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Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'ray'

Category: Article

article id 5262, category Article
Markku Nygren. (1986). Männyn siementen syyskeräys. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5262.
English title: Autumn harvested Scots pine seeds: the effect of cone storage and germination conditions on germination capacity.
Original keywords: mänty; itävyys; dormanssi; siemenkeräys; lepotila; käpyjen varastointi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; germination capacity; seed dormancy; cone storage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Six seed collections were made in September–December 1984 in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland. The seeds were germinated immediately after the cone collection and three photoperiods (0.8 and 24 hours) were used in germination tests.

The seeds collected in September and October possessed relative dormancy, i.e. they did not germinate in darkness and at 10°C. Later in November and December the seeds were capable to germinate in darkness and at low temperature also. The gradual change in germination capacity is attributed to chilling temperatures in natural environments or in cone storage.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nygren, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5082, category Article
K. M. Bhat. (1980). Pith flecks and ray abnormalities in birch wood. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5082.
Keywords: Betula pendula; Betula pubescens; wood structure; insect damage; rays; Dendromyza betulae; Phytobia betulae
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Samples that had extensive pith flecks, caused by the larvae of Dendromyza betulae (now Phytobia betulae E.Kang), were collected from two trees of Betula pendula Roth and two B. pubescens Erhr. The age of the trees varied from 45 to 56 years. The effect of larvae injury on the rays was studied. The width of affected rays in both species was more than twice that of normal rays. The height and frequency also increased considerably. When describing the anatomy of Betula species the pith flecks should be treated with caution in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish. 

  • Bhat, E-mail: kb@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5071, category Article
Martti Ryynänen. (1980). X-ray radiography of ageing Scots pine seeds. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5071.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; germination; Scots pine; storage; seeds; quality of seeds; X-ray radiography; X-ray contrast radiography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Soft X-ray radiation (Grenz rays) has been used in the X-ray radiography of seeds. It is based on the principle that the different parts of the seed absorb X-rays to a slightly varying extent. Empty seeds and empty regions in the seeds appears as dark areas on the film. X-ray radiography without staining and X-ray contrast radiography were compared to study the stored seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The results were compared with the results of germination in a Jacobsen germinator according to ISTA norms.

