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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'availability'

Category: Article

article id 5493, category Article
Juha Heiskanen. (1993). Water potential and hydraulic conductivity of peat growth media in containers during drying. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5493.
Keywords: shrinkage; matric potential; perlite; substrates; water availability; containers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The matric potential and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of peat-based growth media in containers was measured continuously as a function of drying. The particle size distribution and the water retention characteristics of the media were determined from parallel samples. The growth media used were a light, coarse graded Sphagnum peat, a medium graded Sphagnum peat and a mixture of a perlite and the medium graded Sphagnum peat. Containers of two types were packed with the media and allowed to evaporate from saturation. Matric potential was measured automatically using tensiometers during drying.

In both container types, the matric potential of the media was similar down to 10 kPa at each of the three levels measured during drying. Further drying resulted in a large matric potential gradient between the upper and the middle levels. During drying, there was also clear shrinkage of the media. When the matric potential at the upper level reached ca. -80 kPa, the decrease in height of the media was 5–23 %. The estimated hydraulic conductivity of the media during drying was rather similar. The hydraulic conductivity of the peat-perlite mixture was, however, slightly lower than that of the pure peat media. The hydraulic conductivity decreased linearly on a log-log-scale from ca. 10-5 to less than 10-10 m/s as the matric potential decreased from -3 to -60 kPa. The hydraulic conductivity of the media was comparable to coarse sand at matric potentials below -10 kPa. The decrease in hydraulic conductivity during drying and the possible weakening of soil-root contact due to shrinkage may considerably affect the availability of water to plants.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 9902, category Research article
Perttu Anttila, Vesa Nivala, Olli Salminen, Markus Hurskainen, Janne Kärki, Tomi J. Lindroos, Antti Asikainen. (2018). Regional balance of forest chip supply and demand in Finland in 2030. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9902.
Keywords: bioenergy; energy wood; GIS; availability; potential
Highlights: The impact of increasing forest chip demand in 2030 was analyzed in Finland; Demand of small trees may exceed potential at the national level; Surplus potential will remain in logging residues and stumps; Hot spots of demand call for efficient logistical solutions.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to the National Energy and Climate Strategy of Finland in 2016, the demand for forest chips, that is, wood chips made of forest biomass directly for energy use, could even double by 2030 compared to the present situation. A spatially explicit impact analysis of regional supply and demand balances for forest chips was carried out. The balances were calculated as the difference between technical harvesting potentials and demand. First, the technical potentials were estimated based on the national forest inventory data. Secondly, three demand scenarios were defined for 2030 and subsequently deducted from the potentials. The results suggested that there would be increasing competition for feedstock in southern and western Finland, whereas in eastern and northern Finland there would still be surplus potential. Moreover, due to the remarkable deficit of small trees in southern Finland, there might be pressure towards using more pulpwood-sized and/or imported wood in energy production. The results also showed that, in particular, large new plants consuming substantial amounts of forest chips could have a significant effect on the regional availability of forest chips. Moreover, with increasing transport distances, new logistical solutions will be needed.

  • Anttila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Nivala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail:
  • Salminen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Hurskainen, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Koivurannantie 1, FI-40400 Jyväskylä, Finland E-mail:
  • Kärki, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Koivurannantie 1, FI-40400 Jyväskylä, Finland E-mail:
  • Lindroos, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Vuorimiehentie 3 (Espoo), P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland E-mail:
  • Asikainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 413, category Research article
Mika Nieminen, Timo Penttilä. (2004). Inorganic and organic phosphorus fractions in peat from drained mires in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 3 article id 413.
Keywords: tree growth; drained peatland forests; phosphorus availability; sequential fractionation; site type classification
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Soil samples from 15 eutrophic, 26 herb-rich, 15 tall-sedge, and 11 low-sedge drained peatland sites were analysed for easily soluble and aluminum, iron, and calcium bound phosphorus (P) using the Chang and Jackson sequential fractionation method. Compared to earlier investigations, where only total and easily soluble P contents (e.g. NH4OAc or dilute H2SO4 extractable P) in peat have been analysed, significantly higher differences between sites were observed. The eutrophic sites were characterized by four to six-fold greater Ca-bound organic P and two to three-fold greater Ca-bound inorganic P contents than on the other three site type groups, whereas the average Al-bound inorganic P content of the eutrophic sites was only one-third of that at the other site types. Substantial differences between sites were also observed for Fe-bound inorganic P, i.e. two to four-fold greater Fe-P contents were measured at the herb-rich sites compared with the other three site type groups. The stand volume growth in the 67 studied drained peatland sites correlated significantly with Al-bound organic P and Fe-bound inorganic and organic P. The study showed that a detailed fractionation and discrimination of different forms of soil P is important in increasing the understanding of the relationship between P availability and vegetation community types and stand growth on drained peatlands.
  • Nieminen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Penttilä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:
article id 567, category Research article
Sonia Légaré, Yves Bergeron, David Paré. (2002). Influence of forest composition on understory cover in boreal mixedwood forests of western Quebec. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 567.
Keywords: biomass; understory; canopy; composition; nutrient availability
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Forest overstory composition influences both light and nutrient availability in the mixed boreal forest. The influence of stand composition on understory cover and biomass was investigated on two soil types (clay and till deposits). Four forest composition types were considered in this study: aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and a mixture of balsam-fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). The cover of all understory species was recorded while the biomass of two important and ubiquitous species was measured: mountain maple (Acer spicatum Lam.) of the shrub layer and large-leaved aster (Aster macrophyllus L.) of the herb layer. Soil analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of overstory composition on understory biomass through its influences on soil characteristics. Analyses of variance showed a significant effect of forest canopy type on mountain maple biomass, understory cover and shrub cover but not on herb cover and large-leaved aster biomass. Path analysis was performed to explore the relationships between canopy type, nutrient availability and understory biomass. Contrary to what was expected, the variation in plant biomass associated with forest composition was weakly related to soil nutrient availability and more strongly related to stand structural attributes.
  • Légaré, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Groupe de recherche en écologie forestière interuniversitaire, 445, boulevard de l'Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada J9X 5E4 E-mail: (email)
  • Bergeron, NSERC-UQAT-UQAM, Industrial Chair in sustainable forest management, CP 8888, succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 E-mail:
  • Paré, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, P.O. Box 3800, Sainte-Foy, QC, Canada G1V 4C7 E-mail:

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