Current issue: 56(4)

Under compilation: 57(1)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'plantations'

Category: Article

article id 5594, category Article
Anssi Niskanen, Tapio Rantala, Olli Saastamoinen. (1996). Economic impacts of carbon sequestration in reforestation: examples from boreal and moist tropical conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5594.
Keywords: boreal forests; carbon; forestry; Finland; Philippines; profitability; tropical forests; forest plantations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The impact of carbon sequestration on the financial profitability of four tree plantation cases in Finland and the Philippines were examined. On the basis of stem wood growth; the accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, the formation and decomposition of litter, and the carbon flow in wood-based products were assessed for each reforestation case representing boreal (Finland) and moist tropical conditions (the Philippines). Using different unit values for carbon sequestration the profitability of reforestation was estimated for a fixed 100-year period on a per hectare basis. The financial profitability of reforestation increased notably when the sequestered carbon had high positive values. For example, when the value of carbon sequestration was set to be Twenty-five United States Dollar per megagram of carbon (25 USO/Mg C), the internal rate of return (IRR) of a reforestation investment with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Finland increased from 3.2% to 4.1 %. Equally, the IRR of reforestation with mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in the Philippines increased from 12.8% to 15.5%. The present value of carbon sequestration ranged from 39–48% and from 77–101% of the present value of the reforestation cost in Finland and the Philippines, respectively when a 25 USO/Mg C shadow price and a 5% discount rate were applied. Sequestration of one mg of carbon in reforestation in Finland and the Philippines was estimated to cost from 10.5–20.0 and from 4.0–13.6 USO, respectively.

  • Niskanen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Rantala, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
  • Saastamoinen, E-mail: os@mm.unknown
article id 5424, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Veli Pohjonen. (1990). Use of linear programming in land use planning in the Ethiopian highlands. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5424.
Keywords: plantations; fuelwood; mathematical models; grazing; Eucalyptus globulus; arable crops
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Linear programming was used to analyse the land use alternatives in the Debre Birhan Fuelwood Plantation area, in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The region represents a rural, high-altitude area, where the main land uses are grazing and cultivation of barley, wheat and pulses. To alleviate fuelwood shortage, large plantations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. have been established. Livestock has traditionally used the major part of the production capacity of the sites. A decrease in the number of cattle would facilitate a considerable increase in the production of cereals, pulses, fuelwood and construction timber. The optimal share of the land for arable crops, grazing and tree plantations would be about 40, 45 and 15% respectively.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pohjonen, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown
article id 5420, category Article
Toyohiro Miyazava, Jukka Laine. (1990). Effect of macroclimate on the development of Scots pine seedling stands on drained oligotrophic pine mires. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5420.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; regeneration; drained peatlands; plantations; ditch spacing; effective temperature sum; microtopography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The influence of different fertilization treatments and ditch spacings on the height growth of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands growing under various climatic regimes were determined. Comparisons were made between naturally regenerated and planted seedling stands. The effective temperature sum had a stronger effect on the height growth of planted seedlings, and in Northern Finland the planted seedlings seemed to be influenced to a greater degree by the adverse climatic conditions. The heavier the dose of fertilizer that had been applied, the greater the difference in growth caused by macroclimate. A considerably larger proportion of natural seedlings were located on hummocks compared with that of planted seedlings, irrespective of the region. On plots with wider ditch spacings, seedlings growing on hummocks were superior in height growth to those on flat surfaces.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Miyazava, E-mail: tm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laine, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
article id 5419, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Owen Mubita, Jussi Saramäki. (1990). Management planning system for tree plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5419.
Keywords: diameter distribution; plantations; yield model; Zambia; simulation model; Pinus kesiya; timber management planning; multiobjective optimization
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper presents a simple model of long-term forest management planning in tree plantations. The model is particularly suitable for developing countries where the research resources are limited. The management plan is prepared in two steps. First, one or several treatment schedules are simulated for each calculation unit (age class, compartment, etc.) over the selected planning period. Second, an optimal combination treatment schedules according to the selected objectives and constraints is searched by mathematical programming. The simulation of growth is based on the prediction of the diameter distribution at the desired time point. All stand characteristics are derived from this distribution. The models needed in the yield simulation can be estimated from temporary sample plots. A case study management plan for 13,000 ha of Pinus kesiya (Royle ex Gordon) plantations in Zambia is presented to demonstrate the system.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Mubita, E-mail: om@mm.unknown
  • Saramäki, E-mail: js@mm.unknown
article id 4450, category Article
Seth Nordberg. (1928). Vertaileva katsaus pajun viljelykseen ja sen edellytyksiin ulkomailla ja Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 9 article id 4450.
English title: Review on willow plantations and their requirements in foreign countries and in Finland.
Original keywords: paju; Salix; viljely; viljelymenetelmät
English keywords: willow; willow plantations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There is demand for cultivated willow in toy and barrel making, and handcrafts in Finland. In Europe, Salix sp. have been cultivated on several kinds of sites. In Finland, suitable sites for willow plantations could be found, for instance, by the rivers and brooks, on other alluvial lands, wet meadows and other humid lands unsuitable for agriculture. The article suggests that the cultivation of willow should begin on the agricultural lands, because the choice of origin of the willow cuttings is less important when it is grown on fields, and the areas are more accessible. The desired qualities for cultivated willow are good growth rate and robust stems, frost resistance and resistance to annual cuttings. Of the different species, especially suitable is Salix sect. Amygdalinae. In field tests, all the tested Salix species have been frost resistant, which makes it possible to cut the stems annually.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Nordberg, E-mail: sn@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7503, category Article
Anssi Niskanen, Olavi Luukkanen, Olli Saastamoinen, Suree Bhumibhamon. (1993). Evaluation of the profitability of fast-growing tropical trees. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 241 article id 7503.
Keywords: cost-benefit analysis; profitability; Thailand; development forestry; tree plantations; environmental impacts
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The profitability of fast-growing trees (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Acacia mangium Willd. and Melia azedarach L.) was investigated in the north-eastern and eastern provinces of Thailand. The financial, economic, and tentative environmental-economic profitability was determined separately for three fast-growing plantation tree species and for three categories of plantation managers: the private industry, the state (the Royal Forest Department) and the farmers. Fast-growing tree crops were also compared with teak (Tectona grandis L. f.), a traditional medium or long rotation species, and Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Müll. Arg.) which presently is the most common cultivated tree in Thailand.