Normal X-ray radiography gave too good estimates of germinative capacity of the seeds, and was shown to suit only when it is used to study fully ripe seeds which have recently been collected in an undamaged condition. The results of X-ray contrast radiography when barium chloride was used as the stain, however, followed closely the germination results.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ryynänen, E-mail: mr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5017, category Article
T. Raunemaa, A. Hautojärvi, P. Jartti, J. Laurén, V. Lindfors, J. Räisänen. (1979). Trace element analysis of sound and decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies) by XRF and NAA methods. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5017.
Keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; wood; decay; measuring methods; trace elements; of fast neutron activation analysis; by X-ray fluorescence analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ashed tree samples from sound and decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were studied by means of fast neutron activation analysis, and for comparison, also by X-ray fluorescence analysis. In fast neutron activation analysis, the following elements were detected: (Na), Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Mn, Rb, Sr and Ba, and according to the results of the X-ray fluorescence method the elements present in the wood samples were: K, Ca, Mn, Rb, Sr and Ba. A general diminishing was revealed by both methods in most elemental concentrations studied, with exception of K and Rb, when going from a sound tree to a decayed one. The use of the ratio of the amounts of potassium to calcium as an indication of the degree of decay is therefore proposed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Raunemaa, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hautojärvi, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown
  • Jartti, E-mail: pj@mm.unknown
  • Laurén, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
  • Lindfors, E-mail: vl@mm.unknown
  • Räisänen, E-mail: jr@mm.unknown
article id 4958, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1977). Araukaarian ja männyn puuaineen ominaisuuksien vertailua. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4958.
English title: Comparison of wood properties of Parana pine and Scots pine.
Original keywords: tiheys; mänty; puuaines; pihkatiehyet; araukaaria
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; wood; density; rays; Araucaria angustifolia; Panama pine
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to the available literature, the appearance of Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze) wood resembles that of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The anatomy is quite different, however. There are no resin canals and fusiform rays with resin canals in Parana pine. They are abundant in Scots pine, however. The basic density of Parana pine is higher. In both species the density increases from the pith outwards, the maximum being reached at the age of 100 years. Compression wood is more common in Parana pine than in Scots pine, and this makes the longitudinal shrinkage of Parana pine greater than that of Scots pine. Otherwise the shrinkage properties do not differ. The mechanical strength is of the same magnitude with the exception of hardness, where Parana pine is superior.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4938, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Mäntyrunkojen ydinsäteiden korkeus ja leveys. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4938.
English title: Height and width of rays in Scots pine stems.
Original keywords: mänty; ydinsäteet; pihkatiehyet; puuaine; puun rakenne
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; xylem; fusiform rays; uniseriate rays; rays
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this study the width and height of 1,588 uniseriate and 454 fusiform rays were measured from tangential sections of four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trunks. The samples represented various height levels and distances from the pith. The average width of the uniseriate rays was 19.7 μm and that of the fusiform rays, 51.9 μm. The average height of the uniseriate rays was 215.7 μm and that of the fusiform rays 406.2 μm. Due to this difference in height, it may be possible to develop an automatic system for distinguishing between uniseriate end fusiform rays on the basis of their height.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4904, category Article
Sirkka Kupila-Ahvenniemi, Sirkka Hankonen, Seppo Sivonen. (1974). Kokeita röntgenmikroanalyysimenetelmän käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden alkuaineiden määrityksessä männyn silmuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4904.
English title: Experiments on the determination of certain elements in the buds of Scots pine by means of the electron probe x-ray microanalysis.
Original keywords: mänty; menetelmät; silmut; röntgenmikroanalyysi; alkuaineanalyysi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; methods; buds; electron probe X-ray microanalysis; elementary analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An electron probe X-ray microanalyser was used to study the occurrence of phosphorus, sulphur and calcium in the bud apices of dormant Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The material was collected during the winter months (November–February), fixed in Carnoy’s fluid, dehydrated, and mounted in paraffin wax. Of the 10 μm longitudinal section, the ones containing the middle portion of the apices were glued to the specimen supports and vacuum coated with aluminium. Three parallel line analysis were run over the corpus and the uppermost portion of the pith. Results obtained so far suggest that no marked changes occur in the position and level of the three elements during the study period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kupila-Ahvenniemi, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hankonen, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown
  • Sivonen, E-mail: ss@mm.unknown
article id 4879, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1973). Mäntyrunkojen ydinsäteiden määrä ja koko. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4879.
English title: Amount and size of rays in Scots pine stems.
Original keywords: mänty; runko; puuaines; ydinsäteet; pihkatiehyet; pihka
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; structure of wood; fusiform rays; uniseriate rays; resin canal; pitch
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The material consists of four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems from which 757 samples were taken from various heights and distances from the pith. According to the results, the number of rays and their sizes are greater at the stump level than higher up in the stem. The size increases, and the number decreases on moving from the pith outwards. However, there are differences between stems as regards the variation model. The ratio between the number of fusiform rays and that of uniseriate rays seems to be lower than anticipated earlier, about 1:40–1:50. The average proportion of ray volume varied from 5.6% to 7.3%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4869, category Article
Ole Oskarsson, P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1972). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet II. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4869.
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding II. Selection differences and genetic gains in selected seed stands of Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänjalostus; tilavuuskasvu; valintahyöty; siemenkeräysmetsät; fenotyyppi; kuutiokasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; volume growth; genetic gain; forest tree breeding; seed stands; phenotype
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) selected seed stands. To obtain highest possible accuracy, the estimations are based on a large statistical material comprising 197 separate seed stands. It is concluded that the genetic gain of volume growth ranges between 7.4–15.0%. Unwanted pollen contaminations may, however, in the worst case halve this genetic gain.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Oskarsson, E-mail: oo@mm.unknown (email)
  • Tigerstedt, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown

Category: Article

article id 7158, category Article
Olavi Huuri. (1965). Männyn- ja kuusenkäpyjen varastoinnin vaikutus niistä saatavan siemenen itävyyteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 5 article id 7158.
English title: The effects of storage in cones on the viability of pine and spruce seeds.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; itävyys; kävyt; siemenkeräys; käpyjen varastointi; metsäpuiden siemenet; siementen varastointi; karistus; itämiskyky
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; cones; seeds of forest trees; seed extraction; storage of cones; storage of seeds; germinative capacity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Seed storing experiments with cones of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were conducted in Oitti seed extracting plant in Southern Finland from February to December 1955. The pine cones were stores for 267 and the spruce coned for 304 days. In four of the storage methods the cones were packed in sacks and another four in wooden boxes. Sample of cones were taken once a month, seeds were extracted and the germinative capacity was tested. The remaining extracted seeds were placed in storage, and in January 1956 moved to cold seed cellar until 1962, when the viability of the seeds was tested.

According to the results, cleaned pine cones can be stores for at least nine months using almost all methods of storage which are commonly used at our seed traction plants, without hazarding the usability of the seeds. The seeds in spruce cones, however, seemed to be more sensitive to conditions during the storage. The germinative capacity of the spruce seeds began to decrease after the beginning of May. Later the seeds were infected with mould, which increased towards the end of the experiment.

Thus, preservation of the germinative capacity of the seeds of pine and spruce requires storage in different conditions. The results suggest that extraction of spruce seeds should be finished during the cold winter months. It seems that seed in the cones of pine and spruce endure storage in piles of paper or cloth sacks at least as well as in wooden boxes. Occasional warming of the storage, snow and foreign material among the cones and an over meter thick cone layer decreased the germinative capacity of spruce seeds during spring and summer. Spruce seeds that had been extracted immediately after collecting of the cones preserved their germinative capacity well during an eight years storage period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Huuri, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7432, category Article
Ukko Rummukainen. (1954). Männyn ja kuusen käpysadosta ja sen arvioinnista vuosina 1950-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 20 article id 7432.
English title: Estimation of Scots pine and Norway spruce cone crop in 1950-1953.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; käpysato; siemenkeräys; käpykeräys; arviointimenetelmä
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; seed collection; cone crop; cone collection; assessment method
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The cone crop of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) has been assessed in Finland since 1930 annually by sending a questionnaire to forest professionals around the country. Based on the result it is decided if the crop is good enough for collection of the cones next winter. This article presents the results of cone surveys in 1950-1953, and suggest improvements in the method of the investigation.

According to the survey, Scots pine crop was best in 1952, when the crop was intermediate in the whole country, and relatively abundant in the county of Lapland. Norway spruce crop was best in 1951, when the crop was better than in average in the whole country. The evaluators had variable opinions whether the crop was good enough for cone collection or not. They assessed the pine cone collection more often as profitable than the spruce cone collection. Usual reasons to regard spruce cone collection as unprofitable were seed damages and the sites being too far away. To make the results more uniform and accurate, a suggestion to change the evaluation method is presented. The evaluation should be focused on the cone crop of mature stands.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rummukainen, E-mail: ur@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7381, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1946). Pihkomiskokeita pohjoisissa männiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 7381.
English title: Collection of resin in Scots pine forests in the Nordic countries.
Original keywords: mänty; pihka; pihkan keräys; pihkominen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; pitch; resin; resin collection
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Systematic resin collection has not been practiced in Finland or other Nordic areas. One reason is the short growing season. Also, the local pine species, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) gives smaller resin yield than the southern species, such as Pinus maritima. In Nordic boreal forests resin has been collected only in the Soviet Union, where it has been practised also in Eastern Karelia, near the Finnish border. Resin collection experiments were arranged in former resin collection stands in Karelia in 1943. A so-called German method for running resin had been used in the stands. 30-40 sample trees were chosen in five sample sites.

