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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'stratification'

Category: Article

article id 5575, category Article
Gintautas Mozgeris. (1996). Dynamic stratification for estimating pointwise forest characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5575.
Keywords: stand characteristics; forest mensuration; SMI forest management planning system; dynamic stratification; static stratification
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper deals with the testing of dynamic stratification for estimating stand level forest characteristics (basal areas, mean diameter, mean height and mean age) for a 117 ha study areas in Finland. The results do not show possibilities to achieve more accurate estimates using only Landsat TM principal components as auxiliary data opposed to static stratification. It was found that in dynamic stratification non-measured observations should be assigned the mean characteristics of the measured observations that belong to the same cube (class) instead of stratification variable classes until a certain limit. If only one principal component is used the number of classes has, however, little influence. Low field values are overestimated and high values underestimated.

The only successful results were obtained using two variables of different origin – the qualitative development stage class and the quantitative 1st principal component. The lowest root mean square error in estimating basal area was 6.40 m2/ha, mean diameter 3.34 cm, mean height 2.65 m and mean age 14.06 years. This increase of stratification accuracy is mainly resulted by the use of development stage class as an auxiliary variable.

  • Mozgeris, E-mail: gm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5549, category Article
Kari Leinonen, Hannu Rita. (1995). Interaction of prechilling, temperature, osmotic stress, and light in Picea abies seed germination. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 5549.
Keywords: Picea abies; germination; stratification; ecology; germination inhibition; far-red light; osmotic stress; prolonged white light
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A multi-factor experimental approach and proportional odds model were used to study interactions between five environmental factors significant to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seed germination: prechilling (at +4.5°C), suboptimal temperatures (+12 and +16°C), osmotically induced water stress (0.3 Mpa and 0 Mpa), prolonged white light, and short-period of far-red light. Temperature and osmotic stress interacted with one another in the germination of seeds; the effect off osmotic stress being stronger at +16°C than at +12°C. In natural conditions, this interaction may prevent germination early in the summer when soil dries and temperature increases. Prolonged white light prevented germination at low temperature and low osmotic potential. Inhibitory effect was less at higher temperatures and higher osmotic potential, as well as after prechilling. Short-period far-red light did not prevent germination of unchilled seeds in darkness. Prechilling tended to make seeds sensitive to short pulses of far-red light, an effect which depended on temperature: at +12°C the effect on germination was promotive, but at +16°C, inhibitory and partly reversible by white light. It seems that Norway spruce seeds may have adapted to germinate in canopy shade light rich in far-red. The seeds may also have evolved mechanisms to inhibit germination in prolonged light.

  • Leinonen, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Rita, E-mail: hr@mm.unknown
article id 5175, category Article
Erkki Lipas. (1983). Effect of fine material fractions on the results for soil textural parameters. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5175.
Keywords: particle size; clay; soil fractions; soil testing; degree of stratification
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The role played by the medium and fine silt and clay contents in determining the quartiles and the degree of stratification from a cumulative particle-size curve was studied in order to determine what time savings could be made in the sedimentation phase of soil mechanical analysis. The clay content of the samples was, in general, found to be so small that it did not affect the parameters studied. In contrast to this, the medium and fine silt content affected the lower quartile of the distribution for many soils classified as finer than medium sand. Consequently, only the omission of the determination of the clay fraction can be recommended as a time-saving measure in mechanical analysis.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lipas, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4705, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Simo Poso. (1962). Koe metsikköluokitusten suorittamiseksi ilmakuvien avulla. Silva Fennica vol. no. 112 article id 4705.
English title: Tree stand classifications from aerial photographs: an experiment.
Original keywords: metsänarviointi; ilmakuvat; metsäninventointi; menetelmät
English keywords: forest inventory; stratification; aerial photographs; forest mensuration; methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In connection to the Third National Forest Inventory of Finland, two survey strips in the northernmost Finland were photographed on scale 1:15,000. Infrared films and a yellow filter were used. For the present experiment a total length of 66 km of the strips was photographed. The strips were surveyed visually from the ground by stands. Sample plots were measured at kilometre intervals. The aerial photographs were surveyed the distances covered in the ground. The work was aided by stereograms which showed 16 large-size sample plots localised on aerial photographs.

The main groups of land identified along the survey line were productive and poorly productive forest land, wasteland and another land, in addition, peatland and firm land were distinguished. Although some differences were noted, the two survey methods provided fairly similar results. For an estimation of the tree species composition the material is one-sided since the district is mainly Scots pine. The principal tree species was successfully distinguished on aerial photographs in 78 out of 82 comparable pairs.

The mean of ground observations of dominant height of the stands was 10.9 m, that of observations on aerial photographs 11.2 m. The result of stand volume estimates reveals a distinct correlation between the various methods of estimation.

In an earlier study it was shown that it is possible, using a stand volume table based on characteristics revealed in aerial photography, to create a general idea of stand volume on the southern half of the country. A few additional factors, of interest for the stratification necessary in forest inventories, were also studied. A distinct correlation was observed between the results of aerial and ground survey for all the characteristics discussed. The present experiment showed that the prerequisites for stratification through aerial photographs do exist. Further investigation is needed into the most appropriate methods for stratification in each situation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown

Category: Article

article id 7056, category Article
Väinö Auer. (1921). About stratification of peatlands in middle Ostrobothnia. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 7056.
Keywords: peatland; stratification; moor; relics; Subboreal; subfossil
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article describes the characteristics and emergence and development of four peatlands in middle Ostrobothnia, Finland. In addition, the age of the Rahkaneva and Kurmunneva peatlands was determined and their relationship. The different layers of the peat and the plant relics they contain are represented.