The optimal rotation for Eucalyptus camaldulensis pulpwood production was eight years. This was the most profitable species in pulpwood production. In sawlog production Acacia mangium and Melia azedarach showed a better financial profitability. Para rubber was more profitable and teak less profitable than the three fast-growing species. The economic profitability was higher than the financial one, and the tentative environmental-economic profitability was slightly higher than the economic profitability.

The profitability of tree growing is sensitive to plantation yields and labour cost changes and especially to wood prices. Management options which aim at pulpwood production are more sensitive to input or output changes than those options which include sawlog production. There is an urgent need to improve the growth and yield data and to study the environmental impacts of tree plantations for all species and plantation types.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Niskanen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown
  • Saastamoinen, E-mail: os@mm.unknown
  • Bhumibhamon, E-mail: sb@mm.unknown
article id 7659, category Article
Ari Lääperi. (1990). Hoidettujen talvilaitumien vaikutus hirvituhoihin mäntytaimikoissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 212 article id 7659.
English title: Effect of winter feeding on moose damage to young Scots pine stands.
Original keywords: mänty; hirvituhot; männyntaimikot; talviruokinta
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Alces alces; seedling stands; feeding; moose damage; forest plantations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The establishment of moose (Alces alces L.) winter feeding sites, their utilization and their effect on damage to young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations was studied in Ruokolahti-Imatra area in Eastern Finland in 1987–89. During the period, the density in the area was about 3–5 moose/ 1,000 ha.

Six feeding sites were established by fertilization, offering mineral lics and the tops of aspen and Scot pine and by salting the tops of pine. The moose preferred the feeding site to control areas during both summer and winter. In winter browsing was very heavy, especially in those areas located in or close to traditional wintering areas. In winter no moose were seen in the summer habitats.