Forest type did not have big influence in the resin yield. The yield seemed to be slightly higher in Scots pine stands growing in fertile sites compared to poorer sites. The diameter of the tree had largest effect on the yield. It is recommended to focus on stands with large trees, and trees with a large, vital crown. In this kind of stands it is possible to get best yield in relation to the work required. The height of the patch that was cut in the stem had no influence on the yield. The size of the patch should, however, not exceed 35-50% of the diameter of the tree.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7280, category Article
Gust. Komppa. (1934). Knowledge on the needle oil of certain exotic coniferous trees growing in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 7280.
Keywords: needle oil; coniferous-needle oil; Pseudotsuga Douglasii cecian Schwerin; Pinus Murrayana Engelm; chemical composition
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to find out firstly whether there are differences between the etheric oils of botanically alike but in different climatic conditions growing trees, and secondly whether the oils from alike trees are also alike. This article shortly describes the chemical composition of  Pseudotsuga Douglasii cecian Schwerin and Pinus Murrayana Engelm. The needle samples are from Mustiala Arboretum.

The first mentioned contains α-pinene, camphene, bornyl acetate, probably also limonene but no geraniol. Pinus Murraya’s oil contains pinene, camphene, borneol and cadinene.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Komppa, E-mail: gk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7252, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1929). Notes on some forest (site) types in North America. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 39 article id 7252.
Keywords: Pinus banksiana; jack pine; Canada; Douglas-fir; Pseudotsuga menziesii; Pinus contorta; United States; contorta pine; Pinus murrayana
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article includes observations on forest site types in Canada and the United States, with special emphasis on forests of lodgepole pine (Pinus murrayana, now Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) which the author considers a species that can become a favourite exotic tree species in Finland. Some notes are made also about Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The author was not able to make a systematic forest type investigation, because the journey was made on another purpose. The article describes the vegetation and climate of the visited areas, and divides the forest site types in three groups: Dry forest site types, moist forest site types and grass-herb site types. The vegetation and plant species on several subtypes are described in detail.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7060, category Article
August Renvall, Aarne Boman. (1921). Tilastollisia tutkimuksia yhtiöiden maanomistuksesta Suomessa III. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 7060.
English title: Statistical studies on the landholdings of companies in Finland.
Original keywords: maatalousmaa; maanomistus; metsäyhtiö; puutavarayhtiö; puutavaranhankinta
English keywords: forest land; timber harvesting; agricultural land; landholding; timber companies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The timber companies began acquiring forest land in 1890s which raised concerns about decrease of the number of private farms and agricultural land, as had happened in Sweden earlier. This was not considered to be a major problem in Finland, but the sale of homesteads on former state lands for sawmill companies was considered to be against their objective. One reason for the sale of farms was the farmers’ poor conception of the value of the land. In 1915 three decrees that restricted the right of companies that use timber to buy land were approved. The article discusses in detail the arguments that led to the legislation and compares it to the situation in Sweden.

A survey was commissioned to study the of landholdings of the companies, and to compare it with farming in private and company owned farms. The article includes a study about individual farms in the municipalities of Multia, Heinävesi, Sulkava, Ruokolahti and Luumäki, and about land use in the areas.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Renvall, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown (email)
  • Boman, E-mail: ab@mm.unknown
article id 7628, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Lehvästöruiskutuksen ajoitus kasvukauden aikana. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 181 article id 7628.
English title: The timing of foliage spraying during the growing season.
Original keywords: mänty; herbisidit; taimikonhoito; lehdistöruiskutus; havupuutaimikot
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; herbicides; seedling stands; MCPA; spraying of foliage; clearing of seedling stands; Roundup; DM; softwood seedling stand; hardwood sprouts
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An attempt was made in the study to determine the annual periods available for foliage spraying when cleaning Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated seedling stands. The study was made in nine experimental fields which were established in different parts of Finland. The spraying was applied throughout the growing season by DM, MCPA and Roundup. The results were inventoried one year after the treatments.

The results showed that there were big differences both in the destruction of hardwood sprouts and in the survival of pine seedlings due to the time period of the spraying. Threshold points were observed in the range of effect of DM and MCPA. By means of these it is possible to time the spraying treatments in such a way that there remains only slight damage to pine, but hardwood sprouts are destroyed totally. The results varied with Roundup so much, among other things due to rain, that such threshold points could not be determined. This preparation both had a milder effect on the hardwood seedlings and caused slighter damage to pine than the other preparations.