The age determination was based on different layers of the peat that contain different fossils of pollen and pieces of different plant species. The height of the layers was measured. It seems that Rahkaneva has grown into its current area during a warm and dry period in Subboreal. 

  • Auer, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7647, category Article
Shikui Peng. (1987). On the combination of multitemporal satellite and field data for forest inventories. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 200 article id 7647.
Keywords: stratification; SPR; two phase sampling; generalized least squares; multitemporal
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study concerns with the methodology and efficiency of integrating multitemporal satellite image data with permanent sample plots in a continuous forest inventory and compartment wise estimation. The generalized least squares estimation for the population, and the unsupervised stratification for compartments, are the main estimation methods employed. The experimental material is composed of real and simulated multitemporal images (Landsat TM) and field data. Precision analyses for the estimation and comparisons for a number of estimation and updating methods, as well as statistical options are given.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Peng, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 1176, category Research article
Batoul Al-Hawija, Viktoria Wagner, Monika Partzsch, Isabell Hensen. (2014). Germination differences between natural and afforested populations of Pinus brutia and Cupressus sempervirens. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 4 article id 1176.
Keywords: nursery; silviculture; drought stress; cold stratification; local adaptation; salt stress; Syria
Highlights: Silvicultural practices of raising and outplanting seedlings yielded contrasting outcomes in our species; Afforested Pinus brutia populations acquired ability to tolerate drought stress at intermediate and hot temperatures compared to natural populations, which may indicate local adaptation; Natural Cupressus sempervirens populations showed higher salt-tolerance than afforested populations; Seed germination was optimal under intermediate temperatures and deionized water for both species.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In afforestation, silvicultural processes of raising and planting seedlings under certain conditions can yield contrasting outcomes in tree stock performance. Moderate nursery conditions may select against stress tolerance whereas planting seedlings in stressful environments at afforestation sites may select for higher stress tolerance compared to natural populations. We compared germination performance between natural and afforested populations of Pinus brutia Ten. subsp. brutia and Cupressus sempervirens L. var. horizontalis (Mill.) under differing stress treatments. Seeds were collected from both natural stands and from afforested populations outside the natural distribution range, in Syria. Cold, intermediate and hot temperature regimes were simulated (8/4 °C, 20/10 °C and 32/20 °C) along with cold stratification, drought stress (–0.2 and –0.4 MPa), salt stress (50 and 100 mMol l–1), and deionized water (control) conditions. In addition, we tested the effects of seed weight and climatic conditions on seed germination. In general, intermediate temperatures were optimal for both population types. Afforested P. brutia populations outperformed natural ones under drought stress levels at hot and/or intermediate temperatures. Conversely, in C. sempervirens, cold stratification at all temperatures and higher salt stress at intermediate temperatures significantly decreased germination in afforested populations. Seed weight did not significantly affect germination percentages, which were however significantly negatively related to annual precipitation in P. brutia, and to annual temperature in C. sempervirens. We infer that silvicultural processes led to divergent outcomes in our species: local adaptation to drought stress and hot temperatures in afforested P. brutia populations and lower salt-stress tolerance in C. sempervirens.
  • Al-Hawija, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Am Kirchtor 1, D-06108 Halle/Saale, Germany E-mail: (email)
  • Wagner, Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic E-mail:
  • Partzsch, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Am Kirchtor 1, D-06108 Halle/Saale, Germany E-mail:
  • Hensen, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Am Kirchtor 1, D-06108 Halle/Saale, Germany & German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany E-mail:
article id 232, category Research article
Thomas Wutzler. (2008). Effect of the aggregation of multi-cohort mixed stands on modeling forest ecosystem carbon stocks. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 4 article id 232.
Keywords: stand structure; thinning; inventory; scale; model; stratification; bias; inventorystand structure
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Studies of the carbon sink of forest ecosystems often stratify the studied stands by the dominating species and thereby abstract from differences in the mixed-species, multi-cohort structure of many forests. This case study infers whether the aggregation of forestry data introduces a bias in the estimates of carbon stocks and their changes at the scale of individual stands and the scale of a forest district. The empirical TreeGrOSS-C model was applied to 1616 plots of a forest district in Central Germany to simulate carbon dynamics in biomass, woody debris, and soil. In a first approach each stand was explicitly simulated with all cohorts. In three other approaches the forest inventory data were aggregated in several ways, including a stratification of the stands to 110 classes according to the dominating species, age class, and site conditions. A small but significant bias was confirmed. At stand scale the initial ecosystem carbon stocks by the aggregated approach differed from that of the detailed approach by 2.3%, but at the district scale only by 0.05%. The differences in age between interspersed and dominant cohorts as well as differences in litter production were important for the differences in initial carbon stocks. The amounts of wood extracted by thinning operations were important for the differences in the projection of the carbon stocks over 100 years. Because of the smallness of bias, this case study collects evidence that the approaches, that represent stands or stratums by a single cohort, are valid at the scale of a forest district or larger.
  • Wutzler, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans Knöll Str. 10, DE-07745, Jena, Germany E-mail: (email)

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