Current issue: 56(2)

Under compilation: 56(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'native'

Category: Article

article id 5205, category Article
Juha Suominen, Alfred Varkki. (1984). Lauhanvuoren kasvisto. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5205.
English title: Vascular plant flora of Lauhavuori Hill, Western Finland.
Original keywords: kasvisto; putkilokasvit; kasvillisuusanalyysi; Lauhanvuori; Etelä-Pohjanmaa; tulokaskasvit; alkuperäiset kasvilajit
English keywords: native species; vascular plants; vegetation analysis; Western Finland; flora; Ostrobothnia
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Lauhavuori area is barren, consisting of sandstone and granite bedrock covered by coarse moraine and sand. The woodlands are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Calluna. The top of the hill, rising 230 metres above the sea level, is more fertile, as it was never covered by the ancient Baltic Sea. Numerous springs and spring brooks are bordered by herb-rich Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) woodlands and swamps. Although most of the peatlands are oligotrophic, several mesotrophic peatland plants occur, some southern, giving the peatlands a rather northerly character.

The study area is 8 by 12 km. According to the vegetation analysis, 310 species were identified, 208 of which were native to the area and 102 immigrants. The native species can be separated from the immigrants because the area is largely undisturbed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suominen, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
  • Varkki, E-mail: av@mm.unknown
article id 4738, category Article
Sakari Lilja. (1967). Tuomen merkityksestä kuusen tuomiruostesienen, Pucciniastrum padi (Kunze & Schm.) Diet., esiintymiselle kuusessa. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4738.
English title: Significance of the bird-cherry (Prunus padus L.) for the occurrence of the rust, Puccinastrum padi (Kunze & Schm.) in spruce.
Original keywords: kuusi; sienitaudit; tuomi; kuusen tuomiruoste; ruostesienet; väli-isäntä
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; fungal diseases; Prunus padus; bird-cherry; rust; Pucciniastrum padi; alternative host
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present study deals with the occurrence of the rust, Pucciniastrum padi (Kunze & Schm.) Diet., in the shoots and cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in the forest area of the training and experimental farm of Helsinki University at Viikki (60’10’ N; 25’ E). The most important task was to clarify the correlation between the occurrences of the disease in spruce and the abundance of the alternative host of the disease, bird-sherry (Prunus padus L.).

Infected shoots were encountered in a 17-year-old planted seedling stand of spruce. In this stand 8.4% of the seedlings were infected. The density of bird-cherry trees was in the stand higher than in the surrounding areas. The number of infected shoots was the greatest in those places where the density of bird-cherries was highest and already at a distance of some ten metres form the bird-cherry stands the degree of infection decreased considerably. The portion of infected cones in the whole material of this study was 19.5%.

The dependence of the frequency of disease on the abundance of bird-cherries at different distances from the spruce stand was studied by means of regression analysis. For this reason, the percentage infected cones were determined by sample plots and the abundance of bird-cherry trees from six zones (0–50, 50–100, 100–150, 150–200, 200–300, and 300–500 m) around each sample plot. The results showed that the dependence between the degree of infection of cones and the abundance of bird-cherry in the surroundings only reached the closest zone. There were also infected cones at greater distance, for instance, 200–300 m from the bird-cherries about 10% of the cones could be infected. Both the infected cones and shoots were longer than the healthy ones.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lilja, E-mail: sl@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7158, category Article
Olavi Huuri. (1965). Männyn- ja kuusenkäpyjen varastoinnin vaikutus niistä saatavan siemenen itävyyteen. Silva Fennica vol. 78 no. 5 article id 7158.
English title: The effects of storage in cones on the viability of pine and spruce seeds.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; itävyys; kävyt; siemenkeräys; käpyjen varastointi; metsäpuiden siemenet; siementen varastointi; karistus; itämiskyky
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; cones; seeds of forest trees; seed extraction; storage of cones; storage of seeds; germinative capacity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Seed storing experiments with cones of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were conducted in Oitti seed extracting plant in Southern Finland from February to December 1955. The pine cones were stores for 267 and the spruce coned for 304 days. In four of the storage methods the cones were packed in sacks and another four in wooden boxes. Sample of cones were taken once a month, seeds were extracted and the germinative capacity was tested. The remaining extracted seeds were placed in storage, and in January 1956 moved to cold seed cellar until 1962, when the viability of the seeds was tested.

According to the results, cleaned pine cones can be stores for at least nine months using almost all methods of storage which are commonly used at our seed traction plants, without hazarding the usability of the seeds. The seeds in spruce cones, however, seemed to be more sensitive to conditions during the storage. The germinative capacity of the spruce seeds began to decrease after the beginning of May. Later the seeds were infected with mould, which increased towards the end of the experiment.

Thus, preservation of the germinative capacity of the seeds of pine and spruce requires storage in different conditions. The results suggest that extraction of spruce seeds should be finished during the cold winter months. It seems that seed in the cones of pine and spruce endure storage in piles of paper or cloth sacks at least as well as in wooden boxes. Occasional warming of the storage, snow and foreign material among the cones and an over meter thick cone layer decreased the germinative capacity of spruce seeds during spring and summer. Spruce seeds that had been extracted immediately after collecting of the cones preserved their germinative capacity well during an eight years storage period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Huuri, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7152, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1964). Yksityismetsätaloudelliset vaihtoehtolaskelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 77 no. 4 article id 7152.
English title: Alternative calculations in private forestry.
Original keywords: kannattavuus; yksityismetsät; vaihtoehtolaskelmat
English keywords: profitability; private forests; alternative calculations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this theoretical study was to define the factors related to wood production that affect the financial result of private forestry in Finland on the viewpoint of alternative calculation. The paper introduces the main concepts, analyses the outturn factors and discusses feasibility of some calculation methods, and finally draws up a business plan for a forest holding based on the chosen method.