In Sodankylä in Northern Finland, the pines attained a good resistance to arboricides when the efficient temperature sum of the growing season was 550, but in Punkaharju in Central Finland only when it was 850. The seed provenance of the seedlings had an effect on the resistance. The threshold temperature sums of resistance in pine were on the average 70–74% from the long-term average number of degree days at the origin of the seed. The effect on the hardwood trees grew weaker as the long-term average was filled. Resistance of pine followed with a specific lag the lignification of the shoot and the ceasing of the growth of the needles.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pohjola, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 10444, category Research article
Risto Kalliola, Timo Saarinen, Niko Tanski. (2021). Seasonal variations of foliar element distributions of silver birch in different habitats. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 1 article id 10444.
Keywords: foliar nutrients; Betula pendula; deciduous tree; drought injury; element mapping; X-ray fluorescence
Highlights: Detailed mapping using micro X-ray fluorescence showed element variations in a seasonal cohort of silver birch leaves in six different habitats; Seasonal changes occurred in most of the ten studied nutrient elements; Different habitats showed unique seasonal development patterns in specific elements; Element distributions within individual leaf blades were variable; Phenotypic plasticity of foliar nutrients supports adaptation to patchy environments.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Novel information on silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) foliar element contents and their seasonal, between-habitat and leaf level variations are provided by applying fine-scaled element mapping with micro X-ray fluorescence. In the monthly leaf samples collected from May to October from six different habitats, pairwise scatter plots and Spearman’s rank correlations showed statistically significant positive correlations between Si, Al and Fe, and covariations between also many other pairs of elements. Of the ten elements studied, seven showed statistically significant changes in their average levels between May and June. The contents of P, S and K decreased in most habitats during the later season, whereas Ca and in some habitats also Mn and Zn increased. Comparing habitats, trees in the limestone habitat had relatively low content of Mg, strongly increasing levels of P until the late season, and high content of Ca and Fe. Other habitats also revealed distinctive particularities in their foliar elements, such as a high relative content of S and a low content of Ca at the seashore. Mn was high in three habitats, possibly due to bedrock characteristics. Except for P, the contents of all elements diverged between the midrib and other leaf areas. Zn content was particularly high in the leaf veins. Mn levels were highest at the leaf margins, indicating a possible sequestration mechanism for this potentially harmful element. Si may help to alleviate the metallic toxicities of Al and Fe. Because the growing season studied was dry, some trees developed symptoms of drought stress. The injured leaf parts had reduced levels of P, S and K, suggesting translocation of these nutrients before permanent damage.

  • Kalliola, Department of geography and geology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Saarinen, Department of geography and geology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland E-mail:
  • Tanski, Department of geography and geology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland E-mail:
article id 1694, category Research article
Katri Luostarinen, Katja Hakkarainen, Henri Kaksonen. (2017). Wood anatomy of seed and basal bud originated downy birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) grown at four different sites. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 1694.
Keywords: fibre; xylem; parenchyma; ray; vessel; sprout; wood structure
Highlights: Young xylem of sprouts did not clearly show more mature characteristics than that of seedlings; Marked differences in xylem structure could be observed between growing sites.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In trees, xylem must fulfil three important tasks: conducting water to leaves, storing nutrients and water, and supporting the trunk. The origin of the trunk, i.e., seed or basal bud that forms sprouts, and the growth site may affect xylem anatomy, differences of which can affect successful growth of trees. Both seedlings and sprouts of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) from four different growth sites with two different soil media, peat and mineral soil, were studied. The diameter of fibres and vessels and the thickness of the double fibre wall were measured, and the number of vessels, rays and axial parenchyma cells was counted. The fibre wall:lumen ratio, vessel percentage area and vessel size:number ratio were calculated. Xylem from sprouts showed only occasionally more mature characteristics than that of seedlings. The number of rays was similar at all four sites, but differences were observed in all other studied characteristics between sites, particularly if soil type was different. The vessel size and number correlated with the number of axial parenchyma cells in juvenile wood, which emphasises the importance of their connections with storage cells particularly at this stage of growth. Good water conductivity was connected with weaker wood, particularly in maturing wood.

