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Articles containing the keyword 'weather'

Category: Article

article id 5595, category Article
R.A. Fleming. (1996). A mechanistic perspective of possible influences of climate change on defoliating insects in North America's boreal forests. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5595. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9240
Keywords: climate change; disturbance regimes; boreal forest dynamics; Abies balsamea; natural selection; North America; Choristoneura fumiferana; insect outbreaks; phenological relationships; plant quality; extreme weather; thresholds
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There is no doubt that tree survival, growth, and reproduction in North America's boreal forests would be directly influenced by the projected changes in climate if they occur. The indirect effects of climate change may be of even greater importance, however, because of their potential for altering the intensity, frequency, and perhaps even the very nature of the disturbance regimes which drive boreal forest dynamics. Insect defoliator populations are one of the dominating disturbance factors in North America's boreal forests and during outbreaks trees are often killed over vast forest areas. If the predicted shifts in climate occur, the damage patterns caused by insects may be considerably changed, particularly those of insects whose temporal and spatial distributions are singularly dependent on climatic factors. The ensuing uncertainties directly affect depletion forecasts, pest hazard rating procedures, and long-term planning for pest control requirements. Because the potential for wildfire often increases in stands after insect attack, uncertainties in future insect damage patterns also lead to uncertainties in fire regimes. In addition, because the rates of processes key to biogeochemical and nutrient recycling are influenced by insect damage, potential changes in damage patterns can indirectly affect ecosystem resilience and the sustainability of the multiple uses of the forest resource.

In this paper, a mechanistic perspective is developed based on available information describing how defoliating forest insects might respond to climate warming. Because of its prevalence and long history of study, the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clem. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is used for illustrative purposes in developing this perspective. The scenarios that follow outline the potential importance of threshold behaviour, historical conditions, phenological relationships, infrequent but extreme weather, complex feedbacks, and natural selection. The urgency of such considerations is emphasized by reference to research suggesting that climate warming may already be influencing some insect lifecycles.

  • Fleming, E-mail: rf@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5526, category Article
Pertti. Hari, Pasi Aalto, Kaarle Hämeri, Markku. Kulmala, Tapani. Lahti, Sari. Luoma, Lauri Palva, Toivo Pohja, Erkki. Pulliainen, Erkki. Siivola, Timo Vesala. (1994). Air pollution in eastern Lapland : challenge for an environmental measurement station. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 5526. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9160
Keywords: photosynthesis; automation; carbon dioxide; ozone; measurement systems; aerosols; sulphur dioxid; weather
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Värriö environmental measurement station has been designed and constructed during 1991 and 1992. The measurement system consists of measurement units for gases (sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon dioxide), particles, photosynthesis and irradiation. A meteorological station is also included. The preliminary measurement period was started on August, 1991. During the first year (1991–1992) some parts of the system were redeveloped and rebuilt. Full, continuous measurement started in August 1992. The system has been working quite reliably, with good accuracy. The preliminary results show that pollution episodes are observed when the wind direction is from Monchegorsk or Nikel, the main emission sources in Kola Peninsula.

  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Aalto, E-mail: pa@mm.unknown
  • Hämeri, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown
  • Kulmala, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Lahti, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown
  • Luoma, E-mail: sl@mm.unknown
  • Palva, E-mail: lp@mm.unknown
  • Pohja, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
  • Pulliainen, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown
  • Siivola, E-mail: es@mm.unknown
  • Vesala, E-mail: tv@mm.unknown
article id 5088, category Article
Reijo Solantie, Kari Ahti. (1980). Säätekijöiden vaikutus Etelä-Suomen lumituhoihin v. 1959. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5088. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15029
English title: The influence of weather on the snow damages for forests in Southern Finland in 1959.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; lumituhot; sääolosuhteet; sääilmiöt; huurre
English keywords: snow damage; rime; weather conditions; Southern Finland; orographic precipitation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Snow and rime, attached to branches of conifers, seriously damaged forests in a region of 11,000 km2 in Southern Finland during a passage of two nearly occluded cyclones in 1959. The roles of different weather elements were studied by considering the variations occurring in them over this region and its surroundings. Damage occurred only inside an accentuated pattern of copious orographic precipitation. Precipitation only became attached to and retained on branches in such parts of the area where temperature varied on both sides of freezing point but did not exceed 0.6°C. Furthermore, damage only occurred in forests where rime formed (above a certain level and on sloping towards the prevailing wind).

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Solantie, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ahti, E-mail: ka@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 10385, category Research article
Perttu Anttila, Tuomas Nummelin, Kari Väätäinen, Juha Laitila. (2020). The effect of winter weather on timber truck tare weights. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 4 article id 10385. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10385
Keywords: forestry logistics; payload; tare weight; weather data
Highlights: In a one-year follow-up study of eight timber trucks in Finland, up to 6–12% increase in tare weights was observed in wintertime; Compared with summertime tare weights, the maximum increase varied between 1560 kg and 3100 kg; Potential payload loss was explained by temperature, relative humidity and precipitation.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In wintertime, the payload capacity of a timber truck is reduced by snow that accumulates on the structures of the truck. The aim of this study was to quantify the potential payload loss due to snow and winter accessories and to predict the loss with weather variables. Tare weights of eight timber trucks were collected at mill receptions in Finland over a one-year period. Monthly and annual loss of potential payload was estimated using the tare measurements in summer months as a reference. Each load was also connected with weather data at the location and time of delivery and payload loss explained by the weather data with the aid of regression models. The maximum loss of payload varied between 1560 kg and 3100 kg. On a monthly basis, the highest losses occurred in January, when the median values varied between 760 kg and 2180 kg. Over the year, the payload loss ranged between the trucks from 0.5% to 1.5% (from 1.9% and 5.1% in January) of the total number of loads in the study. Payload loss was found to increase with decreasing temperature, increasing relative humidity and increasing precipitation. Although the average payload loss was not very high, the biggest losses occur just during the season of highest capacity utilization. Big differences were also found in the tare weights between the trucks. The results of the study give incentive to develop truck and trailer structures that reduce the adherence of snow.

  • Anttila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6131-392X E-mail: perttu.anttila@luke.fi (email)
  • Nummelin, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: tuomas.nummelin@luke.fi
  • Väätäinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: kari.vaatainen@luke.fi
  • Laitila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4431-3319 E-mail: juha.laitila@luke.fi
article id 1442, category Research article
Silva Šēnhofa, Mārtiņš Zeps, Roberts Matisons, Jānis Smilga, Dagnija Lazdiņa, Āris Jansons. (2015). Effect of climatic factors on tree-ring width of Populus hybrids in Latvia. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 1442. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1442
Keywords: dendroclimatology; hybrid aspen; hybrid poplar; fast-growing hybrids; weather conditions
Highlights: Hybrid poplar and hybrid aspen were sensitive to temperature in summer and dormant periods, but none of the tested factors were strictly limiting; Hybrid poplar was sensitive to a higher number of climatic factors than hybrid aspen; Temperature showed a negative correlation with tree-ring width.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Fast-growing hybrids of Populus L. have an increasing importance as a source of renewable energy and as industrial wood. Nevertheless, the long-term sensitivity of Populus hybrids to weather conditions and hence to possible climatic hazards in Northern Europe have been insufficiently studied, likely due to the limited age of the trees (short rotation). In this study, the climatic sensitivity of ca. 65-year-old hybrid poplars (Populus balsamifera L. × P. laurifolia Ledeb.), growing at two sites in the western part of Latvia, and ca. 55-year-old hybrid aspens (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula L.), growing in the eastern part of Latvia, have been studied using classical dendrochronological techniques. The high-frequency variation of tree-ring width (TRW) of hybrid poplar from both sites was similar, but it differed from hybrid aspen due to the diverse parental species and geographic location of the stands. Nevertheless, some common tendencies in TRW were observed for both hybrids. Climatic factors influencing TRW were generally similar for both hybrids, but their composition differed. The strength of climate-TRW relationships was similar, but the hybrid poplar was affected by a higher number of climatic factors. Hybrid poplar was sensitive to factors related to water deficit in late summer in the previous and current years. Hybrid aspen was sensitive to conditions in the year of formation of tree-ring. Both hybrids also displayed a reaction to temperature during the dormant period. The observed climate-growth relationships suggest that increasing temperatures might burden the radial growth of the studied hybrids of Populus.

  • Šēnhofa, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: silva.senhofa@gmail.com
  • Zeps, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: martins.zeps@silava.lv
  • Matisons, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: robism@inbox.lv (email)
  • Smilga, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: janis.smilga@silava.lv
  • Lazdiņa, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: dagnija.lazdina@silava.lv
  • Jansons, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: aris.jansons@silava.lv
article id 434, category Research article
Igor Drobyshev, Mats Niklasson, Per Angelstam. (2004). Contrasting tree-ring data with fire record in a pine-dominated landscape in the Komi Republic (Eastern European Russia): recovering a common climate signal. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 434. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.434
Keywords: boreal; climate; earlywood; latewood; chronology; seasonal dating; weather control; natural disturbance
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
For the period 1420–1960 we contrasted fire events reconstructed at 14 sites distributed over a 50 km x 50 km area in the central part of the Komi Republic (European Russia) with a set of tree-ring width chronologies of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), developed for the same area. Our aim was to infer common climatic information contained in tree-ring variables and independently dated fire events with the help of a superposed epoch analysis. The strongest weather–growth link was shown for the latewood width, which was positively correlated with the temperature in April–May and July–August of the current growth season and with previous year precipitation in July–August. Earlywood width was positively affected by previous year precipitation in May and November. The relationship between yearly ring variables and multiple-site fire events was dependent on the seasonal timing of fire events as recorded in the scars. In years with early-season fires (which made up 37% of all fires dated with seasonal resolution) total ring width was significantly narrower. In years with late-season fires (63%) total ring width, earlywood, and latewood width were significantly wider. Years with late-season fires tended to be associated with local highs of the latewood width chronologies over 1400–1960, which implied a link between decadal-scale climate variation and fire regime of the area.
  • Drobyshev, SUFOR Project, Department of Plant Ecology and Systematics, Ecology Building, Sölvegatan 37, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden E-mail: igor.drobyshev@ekol.lu.se (email)
  • Niklasson, SUFOR Project, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden E-mail: mn@nn.se
  • Angelstam, Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Conservation Biology, Forest Faculty, SLU, SE-730 91 Riddarhyttan, Sweden E-mail: pa@nn.se

Category: Research note

article id 7771, category Research note
Māra Kitenberga, Roberts Matisons, Āris Jansons, Jānis Donis. (2018). Teleconnection between the Atlantic sea surface temperature and forest fires in Latvia and Estonia. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 1 article id 7771. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7771
Keywords: disturbance regime; Atmospheric circulation; weather systems; fire meteorology
Highlights: Forest fire activity in Latvia and Estonia was related to conditions in the Atlantic; Teleconnections differed regionally; Negative correlation between number of fires in Estonia and SST in the North Atlantic was detected; Area of forest fires in Estonia and activity of fires in Latvia were positively correlated with SST in the Baltic, North and Mediterranean Seas in summer.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forest fire is one of the natural disturbances, which have important ecological and socioeconomical effect. Although fire activity is driven by weather conditions, during past two centuries forest fires have been strongly anthropogenically controlled. In this study, teleconnection between sea surface temperature (SST) in the Atlantic, which influences climate in Europe, and forest fire activity in Latvia and Estonia was assessed using “Climate explorer” web-tool. Factors affecting number and area of forest fires in Latvia and Estonia differed, suggesting regional specifics. In Estonia, the number of fires correlated with the SST in the North Atlantic in spring and summer, which affects the inflow of cool and dry air masses from the Arctic, hence the aridity and burnability. The area of fires in Estonia and in Latvia was associated with increased SST in Baltic Sea and near the European coast in summer, which likely were consequences of occurrence of warm high-pressure systems in summer, causing hot and dry conditions. Nevertheless, the observed teleconnections could be used to predict activity of forest fires in Latvia and Estonia.

  • Kitenberga, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rigas st. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: mara.kitenberga@gmail.com (email)
  • Matisons, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rigas st. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: robism@inbox.lv
  • Jansons, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rigas st. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: aris.jansons@silava.lv
  • Donis, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rigas st. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: janis.donis@silava.lv

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