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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'regression model'

Category: Article

article id 5573, category Article
Ilkka Vanha-Majamaa, Raili Suominen, Tiina Tonteri, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila. (1996). Seedling establishment after prescribed burning of a clear-cut and a partially cut mesic boreal forest in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5573.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Betula pendula; Picea abies; Betula pubescens; natural regeneration; seedling establishment; prescribed burning; controlled burning; Sorbus aucuparia; seed dispersal; mesic forest; seed rain; autoregression model; GLM
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The prescribed burning of a 7.3 ha clear-cut and a 1.7 ha partially cut forest (volume 150 m3/ha) was carried out in Evo (61 °12'N, 25°07'E) on 1 June 1992. The forest was a mesic Myrtillus site type forest dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Practically all the trees and the above-ground parts of the understorey vegetation died in the fire, while the mor layer was thinned by an average of 1.5 cm.

A study was made on the change of germinated seedling population in time and their dependence on environmental factors. Seedlings of Norway spruce, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), pubescent birch (B. pubescens Ehrh.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were inventoried in 1993 and in 1994 on permanent plots, four times per growing season. Autoregression models were used to compare regeneration of tree species in the burned forest with regeneration in the burnt clear-cut area, and to study the effect of distance from nearest seed source to regeneration.

The average number of seedlings germinating in 1993 was higher than in 1994, probably because of differences between these consecutive years in regard to the amount of seed rain and weather conditions. The number of Norway spruce and rowan seedling was higher inside the forest area than in the clear-cut area. The distance to the bordering forest and to the closest seed tree did not explain the result. It is suggested that the more stable microclimatic conditions under the shade of dead tree promote germination and seedling establishment in the forest area. As rowan is a bird-dispersed species, it is likely that dead trees help the dispersal of rowan seed by providing birds place to sit and defecate. The shade provided by dead trees may influence the further succession of the tree stand and vegetation composition and diversity.

  • Vanha-Majamaa, E-mail: iv@mm.unknown (email)
  • Suominen, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown
  • Tonteri, E-mail: tt@mm.unknown
  • Tuittila, E-mail: et@mm.unknown

Category: Article

article id 7505, category Article
Rauno Väisänen, Kari Heliövaara. (1994). Assessment of insect occurrence in boreal forests based on satellite imagery and field measurements. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 243 article id 7505.
Keywords: biodiversity; remote sensing; insect pests; geological maps; Scolytids; logistic regression models
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The presence/absence data of 27 forest insect taxa (Retinia resinella, Formica spp., Pissodes spp., several scolytids) and recorded environmental variation were used to investigate the applicability of modelling insect occurrence based on satellite imagery. The sampling was based on 1,800 sample plots (25 m by 25 m) placed along the sides of 30 equilateral triangles (side 1 km) in a fragmented forest area (approximately 100 km2) in Evo, Southern Finland. The triangles were overlaid on land use maps interpreted from satellite images (Landsat TM 30 m multispectral scanner imagery 1991) and digitized geological maps. Insect occurrence was explained using either environmental variables measured in the field or those interpreted from the land use and geological maps. The fit of logistic regression models carried between species, possibly because some species may be associated with characteristics of single trees while other species with stand characteristics. The occurrence of certain insect species at least, especially those associated with Scots pine, could be relatively accurately assessed indirectly on the basis of satellite imagery and geological maps. Models based on both remotely sensed and geological data better predicted the distribution of forest insects except in the case of Xylechinus pilosus, Dryocetes sp. and Trypodendron lineatum, where the differences were relatively small in favour of the models based on field measurements. The number of species was related to habitat compartment size and distance from the habitat edge calculated from the land use maps, but logistic regressions suggested that other environmental variables in general masked the effect of these variables in species occurrence at the present scale.

  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown
article id 7606, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen, Auli Immonen. (1991). Quantitative biogeography of the bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) in northern Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 219 article id 7606.
Keywords: climate change; boreal forests; biodiversity; Nordic countries; multivariate methods; insect pests; biogeography; Scolytids; logistic regression models; faunal changes; Fennoscandia
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Biogeographical patterns of the Scolytidae in Fennoscandia and Denmark, based on species incidence data from the approximately 70 km x 70 km quadrats (n = 221) used by Lekander et al. (1977), were classified to environmental variables using multivariate methods (two-way indicator species analysis, detrended correspondence analysis, canonical correspondence analysis).

The distributional patterns of scolytid species composition showed similar features to earlier presented zonations based on vegetation composition. One major difference, however, was that the region was more clearly divided in an east-west direction. Temperature variables associated with the location of the quadrat had the highest canonical coefficient values on the first axis of the CCA. Although these variables were the most important determinants of the biogeographical variation in the beetle species assemblages, annual precipitation and the distribution of Picea abies also improved the fit of the species data.

