category Article
Simo Poso, Tuomas Häme, Raito Paananen. (1984). A method for estimating the stand characteristics of a forest compartment using satellite imagery. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5219.
Keywords: forest inventories; remote sensing; satellite imagery; survey by stands; compartmentwise forest inventories; relascope plots
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper presents a method based on two phase sampling and applicable to forest inventories. The first phase estimates are obtained from satellite imagery and, if required, from extra material such as maps. Second phase estimates are measured in the field. The method is flexible and also applicable to compartmentwise forest inventories. The experiments were based on six study areas with 439 relascope plots. The correlation coefficients between first and second stage estimates varied largely according to the study area.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Häme, E-mail: th@mm.unknown
  • Paananen, E-mail: rp@mm.unknown
article id 5196, category Article
Simo Poso. (1983). Kuvioittaisen arvioimismenetelmän perusteita. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5196.
English title: Basic features of forest inventory by compartments.
Original keywords: metsänarviointi; metsikkö; kuvioittainen arviointi; luotettavuus; kuvio
English keywords: accuracy; forest mensuration; survey by stands; compartment; stand
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The concepts of the terms compartment and compartment-wise forest inventory have been studied empirically by repeated delineation and intensive systematic plot samples. The material consisted of 16 study areas of some 8–90 hectares in size in Southern Finland and of more than 1,000 relascope plots. Stands and compartments were found to be rather heterogenous. Alternative photographs, working techniques and test persons were studied. An endeavour for better accuracy in compartment inventories is recommended.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4705, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Simo Poso. (1962). Koe metsikköluokitusten suorittamiseksi ilmakuvien avulla. Silva Fennica vol. no. 112 article id 4705.
English title: Tree stand classifications from aerial photographs: an experiment.
Original keywords: metsänarviointi; ilmakuvat; metsäninventointi; menetelmät
English keywords: forest inventory; stratification; aerial photographs; forest mensuration; methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In connection to the Third National Forest Inventory of Finland, two survey strips in the northernmost Finland were photographed on scale 1:15,000. Infrared films and a yellow filter were used. For the present experiment a total length of 66 km of the strips was photographed. The strips were surveyed visually from the ground by stands. Sample plots were measured at kilometre intervals. The aerial photographs were surveyed the distances covered in the ground. The work was aided by stereograms which showed 16 large-size sample plots localised on aerial photographs.

The main groups of land identified along the survey line were productive and poorly productive forest land, wasteland and another land, in addition, peatland and firm land were distinguished. Although some differences were noted, the two survey methods provided fairly similar results. For an estimation of the tree species composition the material is one-sided since the district is mainly Scots pine. The principal tree species was successfully distinguished on aerial photographs in 78 out of 82 comparable pairs.

The mean of ground observations of dominant height of the stands was 10.9 m, that of observations on aerial photographs 11.2 m. The result of stand volume estimates reveals a distinct correlation between the various methods of estimation.

In an earlier study it was shown that it is possible, using a stand volume table based on characteristics revealed in aerial photography, to create a general idea of stand volume on the southern half of the country. A few additional factors, of interest for the stratification necessary in forest inventories, were also studied. A distinct correlation was observed between the results of aerial and ground survey for all the characteristics discussed. The present experiment showed that the prerequisites for stratification through aerial photographs do exist. Further investigation is needed into the most appropriate methods for stratification in each situation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown

Category: Article

article id 7177, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Simo Poso, Christian Keil. (1968). The use of aerial photographs in the estimation of some forest characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 82 no. 4 article id 7177.
Keywords: forest inventory; accuracy; forest mensuration; methods; aerial photograps; volume of growing stock
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this investigation is to study, for north European conditions, some overall standards of accuracy attainable in the estimation in a number of forest characteristics from aerial photographs. Field data was acquired in three areas, comprising whole stands, fixed and variable size sample plots and sections of survey strips.  

The results show that land use classes could be estimated to a rather high degree of precision from aerial photographs. The accuracy of determination of the main tree species (Scots pine, Norway spruce and deciduous trees) was more moderate; three quarters of all stands were interpreted correctly from the present photographs. The estimate of pure stands was noticeable better than those for mixed stands. In general, the agreement between treatment class stratification in the field and from aerial photographs was poor, as only one-third of all cases the class was same. The dominant height was estimated with relative lack of bias for small stands, but systematic underestimation of nearly 2 m existed for high stands.  

The emphasis in this investigation was laid on determination of the volume of growing stock. Stand volumes in the small and medium volume classes were overestimated, against clear under-estimate for high volume stands. The standard error of difference, including bias, was ±43 both in m3 and as a percentage. 