In forestry, the quantitative and sustainability objectives for yield, the difference between annual proceeds and costs, and the capital value of the costs affect which factors are included in the calculation of profitability of forestry. The base-line situation for the alternative calculations is defined by an inventory. The future proceeds and costs are valuated and procedural models are formulated for the most advantageous alternatives. The main goal in private forestry is profit.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Einola, E-mail: je@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7071, category Article
Alvar Palmgren. (1922). Studies on vegetation characters of coniferous forests. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 7071.
Keywords: native species; vegetation; diversity; coniferous forests; Åland Islands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper deals with the ground vegetation of the barren coniferous forests of Åland Islands and seeks to describe its special vegetation characters with general features. The study is based on data collected during summers from 1918-1922 on Åland Islands.  Work presents the forest types of Åland Islands classified according Cajander (1909) with their typical species.

The Ålandian coniferous forests seem to have a low number of species. This is because they are mostly old and closed, and have been developing for a long time without human induced disturbances from outside. Some changes have occurred due to forest fires. There is very few traces of non-native species in the forests. If some are found, they have not been able to regenerate or distribute widely.   

  • Palmgren, E-mail: ap@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 1043, category Research article
Jorge Martín-García, Luc Barbaro, Julio Javier Diez, Hervé Jactel. (2013). Contribution of poplar plantations to bird conservation in riparian landscapes. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 1043.
Keywords: management; Populus x euramericana; clone I-214; hybrid; native
Highlights: Poplar plantations should not be used as surrogate habitat for native riparian forests with the aim of preserving bird species diversity; Native riparian forests should be preserved or restored as far as possible; Bird communities occurring in poplar plantations can still accommodate rich communities of forest bird species, providing that suitable management is applied at local and landscape levels.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In Mediterranean areas, riparian zones are particularly important for maintaining biodiversity. Nevertheless, the native vegetation in these zones has been modified or lost at an alarming rate during the last decades. The main objective of this study was to investigate the influence of poplar plantations on bird diversity in riparian zones, in order to estimate the ecological implications of a substantial expansion of poplar plantations. Breeding birds were sampled by the point-count method in twenty-four poplar plantations of I-214 clone, according to a factorial design combining stand age and understory management. Furthermore, the three native riparian forests remaining in the study area were also surveyed. Explanatory variables included (1) dendrometric, (2) understory and (3) landscape variables within six different radii of circular buffers. The species richness and abundance index were higher in riparian forests than in poplar plantations. Landscape variables (percentage of poplar plantations in the surrounding landscape) strongly influenced bird diversity in poplar plantations. Furthermore, at the local scale, understory cover was also a key factor in shaping bird assemblages. This suggests that poplar plantations should not be used as surrogates for native forests. Nevertheless, poplar plantations can still accommodate rich communities of forest bird species, providing that suitable management is applied at local and landscape levels.
  • Martín-García, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid – INIA, Avenida Madrid, 57, 34004 Palencia, Spain E-mail: (email)
  • Barbaro, NRA, UMR 1202 BIOGECO, 69 Route d’Arcachon, F-33612 Cestas cedex, France E-mail:
  • Diez, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid – INIA, Avenida Madrid, 57, 34004 Palencia, Spain E-mail:
  • Jactel, NRA, UMR 1202 BIOGECO, 69 Route d’Arcachon, F-33612 Cestas cedex, France; Université de Bordeaux, UMR 1202, Bordeaux, F-33000 France E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 74, category Review article
Philip J. Burton, S. Ellen Macdonald. (2011). The restorative imperative: challenges, objectives and approaches to restoring naturalness in forests. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 74.
Keywords: afforestation; disturbance regime; ecological restoration; forest rehabilitation; native species; reclamation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Many of the world’s forests are not primeval; forest restoration aims to reverse alterations caused by human use. Forest restoration (including reforestation and forest rehabilitation) is widely researched and practiced around the globe. A review of recent literature reveals some common themes concerning forest restoration motivations and methods. In some parts of the world, forest restoration aims mainly to re-establish trees required for timber or fuelwood; such work emphasizes the propagation, establishment and growth of trees, and equates with the traditional discipline of silviculture. Elsewhere, a recent focus on biocentric values adopts the goal of supporting full complements of indigenous trees and other species. Such ecosystem-based restoration approaches consider natural templates and a wide array of attributes and processes, but there remains an emphasis on trees and plant species composition. Efforts to restore natural processes such as nutrient cycling, succession, and natural disturbances seem limited, except for the use of fire, which has seen widespread adoption in some regions. The inherent challenges in restoring “naturalness” include high temporal and spatial heterogeneity in forest conditions and natural disturbances, the long history of human influence on forests in many regions of the world, and uncertainty about future climate and disturbance regimes. Although fixed templates may be inappropriate, we still have a reasonably clear idea of the incremental steps required to make forests more natural. Because most locations can support many alternative configurations of natural vegetation, the restoration of forest naturalness necessarily involves the setting of priorities and strategic directions in the context of human values and objectives, as informed by our best understanding of ecosystem structure and function now and in the future.
  • Burton, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada V2N 4Z9 E-mail: (email)
  • Macdonald, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada E-mail:

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