Samples with the most deviant rarity and typicality indices for the scolytid species assempblages in each quadrat were concentrated in several southern Scandinavian quadrats, in some quadrats in northern Sweden, and especially on the Swedish islands (Öland, Gotland, Gotska Sandön) in the Baltic Sea. The use of rarity indices which do not take the number of species per quadrat, also resulted high values for areas near Stockholm and Helsinki with well-known faunas. Methodological tests in which the real changes in the distribution of Ips acuminatus and I. amitinus were used as indicators showed that the currently available multivariate methods are sensitive to small faunal shifts even, and thus permit analysis of the fauna in relation to environmental changes. However, this requires more detailed monitoring of the species’ distributions over longer time spans.

Distribution of seven species (Scolytus intricatus, S. laevis, Hylurgops glabratus, Crypturgus cinereus, Pityogenes salasi, Ips typographus, and Cyleborus dispar) were predicted by logistic regression models using climatic variables. In spite of the deficiencies in the data and the environmental variables selected, the models were relatively good for several but not for all species. The potential effects of climate change on bark beetles are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
  • Immonen, E-mail: ai@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 1337, category Research article
Leszek Bujoczek, Małgorzata Bujoczek, Jan Banaś, Stanisław Zięba. (2015). Spruce regeneration on woody microsites in a subalpine forest in the western Carpathians. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 3 article id 1337.
Keywords: Picea abies; coarse woody debris; stumps; decomposition; regression model; fallen deadwood
Highlights: The occurrence probability of Picea abies seedlings on fallen deadwood was found to increase with diameter and decay stage of deadwood and with the volume of living trees, and to decrease with the density of living trees, sapling density, and land slope. It was also higher on stumps with greater diameter and in plots with higher sapling density, but decreased with increasing stump height.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The density of Picea abies [L.] Karst. regeneration on different microsites, the quantity and quality of woody microsites, and seedling occurrence probability on stumps and fallen deadwood were studied in a subalpine forest that has been under protection for approximately 30–40 years (Gorce Mountains in the western Carpathians). Thirty percent of seedlings and 29% of saplings grew on stumps and fallen deadwood, while the remaining regeneration occurred on soil surface and mounds created by uprooted trees. The occurrence probability of Picea seedlings on fallen deadwood increased with deadwood diameter and decay stage and with the volume of living trees, and decreased with increased density of living trees, sapling density, and land slope. Furthermore, seedlings were more likely to grow on stumps with a greater diameter and in plots with higher sapling density, but less likely to grow on higher stumps. Stumps and fallen deadwood covered about 4% of the forest floor, but the material that is most important for promoting regeneration (strongly decomposed logs and those of a diameter exceeding 30 cm) took up only about 22 m2 ha-1. We have concluded that in a subalpine forest that has been protected for 30–40 years regeneration processes take place mostly on soil surface and stumps. The role of fallen deadwood increases over time as a greater number of suitable logs (in terms of size and decay stage) become available.

  • Bujoczek, University of Agriculture in Krakow, E-mail: (email)
  • Bujoczek, University of Agriculture in Krakow, E-mail:
  • Banaś, University of Agriculture in Krakow, E-mail:
  • Zięba, University of Agriculture in Krakow, E-mail:
article id 164, category Research article
Aki Suvanto, Matti Maltamo. (2010). Using mixed estimation for combining airborne laser scanning data in two different forest areas. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 164.
Keywords: airborne laser scanning; area-based method; mixed estimation; regression models
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data have become the most accurate remote sensing technology for forest inventories. When planning new inventories the costs of fieldwork could be reduced if datasets of old inventory areas are effectively reused in the new area. The aim of this study was to apply mixed estimation using a combination of existing and new field datasets in area-based approach. Additionally, combining datasets with mixed estimation was compared with constructing new local models with smaller datasets. The two forest study areas were in Juuka and Matalansalo, which are located about 120 km apart in eastern Finland. ALS-based regression models were constructed using datasets of Matalansalo (472 reference plots) and Juuka (10–212 reference plots). Models were developed for the basal area median tree diameter and height, mean tree height, stem number, basal area and volume. The work was based on a simulation approach which involved five methods for approximating the regression coefficients. The first method merged the datasets using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models, whereas the second and third methods combined datasets using mixed estimation on different weighting principles, and the final two estimated local models with predetermined and new independent variables. The results indicate that mixed estimation can improve the accuracy of derived stand variables compared with basic OLS models. Additionally, a sample of 40–50 plots was enough to build local models for basal area and volume and produce at least the equal accuracy of results than any other methods in this study.
  • Suvanto, Blom Kartta Oy, Teollisuuskatu 18, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Maltamo, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box, FI-80101, Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

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