The variance data available provide a basis for the conclusion that under some conditions photo stratification within the forest land seems to improve the efficiency of volume estimation, whereas in some other cases the stratification is hardly an economic proposition. Alternative computations made from the data of an experimental survey indicated the likelihood that no gain was deprived from the use of aerial photographs for volume class estimation. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown
  • Keil, E-mail: ck@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 596, category Research article
Sakari Tuominen, Simo Poso. (2001). Improving multi-source forest inventory by weighting auxiliary data sources. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 2 article id 596.
Keywords: forest inventory; remote sensing; two-phase sampling; weighting
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
A two-phase sampling design has been applied to forest inventory. First, a large number of first phase sample plots were defined with a square grid in a geographic coordinate system for two study areas of about 1800 and 4500 ha. The first phase sample plots were supplied by auxiliary data of Landsat TM and IRS-1C with principal component transformation for stratification and drawing the second phase sample (field sample). Proportional allocation was used to draw the second phase sample. The number of field sample plots in the two study areas was 300 and 380. The local estimates of five continuous forest stand variables, mean diameter, mean height, age, basal area, and stem volume, were calculated for each of the first phase sample plots. This was done separately by using one auxiliary data source at a time together with the field sample information. However, if the first phase sample plot for which the stand variables were to be estimated was also a field sample plot, the information of that field sample plot was eliminated according to the cross validation principle. This was because it was then possible to calculate mean square errors of estimates related to a specific auxiliary data source. The procedure produced as many estimates for each first phase sample plot and forest stand variable as was the number of auxiliary data sources, i.e. seven estimates: These were based on Landsat TM, IRS-1C, digitized aerial photos, ocular stereoscopic interpretation from aerial photographs, data from old forest inventory made by compartments, Landsat TM95–TM89 difference image and IRS96–TM95 difference image. The final estimates were calculated as weighted averages where the weights were inversely proportional to mean square errors. The alternative estimates were calculated by applying simple rules based on knowledge and the outliers were defined. The study shows that this kind of system for finding outliers for elimination and a weighting procedure improves the accuracy of stand variable estimation.
  • Tuominen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Poso, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
article id 669, category Research article
Simo Poso, Guangxing Wang, Sakari Tuominen. (1999). Weighting alternative estimates when using multi-source auxiliary data for forest inventory. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 1 article id 669.
Keywords: remote sensing; two-phase sampling; forest inventory methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Five auxiliary data sources (Landsat TM, IRS-IC, digitized aerial photographs, visual photo-interpretation and old forest compartment information) applying three study areas and three estimators, two-phase sampling with stratification, the k nearest neighbors and regression estimator, were examined. Auxiliary data were given for a high number of sample plots, which are here called first phase sample plots. The plots were distributed using a systematic grid over the study areas. Some of the plots were then measured in the field for the necessary ground truth. Each auxiliary data source in combination with field sample information was applied to produce a specific estimator for five forest stand characteristics: mean diameter, mean height, age, basal area, and volume of the growing stock. When five auxiliary data sources were used, each stand characteristic and each first phase sample plot were supplied with five alternative estimates with three alternative estimators. Mean square errors were then calculated for each alternative estimator using the cross validation method. The final estimates were produced by weighting alternative estimates inversely according to the mean square errors related to the corresponding estimator. The result was better than the final estimate of any of the single estimators. The improvement over the best single estimate, as measured in mean square error, was 16.9% on average for all five forest stand characteristics. The improvement was fairly equal for all five forest stand characteristics. Only minor differences among the accuracies of the three alternative estimators were recorded.
  • Poso, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 24 (Unioninkatu 40 B), FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Wang, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 24 (Unioninkatu 40 B), FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Tuominen, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 24 (Unioninkatu 40 B), FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
article id 682, category Research article
Guangxing Wang, Simo Poso, Mark-Leo Waite, Markus Holopainen. (1998). The use of digitized aerial photographs and local operation for classification of stand development classes. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 682.
Keywords: calibration; classification; digitized aerial photographs; plot window location; local operation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The increasing capacity of modern computers has created the opportunity to routinely process the very large data sets derived by digitizing aerial photographs. The very fine resolution of such data sets makes them better suited than satellite imagery for some applications; however, there may be problems in implementation resulting from variation in radial distortion and illumination across an aerial photograph. We investigated the feasibility of using local operators (e.g., non-overlapping moving window means and standard deviations) as auxiliary data for generating stand development classes via three steps: (i) derive 6 local operators intended to represent texture for a 16 by 16 m window corresponding to a forest inventory sampling unit, (ii) apply a calibration process (e.g., accounting for location relative to a photo's principal point and solar position) to these local operators, and (iii) apply the calibrated local operators to classify the forest for stand development. Results indicate that calibrated local operators significantly improve the classification compared to what is possible using uncalibrated local operators and satellite images.
  • Wang, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA E-mail: (email)
  • Poso, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Waite, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Holopainen, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail:

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