  • Luostarinen, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Hakkarainen, Natural Resources Institute of Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Kaksonen, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 62, category Research article
Nadia Goué, Nathalie Noël-Boizot, Michel Vallance, Elisabeth Magel, Philippe Label. (2012). Microdissection to isolate vascular cambium cells in poplar. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 62.
Keywords: fusiform cambial cells; microgenomics; Populus spp.; ray cambial cells
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Vascular cambium is the lateral meristem producing xylem cells inwards and phloem cells outwards in plant stem. Thus, in trees, the quality and quantity of wood is a result of highly regulated developmental process depending initially on the vascular cambium cell production. The availability of accurate transcriptomics technologies based on high coverage sequencing raises the level of expectations on tissue sampling to a very high degree. What is the benefit of top-level transcriptomics in wood formation studies if we are using these technologies on raw tissues, mixing cells at the organ level or even higher scale? The presented work describes a nine-step procedure, from standing tree to isolated ray and fusiform cells from cryolyophilized tangential sections of the poplar cambial zone. The aim of this paper is to present a step by step procedure including advices on how to select the optimal tree, how to fell the tree while securing its physiological parameters, how to cryolyophilize and microdissect under binocular, presenting the time schedule of the whole process and RNA analysis.
  • Goué, UMR5546 CNRS-Université Paul Sabatier, Castanet Tolosan, France; (INRA-UAGPF, 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin, 45075 Orléans cedex 2, France) E-mail: (email)
  • Noël-Boizot, INRA-UAGPF, 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin, 45075 Orléans cedex 2, France E-mail:
  • Vallance, INRA-UAGPF, 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin, 45075 Orléans cedex 2, France E-mail:
  • Magel, Universität Hamburg, Zentrum Holzwirtschaft, Deutschland E-mail:
  • Label, INRA-UAGPF, 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin, 45075 Orléans cedex 2, France E-mail:
article id 285, category Research article
Heli Peltola, Antti Kilpeläinen, Kari Sauvala, Tommi Räisänen, Veli-Pekka Ikonen. (2007). Effects of early thinning regime and tree status on the radial growth and wood density of Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 285.
Keywords: thinning response; ring width; early wood; late wood; intra-ring wood density; X-ray densitometry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Kilpeläinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Sauvala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:
  • Räisänen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Ikonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 439, category Research article
Christina Lundgren. (2004). Microfibril angle and density patterns of fertilized and irrigated Norway spruce. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 439.
Keywords: ring width; growth rate; juvenile wood; MoE; X-ray diffraction
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Two Norway spruce nutrient optimisation trials, one in the north of Sweden and one in the south, were used to study the effects of intensive growth and fertilization on wood density and microfibril angle. Three different treatments and a control were available; daily irrigation, daily liquid fertilization and solid fertilization. The nutrient optimisation was based on foliage analysis and the solid fertilization essentially comprised the same amount of nutrients but was applied annually in solid form. Measurements of density and microfibril angle (MFA) were performed using X-ray diffraction. Growth rate, expressed as a transformation of annual ring width, was very important at the southern site when the effect of cambial maturation had been taken into account. Effects of both fertilization and irrigation remained strong and significant for density, and irrigation was a significant factor explaining MFA. At the northern site distance from pith was the dominant factor but the effect of growth rate was also strong and the treatment effect was significant for both density and MFA. The combination of higher MFA and decrease in density for fertilized trees resulted in a lower calculated strength of the wood. An over 100% increase in ring width only corresponded to approximately a 20% decrease in wood density and the production of wood dry matter was hence increased by treatments.
  • Lundgren, SLU, Dept. of Forest Products and Markets, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: (email)

Category: Research note

article id 609, category Research note
Aleksei Fedorkov. (2001). Climatic adaptation of seed maturity in Scots pine and Norway spruce populations. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 609.
Keywords: Norway spruce; Scots pine; climatic adaptation; provenance experiment; seed maturation; X-ray method
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Seed maturation of Scots pine and Norway spruce in a provenance experiment at Kortkeros (northern Russia) was examined by the X-ray method. Logarithmic relationships were found between seed anatomy development and long-term average thermal sum. Seed development in the northern populations of Scots pine and Norway spruce was a little faster than in the southern ones.
  • Fedorkov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Science Centre, Institute of Biology, Kommunisticheskya St., 28, 167610 Syktyvkar, Russia E-mail: (email)

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