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Articles containing the keyword 'vessel'

Category : Article

article id 5155, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1982). Wood anatomy and physical properties of the wood and bark in Betula nana growing in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5155. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15070
Keywords: Betula nana; bark; basic density; wood anatomy; growth rings; vessels; fibres
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Eighty Betula nana samples were collected from three swamp sites. In the butt portion of the dwarf shrub the average number of growth rings was 12 and the average diameter of the sprouts 6 mm. The basic density of wood was 457 kg/m3 and that of bark 544 kg/m3. The proportion of bark was 32–38% of weight or volume. The vessel elements and fibres were short and their diameter small. The proportion of vessels was 15%, that of fibres 70% and that of rays 15%.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, E-mail: kb@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5097, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Ari Ferm, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981). On the properties of one-year shoots of Betula pubescens Ehrh. and Salix spp. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5097. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15038
Keywords: Betula pubescens; wood properties; bark; basic density; willows; vessels; fibers; Salix sp.; shoots
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) trees growing on a drained peatland were cut during dormancy. The properties of the one-year old shoots produced by the stumps were measured in the autumn after one growing season. The one-year old willow shoots (a mixture of Salix phylicifolia L., S. pentandra L. and S. caprea L.) were collected from an abandoned field.

The basic density of unbarked shoots was 443 kg/m3 for birch and 346 kg/m3 for willow. The basic density of the bark was much higher than that of the wood. The effect of shoot length on the properties was small with the exception of cellular proportions. The fibre percentage increased and vessel percentage decreased with increasing shoot length.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, E-mail: kb@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ferm, E-mail: af@mm.unknown
  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5096, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981). Variation in structure and selected properties of Finnish birch wood. IV. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5096. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15037
Keywords: Betula pendula; Betula pubescens; branches; wood anatomy; roots; stem; vessels; fibres
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Length variation of fibres and vessels was studied in the branches, stems and roots of Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescense Ehrh. The cells were significantly shorter in the branches and roots than in the stems. There was no significant difference in the cell length between the upper and lower radii of the branches and roots. The length increased from the pith to the surface and decreased in the branches and stems from the base onwards. In the roots the length increased in that direction. The differences between the tree species were small although the cells of B. pubescens were a little longer.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, E-mail: kb@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5095, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981).  . Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5095. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15036
English title: Variation in structure and selected properties of Finnish birch wood. III.
Keywords: Betula pendula; silver birch; branches; wood anatomy; parenchyma; stem; vessels; fibers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Variation of cellular proportion within the same growth rings counted from the pith of the stems and branches in four trees of Betula pendula Roth was studied. The fibre percentage decreased from breast height to the crown and then increased in the branches. The reverse trend was found in the percentage of vessels and parenchyma, although the latter varied relatively little. No statistically significant differences were found in the percentages of fibres, vessels and rays within the same growth rings counted from the pith between the stems and branches. In both the stem and the branches, the proportion of fibres increased and that of vessels and rays decreased from the pith to the surface. Even crown formed wood differed from that of stem formed. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish. 

  • Bhat, E-mail: kb@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown

Category : Article

article id 7477, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1958). Raakapuun kaukokuljetus Saimaan vesistössä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 3 article id 7477. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7477
English title: Transportation of round timber in the Lake Saimaa water system.
Original keywords: uitto; puun kuljetus; vesikuljetus; kuljetuskustannukset; Saimaa; proomukuljetus; höyrylaiva; aluskanta; sisävesikuljetus
English keywords: barges; tugboats; roundwood; floating; water transport; Lake Saimaa; transport of wood; inland waterways; ships; steamships; transport costs; freight carrying vessels
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper aims at investigating which factors, in the point of view of the entrepreneur, define the choice of long-distance transport either as floating in bundles, steamship transport or barge transport in the waterway system of Lake Saimaa in 1950s. It defines the usage, kind of fleet, operation and costs of the abovesaid modes of transport. The investigation is mainly based on statistics of Enso-Gutzeit Oyj and the fuel office of the Finnish State Railways.

Location of the industrial enterprise sets the limits for use of the different modes of transport of roundwood. Previous decisions can influence the future choices, for instance, the capital the company has earler invested on the transportation system. Also, the type and amount of timber acquired by the company, transportation distance, time, and means of transport affect the choice of mode of transport. Those factors that direct decision-making, often lead the entrepreneur to stick to the chosen mode of transport.

Floating becomes the more inexpensive the larger the scale of operation is, and if the timber assortment is suitable for floating and water storage. For instance, dry wood is an asset for a wood export agency, and their sales have often time pressures, which rules floating out of their choices. Transportation in vessels has decreased to 4% of all roundwood haulage, but has its function as a supplementary way of transport.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Roitto, E-mail: yr@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 1694, category Research article
Katri Luostarinen, Katja Hakkarainen, Henri Kaksonen. (2017). Wood anatomy of seed and basal bud originated downy birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) grown at four different sites. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 1694. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1694
Keywords: fibre; xylem; parenchyma; ray; vessel; sprout; wood structure
Highlights: Young xylem of sprouts did not clearly show more mature characteristics than that of seedlings; Marked differences in xylem structure could be observed between growing sites.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In trees, xylem must fulfil three important tasks: conducting water to leaves, storing nutrients and water, and supporting the trunk. The origin of the trunk, i.e., seed or basal bud that forms sprouts, and the growth site may affect xylem anatomy, differences of which can affect successful growth of trees. Both seedlings and sprouts of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) from four different growth sites with two different soil media, peat and mineral soil, were studied. The diameter of fibres and vessels and the thickness of the double fibre wall were measured, and the number of vessels, rays and axial parenchyma cells was counted. The fibre wall:lumen ratio, vessel percentage area and vessel size:number ratio were calculated. Xylem from sprouts showed only occasionally more mature characteristics than that of seedlings. The number of rays was similar at all four sites, but differences were observed in all other studied characteristics between sites, particularly if soil type was different. The vessel size and number correlated with the number of axial parenchyma cells in juvenile wood, which emphasises the importance of their connections with storage cells particularly at this stage of growth. Good water conductivity was connected with weaker wood, particularly in maturing wood.

  • Luostarinen, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: katri.luostarinen@uef.fi (email)
  • Hakkarainen, Natural Resources Institute of Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: katjahak@gmail.com
  • Kaksonen, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: hkaksone@gmail.com
article id 1391, category Research article
Roberts Matisons, Jānis Jansons, Juris Katrevičs, Āris Jansons. (2015). Relation of tree-ring width and earlywood vessel size of alien Quercus rubra L. with climatic factors in Latvia. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1391. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1391
Keywords: dendroclimatology; climate-growth relationships; introduced species; earlywood vessel lumen area; wood anatomy; shifting sensitivity
Highlights: Climate-growth relationships of red oak from three sites in Latvia were studied; Tree-ring width was mainly affected by temperature and precipitation in late summer; Vessel size was correlated with temperature parameters in autumn–spring; Sets of climatic factors significant for growth of red oak differed between sites; Changes in climate-growth relationships occurred during 20th century.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of climatic factors on wood anatomy of the alien red oak (Quercus rubra L.) growing in three experimental plantations in Latvia was assessed by classical dendrochronological techniques. Two tree-ring proxies – tree-ring width (TRW) and mean area of earlywood vessel lumen (VLA) – were studied on 33 trees. Annual variation of TRW amongst trees was similar (mean r = 0.46), but there was more individuality in VLA (mean r = 0.26); nevertheless, chronologies of both proxies had rather synchronous variation amongst the sites. Annual variation of TRW was affected by factors related to water deficit in late summer, as suggested by the negative effect of temperature and positive effect of precipitation that have intensified during the 20th century, likely due to warming. Although weather conditions during the dormant period did not directly affect TRW, temperature during the autumn-spring period has been the main climatic determinant of VLA likely via influence on overwintering and hence vigour of tree. This suggests that conductive properties of wood and hence the susceptibility to water deficit have been affected by weather conditions before the formation of tree rings. During the 20th century, sensitivity of VLA has shifted from temperature in winter to temperature in autumn likely due to climate change. Still, the positive effect of these factors suggests that warming of climate would increase VLA and hence the risk of embolism and xylem disfunction. Therefore, the importance of availability of water for growth of red oak in Latvia is increasing.

  • Matisons, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: robism@inbox.lv (email)
  • Jansons, Latvian Forest Competence Centre, Dzērbenes str. 27, Riga, Latvia, LV 1006 E-mail: janis.jansons@silava.lv
  • Katrevičs, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: juris.katrevics@silava.lv
  • Jansons, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: aris.jansons@silava.lv

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