The extent of, and fluctuations in moose damage were studied in 47 Scots pine plantations in the immediate surroundings of the feeding sites (29 plantations), control areas (18 plantations) and also 68 randomly selected pine plantations. Before the experiment began in 1987 four plantations had been seriously damaged. During the study period only one plantation was seriously damaged. However, it could not be conclusively proved that damage to the pine plantations had been reduced as a result of the feeding sites. The results of the study can be put into practice elsewhere to create better living conditions for moose in their winter habitats. However, the food offered at the feeding site should be in the right proportion to the number of animals wintering in the area, so that the risk of damage to nearby plantations would be kept as small as possible.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lääperi, E-mail: al@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 128, category Research article
Shelley L. Hunt, Andrew M. Gordon, Dave M. Morris. (2010). Carbon stocks in managed conifer forests in northern Ontario, Canada. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 128.
Keywords: forest management; boreal forest; carbon sequestration; carbon stocks; jack pine; black spruce; plantations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Carbon pools and net primary productivity (aboveground) were measured in managed stands of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.), ranging in age from 10 to 53 years, in the Lake Nipigon area of northern Ontario. Organic carbon in the forest floor and surface mineral soil (top 15 cm) ranged from 13 to 46 Mg C ha-1 and 10 to 29 Mg C ha-1, respectively. Carbon in aboveground tree biomass ranged from 11 to 74 Mg C ha-1 in crop trees, and 0 to 11 Mg C ha-1 in non-crop trees. Coarse woody debris (downed woody debris and snags) contained between 1 and 17 Mg C ha-1. Understory vegetation rarely represented more than 1% of total ecosystem carbon accumulation, but was responsible for a larger proportion of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). Rates of ANPP (expressed as carbon) ranged from 0.8 to 3.5 Mg C ha-1 y-1. Carbon stocks in managed stands were compared with published values from similarly aged fire-origin stands in the North American boreal region. Carbon stocks in our study stands generally exceeded those in unmanaged fire-origin stands of the same age, due to larger tree and forest floor carbon pools.
  • Hunt, University of Guelph, School of Environmental Sciences, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 E-mail: (email)
  • Gordon, University of Guelph, School of Environmental Sciences, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 E-mail:
  • Morris, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Centre for Northern Forest Ecosystem Research, 955 Oliver Rd., Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1 E-mail:
article id 350, category Research article
Ehsan Sayyad, Seyed Mohsen Hosseini, Jamshid Mokhtari, Reza Mahdavi, Seyed Gholamali Jalali, Moslem Akbarinia, Masoud Tabari. (2006). Comparison of growth, nutrition and soil properties of pure and mixed stands of Populus deltoides and Alnus subcordata. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 350.
Keywords: growth; nitrogen fixing trees (NFT); mixed plantations; nutrition; nutrient return
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Concerns about decline in soil fertility and long-term productivity of fast-growing plantations have promoted interest in using nitrogen-fixing trees in mixed species plantations. Populus deltoides and Alnus subcordata were planted in five proportions (100P, 67P:33A, 50P:50A, 33P:67A, 100A) in Noor, Iran. After 7 years, the effects of species interactions on tree growth and nutrient concentration in live and senescent leaves and soil properties were assessed. Diameter at breast height and total height of individual Populus trees were positively affected by the presence of Alnus. Nitrogen concentrations in fully expanded and senescent leaves of Populus were higher in mixed plantations than monoculture plantations. The results of nutrition and nutrient return and growth indicated that mixed plantations of these two species were more productive and sustainable than their monoculture plantations. Within the framework of this experiment, it appeared that production was maximized when these two species were grown together in the relative proportions of 50% Populus and 50% Alnus.
  • Sayyad, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran E-mail:
  • Hosseini, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran E-mail: (email)
  • Mokhtari, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran E-mail:
  • Mahdavi, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran E-mail:
  • Jalali, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran E-mail:
  • Akbarinia, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran E-mail:
  • Tabari, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran E-mail:
article id 392, category Research article
Veikko Huhta, Mika Räty. (2005). Soil animal communities of planted birch stands in central Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 392.
Keywords: forest management; birch; plantations; soil fauna
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The aim of this study was to compare soil animal communities in planted birch (Betula pendula) stands of different origin with each other and with natural forests. Six 30-year-old birch stands were investigated, three planted after clear-cutting of spruce stands, and three planted on cultivated soil. The faunal communities were markedly different in plantations established on spruce forest soil and on arable soil. “Birch after Spruce” communities were relatively similar to those of coniferous forests, though the population densities were generally lower. “Birch after Field” communities were sparse and could be characterised as “impoverished forest communities”, except in Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae that have affinities with deciduous forests and cultural landscapes. Soil conditions are not sufficient to explain the differences between the forests. Colonisation and transport by man may determine the presence of certain species, especially earthworms. These in turn affect soil properties, and compete with or otherwise have negative effects on other soil fauna. Thus the community differences between different forests are an outcome of several factors: soil characteristics, site history, colonisation ability and interspecific interactions.
  • Huhta, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä University, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Räty, Ojalanlenkki 4, FI-80140 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

Click this link to register to Silva Fennica.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles