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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica vol. 0 | 1963

Category: Article

article id 4714, category Article
B. L. Dzerdzeevskii. (1963). Study of the heat balance of the forest. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 113 article id 4714. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14272
Keywords: temperature; forests; forest ecology; metsät; lämpötila; metsäekologia; taseet
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  • Dzerdzeevskii, E-mail: bd@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4713, category Article
Metsäalan organisaatiokomitea. (1963). Metsäalan organisaatiokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 113 article id 4713. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14271
Keywords: metsätalous; komiteanmietinnöt
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  • Metsäalan organisaatiokomitea, E-mail:
article id 4712, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1963). Trends in South America's coniferous forest resources. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 113 article id 4712. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14270
Keywords: Etelä-Amerikka; havumetsät; metsävarat
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  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4711, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1963). Suomen sisävesien aluskanta. Puutavaraliikenteen aluksia koskeva selvittely. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 113 article id 4711. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14269
Keywords: Suomi; puutavara; sisävedet; tavaraliikenne; uitto; vesikulkuneuvot; vesiliikenne
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  • Roitto, E-mail: yr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4710, category Article
Paavo Ennevaara. (1963). Suhdanteiden vaikutus puutavaran myynteihin Keski-Pohjanmaalla hakkuuvuosina 1927/28-1931/32. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 113 article id 4710. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14268
Keywords: Suomi; metsätalous; 1927-1932; historia; Keski-Pohjanmaa; puukaupat; suhdanteet
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  • Ennevaara, E-mail: pe@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4709, category Article
Eino Oinonen. (1963). Sanajalan (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn.) nektaarioiden aktiivisesta toiminnasta. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 113 article id 4709. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14267
Keywords: kasvifysiologia; Pteridium aquilinum; sananjalka; sanikkaiset
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  • Oinonen, E-mail: eo@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4708, category Article
Eino Oinonen. (1963). Korpi-imarre (Lastrea phegopteris (L.) Bary) -kasvuston rakenteesta. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 113 article id 4708. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14266
English title: On the structure of beech fern (Lastrea phegopteris (L.) Bary) community.
Original keywords: kasvusto; korpi-imarre; Phegopteris connectilis; rakenne; sanikkaiset
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  • Oinonen, E-mail: eo@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4698, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1961). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran 50-vuotisjuhlallisuudet 29.4.1959. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 111 article id 4698. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14229
English title: 50 years’ jubilee of the Society of Forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: järjestöt; metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; kokoukset; 1909-1959; vuosijuhla
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; Finnish Society of Forest Science; the Finnish Society of Forestry; associations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Finnish Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) celebrated its 50 years’ jubilee in 29th April 1959. This publication includes description of the ceremony. Included are also the greetings, and speeches held at the celebration meeting.

The PDF includes some of the texts in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4697, category Article
Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea. (1961). Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 110 article id 4697. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14228
English title: Report of the forest planning committee.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäpolitiikka; komiteanmietinnöt
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present publication concerns the report of the committee appointed by the Finnish Government to draft a programme or the development of Finnish forestry and increase of its production.

Part I of the paper reviews the development of forestry and forest policy in Finland. After the World War II – following the land settlement – ca. 1.5 million hectares of land, mostly owned by the state, was transferred to private ownership. The committee states that because the division of small farms and land settlement policy private forests have tended increasingly to become small forests. The decrease in size of forest units has interfered development of forestry. In part II, the forest utilization programme for the period 1963–1972 is outlined. In the country, logging in 1953–1958 was carried out on a fairly sustained yield basis. The regional picture is, however, not as good, and in Southern Finland there has been over-cutting.

A long-term logging plan was prepared on the request of the committee. The allowable cut following this plan would suffice the calculated wood requirement for the years 1963–1972. In the part III, the committee introduces a silvicultural program for the years 1963–1972 to increase the yield of wood. The targets of logging, sowing and planting, and silvicultural work are considerably greater than what was achieved in the 1950s. To speed up the realisation of the silvicultural programme, working plans should be prepared on a large scale for forest enterprises, afforestation and forest drainage should be increased, and a national seed storage should be established.

Part IV discusses the forest work situation from the stand point of the realisation of the forest utilisation programme and silvicultural programme. Part V introduces a host of recommendations concerning forest policy and economic policy.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea, E-mail:
article id 4690, category Article
Metsäntutkimuskomitea. (1960). Metsäntutkimuskomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 109 article id 4690. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14222
English title: Report of the forest research committee.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; metsäpolitiikka; Helsingin yliopisto; komiteanmietinnöt; metsäntutkimuslaitos; tutkimusrahoitus
English keywords: forest policy; Finland; forest research; University of Helsinki; forest sciences; research funding; Forest Research Institute
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In 1956 the Finnish Government appointed a committee to plan the promotion of forest research in accordance with the needs of the national economy. The present publication contains an account of the committee’s work and its recommendations.

Attention is drawn to the fact that forestry in Finland is a natural and important means of livelihood. Hence forestry research must be effective and versatile, for extensive forestry calls for intensive research. In the subsequent chapters, a historical survey of forest research in Finland is presented, including a list of the institutes, organisations and other bodies active in this work. Finnish forest research is mainly centred around Forest Research Institute, which was founded in 1918, and similar research is also pursued at the University of Helsinki, as well as by many other institutes and scientific societies.

After a reviewing the present needs for research and the demands intensive forestry sets upon scientific investigation, the committee concludes that contemporary forest research in Finland cannot completely satisfy these demands. Consequently, the country’s research institutes should be expanded and developed considerably.

The recommendations concern mainly the development of the Forest Research Institute. The committee suggests doubling the personnel of the institute, creating several new departments and increasing the financial allocation to the institute. Certain reforms in the administration of the institute is also recommended. Special attention is drawn to the development of the publicity service. Also, the research in the forestry departments University of Helsinki should be developed. National and international co-operation between various research institutes and organizations should be improved.

The report is supplemented by a draft proposal concerning legislation on the Forest Research Institute, a plan for developing the training of research workers and a recommendation on the retention of certain land areas for scientific and experimental work carried out by the Forest Research Institute.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsäntutkimuskomitea, E-mail:
article id 4704, category Article
V. A. Kolehmainen. (1961). Lehtikuusenviljelys Tuomarniemellä. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4704. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9139
English title: Cultivation of larch in Tuomarniemi, Finland.
Original keywords: viljely; Suomi; lehtikuuset; ulkomaiset puulajit; Tuomarniemi
English keywords: larch; Larix; Finland; cultivation; Larix decidua; foreign tree species; Larix sibirica; Larix gmelinii; Larix americana; Larix laricina
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Foreign tree species have been planted in Finland since 1900s, the most famous being Larix sibirica plantations in Raivola in Karelia, which now belongs to Soviet Union. One of the largest larch plantations of Finland today is situated in Tuomarniemi, in Central Finland. Ten larch stands were established in Tuomarniemi between 1912 and 1937 mainly by planting. The stand established in 1937 was sown. The trees represent five larch species: Larix sibirica Ledeb. (5 stands), Larix gmelinii var. kurilensis (2 stands, current name probably Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii), Larix americana Michx. (1 stand, now Larix laricina), Larix decidua Mill. (1 stand) and Larix occidentalis Nutt. (1 stand). The total area of the larch stands is 82.5 ha. This paper reports the studies made in the plantations in 1958.

In Tuomarniemi larch grows well in many types of soil from Vaccinium type sites to fresh mineral soil sites. The age of the stands varies from 19 to 48, height from 12 to 24 metres and annual growth from 5 to 12 m3/ha. Larix sibirca has the best stem form of the species, followed by L. gmelinii var. kuriliensis. Easiest to split is the straight-grained L. gmelinii var. kuriliensis. L. sibirica is almost as easy to process. The wood of L. decidua, on the other hand, is often spiral-grained and tough. The trees are seldom infected with decay fungi.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kolehmainen, E-mail: vk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4703, category Article
E. A. Jamalainen. (1961). Havupuiden taimistojen talvituhosienivauriot ja niiden kemiallinen torjunta. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4703. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9138
English title: Damage by low-temperature parasitic fungi on coniferous nurseries and its chemical control.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; taimet; taimituhot; torjunta-aineet; havupuut; taimitarhat; sienitaudit; talvituhosienet
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; fungicides; seedlings; coniferous seedlings; seedling damages; pathogens; nurseries
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Since 1954 studies have been carried out by the Department of Plant Pathology of Agricultural Research Centre on occurrence of low-temperature parasitic fungi in nurseries in Finland. This paper reports analysis of the damage caused by the fungus to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings.

In Southern and southwestern Finland, scarcely any damage caused by low-temperature parasitic fungi to coniferous seedlings was found. On the other hand, in Central, Eastern and Northern Finland, considerable injuries were present in the seedlings. The extent of damage varies between different localities and in a same location from year to year. The extent of damage is mostly dependent on snow cover which is heaviest in Central and Northern Finland. Damages are largest in wooded areas and in places where snow accumulates abundantly and remains until late in the spring.

The principal cause of winter damage to spruce seedlings is Hepotricia nigra (Hartig) which causes black snow mould. Depending on the amount of infestation, the damage can be limited to scattered groups or consist of large areas of dead seedlings. The fungus is unable to infect the plants during warm months of the growing season. The most damaging parasitic fungus in Scots pine is Phacidium infestans (Karst.) causing snow blight. The infestation varies from reddish-brown patches of infected seedlings to large areas of infected plants. Also, Botrytis cinerea has been determined from one- and two-year plants of pine and spruce.

In trials of chemical control by PCNB (pentachloronitrobenzene) gave nearly complete control of low-temperature parasitic fungi in one-year spruce seedlings. In addition, a compound of zineb (Dithane Z-78) gave similar results. Chemical control of the fungi is now common in the nurseries.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jamalainen, E-mail: ej@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4702, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1961). Kääpiöviljelmäväestön ansiomahdollisuudet tilojen alueittaisen sijainnin valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4702. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9137
English title: The earning opportunities of the population of small farms as reflected in their regional location.
Original keywords: metsätalous; maatalous; asutus; maatilat; pientilat; 1950-luku; elinolot; kääpiöviljelmät; pienviljelijät; tulot
English keywords: forestry; Finland; agriculture; settlement; farms; small farms; income; living conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Finnish legislation concerning settlement states that a farm should be able to provide, according to the various local conditions, their owners together with their families possibilities for a) living based on agriculture and forestry, b) part of their living the bulk of it acquired outside the farm, or c) part of their living from the garden, and possibly part of it by livestock, in addition to from work outside the farm. The present analysis discusses the earning opportunities of the inhabitants of small farms, characterized by the fact that generally they are not able to ford their owners living obtained principally from agriculture and forestry.

According to the results of the 1950 General Agricultural Census of Finland, there exists in the country 74,134 holdings the size of 0.5–1.99 ha (dwelling farms), and 99,400 holdings the size of 2–4.99 ha (dwelling-and-cultivation farms). These small farms accounted for 37.2% of all farms in Finland. As a rule, it is possible to run a small farm only in such region, where favourable conditions give possibilities both for farming and for sufficient amount of wage-earning work outside the farm. Thus, location has a big influence on the financial status.

Dwelling farms were common in urban municipalities and near the coastal areas. Those situated in countryside were located in Eastern and Northern Finland. Dwelling-and-cultivation farms were few in the coastal regions, but they predominated the municipalities of the watershed districts near Jyväskylä, and eastern and northern parts of the country. The forests of the small farms were too small to provide additional income to the farms. Farms owning relatively larger forest areas were situated in the counties of Lapland, Oulu, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and farms with little forests in Turku and Pori County. Net out-migration has been substantial in the districts with a relatively large number of small farms.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halmekoski, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4701, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1961). Tutkimuksia koivuhalkojen painosta ja kosteudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4701. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9136
English title: Studies on the weight and moisture of split birch fuel wood.
Original keywords: polttopuu; koivu; halot; lämpöarvo; kosteusprosentti; kuivapaino
English keywords: birch; firewood; moisture content; fuel wood; heat value; dry weight; split billet
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this investigation is to examine the weight and moisture of split birch fuel wood and to calculate its heat values. The weight was measured of 255 truck loads in six different locations during the winter 1959–1960. Moisture analysis was made of sample specimens collected from the loads.

The dry matter weight of the birch fuel wood was in an average 333 kg/m3 piled measure. The lowest measured weight was 319 and the highest 341 kg/m3 piled measure. The moisture content in the different parts of the pile varies distinctly. Driest wood is found in the middle of the pile. Wood in the top and bottom of the pile have about similar moisture content.

The manner of storage influences the drying process. The moisture content of open piles is 20.5%, of paper-covered piles 19.9% and roofed multiple-piles of split fuel wood 19.3%. The 2-year-old piles were dryer than 1-year-old ones. Higher percentages (25% and 20 %, respectively) than those measured in the study, are recommended for practical use. The heat value of the wood stored in a pile was in average 1,435 Mcal/m3 piled measure, and 1,455 Mcal/m3 piled measure sampled from a truck load.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4696, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1960). Suometsätieteen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4696. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9135
English title: Swamp forestry research in Finland.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; suot; suometsätiede; soiden kuivattaminen; soiden ojitus
English keywords: forestry; Finland; peatlands; forest research; draining of peatlands; research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

About one third of the land area of Finland is covered by peatlands, furthermore, some mineral soils are troubled by excess water. Due to the prevalence of peatlands, forest drainage has been the most important form of forest improvement work. Consequently, peatlands have been an extensively studied topic within forest sciences in Finland. This paper gives a review on the central research subjects in science of peatlands, introducing little less than a hundred of the hundreds of publications published in the field. The author describes in more detail research on the formation and area of peatlands, peatland types and their suitability for forest draining, site factors on peatlands, techniques of forest ditching and the management of peatland forests.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4689, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1960). Metsähallinnon vuosisataistaival 1859-1959. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 107 article id 4689. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14130
English title: A century of Finnish State forestry 1859-1959.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; historia; metsähallinto; Suomi
English keywords: Finland; Forest Service; forest administration; state forests; history
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This book deals with the Finnish Forest Service, organization responsible for the management of the State forests of Finland, since its establishment in 1859 up to the present time. Attention is paid especially to the following topics: the area of State Forests and its changes; the organisation of Forest Administration; the promotion of transportation conditions for State forestry; silvicultural treatment of State Forests, their management and commercial activity; the Forest Service as an employer; the State Schools for training forest foremen; the activity of the Forest Service as regards private forests.

The PDF includes a short summary in English, a more comprehensive history of the Forest Service is published in Silva Fennica no. 112.

  • Laitakari, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4695, category Article
Hirvivahinkokomitea. (1960). Hirvivahinkokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 106 article id 4695. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9134
English title: Report of committee on damage by moose.
Original keywords: komiteanmietinnöt; hirvituhot; hirvivahingot; hirvivahinkokorvaukset
English keywords: moose; moose damages; compensation; compensation for moose damage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The increase in moose (Alces alces) population of Finland in 2000th century has caused significant damages in agriculture and forestry. Amendment was made to the Game Law to compensate damage by moose to agricultural crops from state funds. It has been suggested already in 1936 that compensations should be paid for the damages caused to the forests as well. Finally, in 1956 the Government appointed a committee to study the quality and quantity of the damages caused by moose to the young stands. The committee carried out an inquiry about the extent of the damage in 1956–1957, in which 12,000 private forest holdings were studied.

According to the study, moose cause damage mainly to young Scots pine stands in Southwestern Finland and Western Finland, and the districts of Uusimaa-Häme, East Häme, South Karelia and East Savo. However, the number of forest holdings suffering from damage was relatively low, about 5.6% in the whole country in 1951–1956. The damage is concentrated on Scots pine-, aspen, and birch-dominated young stands. The study of the level of the damage showed, that only 14% of the pine and 17% of stands of other tree species should be reforested due to the damage.

The committee suggests that compensation is paid for those damages that require reforestation. Reforestation would be affected with the help of State relief funds under the provision of the Act on Forest Improvement. The owner would also receive a tax reduction for a lost growing season. In addition, attention to moose damages in the forests should be taken into account when moose hunting permissions are issued.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hirvivahinkokomitea, E-mail:
article id 4688, category Article
L. Heikurainen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1960). Symposio metsätyypeistä ja metsäekosysteemeistä Motrealissa elokuun 24. päivänä 1959. IX Kansainvälisen kasvitieteellisen kongressin yhteydessä. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 105 article id 4688. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14129
English title: Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems during the IX international botanical congress Montreal, August 24th 1959.
Original keywords: kasvillisuus; metsätyypit; bibliografiat; ekosysteemit; kasvupaikkaluokitus; kokoukset; metsäekologia
English keywords: vegetation; ecosystems; forest types; bibliographies; site classification; Symposiums
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper is a review on the topics of Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems, held in connection to the IX internal botanical congress in Montreal in August 1959, the chairman of which was Ilmari Hustich. The article includes 18 preparatory papers that were distributed among the participants of the symposium. The common theme of the papers was the question of finding common platform for the different schools of forest types and forest ecosystems. In addition to the papers, the article includes a summary of the proceedings and discussions of the symposium.

 

The following papers were presented in the symposium:

Aichinger, E. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Arnborg, T. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Dansereau, P. A combined structural and floristic approach to the definition of forest ecosystems.

Daubenmire, R. Some major problems in vegetation classification

Ellenberg, H. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Hills, G.A. Comparison of forest ecosystems (vegetation and soil) in different climatic zones

Kalela, A. Classification of the vegetation, especially of the forest, with particular reference to regional problems

Krajina, V.J. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Kühler, A.W. Mapping tropical forest vegetation

Linteau, A. Y. a-t-il. Un terrain d’entente possible entre les différentes écoles au sujet de la classification de types forestiers?

Medvecka-Kornaś, A. Some problems of forest climaxes in Poland

Ovington, J.D. The ecosystem concept as aid to forest classification

Puri, G.S. The concept of climax in forest botany as applied in India

Rowe, J.S. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Scamoni, A. Können wir eine gemeinsame Grundlage für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Sukachev, V.N. The correlation between the concept ’forest ecosystem’ and ’forest biogeocoenise’ and their importance for the classification of forests

Webb, L.J. A new attempt to classify Australian rain forest

  • Heikurainen, E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4694, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1960). Metsäntuotteet Ison-Britannian rakennusaineiden mainonnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 104 article id 4694. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9133
English title: The position of forest products in advertising of building materials in Great Britain.
Original keywords: Suomi; Iso-Britannia; rakennustuotteet; markkinointi; mainonta
English keywords: Finland; building materials; Great Britain; marketing; advertising; sawn goods; wood-based panels
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper concentrates on analysing advertising of building materials used in residential, agricultural and factory building, power station construction, warehouse building and the joinery industry in Great Britain, concentrating on advertising to consumers, including architects, engineers, building entrepreneurs, farmers and do-it-yourself practitioners. The material is based on questionnaires answered by 8 professionals of the field, and assessment of two leading English paper in the field of construction in January 1 – June 30, 1959.

It was concluded that forest products were clearly less advertised than other building materials. The unweight average degree of advertising of all forest products was. 1.7, while the score was 2.6 for other materials. Of the different forest products stand out advertising of plywood and sawn good. The most extensively advertised materials were metals, concrete and cement, and some covering materials. Forest products accounted only ¼ of the advertising space in the publications.

The most important media used in advertising building materials were trade journals, calendars and yearbooks, courses and lectures, exhibitions and fares and direct advertising. The most important audience of advertising were architects, followed by the entrepreneurs. It is suggested that the advertising of Finnish products in Great Britain might be best organized by placing it in the hands of two organizations: the sales organisation and a separate body for advertising. The producers would manage the advertising of individual brands to sales level, while the other levels (agents, importers, merchants) would manage the joint advertising of the forest products to the lower sales levels and consumers. A Finnish market research and information offices might be established in Great Britain.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ervasti, E-mail: se@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4693, category Article
Martti Nenonen, Juhani Jukola. (1960). Tukkimiehen täin (Hylobius abietis L.) tuhoista mäntytaimistoissa ja niiden torjunnasta DDT :n avulla. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 104 article id 4693. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9132
English title: Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) injuries and their control by DDT in Scots pine seedling stands.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; soil preparation; Scots pine; planting; Hylobius abietis; insecticides; seedling damages; insect damages; DDT
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to find out more about pine weevil (Hylobious abietis L.) injuries in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands and their control by means of DDT. For this purpose, inventories were made of seedling stands established earlier. Control experiments were made on burnt areas by planting seedlings dipped in a DDT emulsion.

The results of the inventories show that injuries caused by pine weevils can, in certain circumstances, especially in seedling stands established by planting, cause the complete failure in artificial regeneration. The extent and quality of the injuries vary greatly according to planting method, treatment of the cutting area, age of the seedling stand, environmental factors, and weather conditions. The most extensive injuries occur in regeneration areas of old Norway spruce stands burnt after clear cutting and planted with Scots pine seedlings. Injuries are greater in seedling stands established by planting, especially after broadcast burning, than in seedling stands originating either from artificial or natural seeding. The quality of the patch for sowing or planting has a considerable effect on the quantity and character of the injuries: in a patch from which organic matter has been removed, injuries do not appear or they are slighter. Seedlings can be protected effectively and economically by dipping their tops up to the root collar, in a DDT emulsion before planting.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nenonen, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
  • Jukola, E-mail: jj@mm.unknown
article id 4692, category Article
Mauno Forsström. (1960). Maanhankintalain ja siihen liittyvien lakien toimeenpanon vaikutuksista valtion metsätalouteen. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 104 article id 4692. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9131
English title: Influence of the Settlement Act and the related regulations on the State forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätalous; valtion metsät; asutus; Suomi; maanhankinta; maanluovutus
English keywords: forestry; state forests; settlement; Settlement Act; land acquisition
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Settlement Act (332/36) of Finland that regulated land-acquisitions was repealed by the Land Use Act (353/58), effective from the beginning of 1959. This paper deals with the effects land settlement and implementation of the acts has had on State forestry. The investigation concentrates on the magnitude of the losses caused by the land reform, initiated by The World War II, in time period of 5.5.1945–31.12.1957, during which time the evacuees from the areas transmitted to Soviet Union were settled. The first part of the paper summarises the history of landholding and the State Forests in Finland.

According to the study, the total area of cessions of the state forest land, based on land-acquisition legislation, rises to over 1 million hectares, about 10% of the land area. It seems that these lands have been better than the average forest lands of the state. In addition, about 100,000 ha of jointly owned forests were established on former state lands on the basis of the Settlement Act. Timber has also been collected for construction of the settlement from the State forests. The value of the land and the construction timber is estimated to be about 3,759 million Fmk.

It has been stated that settlement has increased supply of forest labour in rural areas, where there has been labour shortage in forestry. On the other hand, the State Forests have given seasonal work opportunities for the rural population.

The state forest holdings in Southern Finland are at present so small that it limits rational forest management in the area. It is concluded that it is possible that the state forests in Southern Finland will be used to provide supplemental land for the small farms. In the State Forests of Northern Finland are plans for establishment of new jointly owned forest and settlement. This poses a threat for the state forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Forsström, E-mail: mf@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4691, category Article
Arvo Seppälä. (1960). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran julkaisusarjojen sisällysluettelo : Acta Forestalia Fennica 51-70 (1942-1959), Silva Fennica 61-103 (1945-1960). Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 103 article id 4691. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9130
English title: Publications of the Society of Forestry in Finland. Index.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura
English keywords: forestry; bibliographies; bibliografiat; The Finnish Society of Forest Science
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present bibliography is an index of publications brought out by the Society of Forestry in Finland (now The Finnish Society of Forest Science) in 1945–1960, a sequel of a similar index published in 1946. It consists a classification of the parts according to subject treated, based on the Oxford system, a system used in international forestry literature. The studies have been provided with Oxford numbers. The index includes the publications of Acta forestalia fennica (AFF), Silva Fennica (SF) and the Commentationes forestales.

The PDF includes a summary in English and German.

  • Seppälä, E-mail: as@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4680, category Article
Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea. (1959). Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 102 article id 4680. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14123
English title: Report of the organizing committee for timber floating in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; uitto; komiteanmietinnöt; puunkuljetus; uittoväylät; vesivoima
English keywords: northern Finland; floating; wood transport; timber transport; floating channels; hydroelectric power; hydroelectric power plants
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Hydroelectric plants are being planned or already built in Northern Finland. The complete terracing and regulation of watercourses necessary for the power plants will mean great changes in floating conditions and hence for forestry, for which floating is the principal means of transport. Consequently, the Cabinet appointed a committee in 1958 to ascertain the economic, technical and legislative questions connected with timber transport in the area.

The committee has found that about half of the country’s forest area and two thirds of its water power resources are situated in Northern Finland. A prerequisite for the wise utilization of the forest in Northern Finland is an increase in fellings. This can only be put into effect by improving the means of transport, especially the floating channels. The financing required by the organization of floating connected with the building of the hydroelectric power plants amounts to about 10,000 million marks over a period of 20 years.

The committee has suggested that an advisory committee on floating should be established. Its most important task would be to try to produce a general programme for the organization of floating under the changed conditions, and that the State should participate in the expenditure caused by the organization as regards the capital investment needed for changing over to bundle floating.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea, E-mail:
article id 4686, category Article
Kalle Putkisto. (1959). Puutavaran valmistus- ja metsäkuljetustöiden koneellistumisen vaikutus metsätalouden työvoiman tarpeeseen : ennuste vuoteen 1972. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 101 article id 4686. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9127
English title: Effect of the mechanization of timber preparation and forest transport on the need of labour force in forestry. Prognosis up to 1972.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsätyö; työvoima; puunkorjuu; koneellistuminen; ennusteet; metsäkuljetus
English keywords: forestry; forest transport; mechanization; wood harvesting; fellings; workforce; forest work; prognosis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In 1957 the annual cuttings in Finland were 40.2 million m3 without bark. The aim of the study was to estimate the rate of mechanization of harvesting of timber in Finland, and make a prediction of the state of mechanization by 1972. According to the study, harvesting and transportation of the felling volume in 1957 would have required about 25.5 million working hours. Mechanization of forest work has decreased it only by 0.32 million working hours. The profitability of forest work has improved in 1950s, which is mainly due to changes in harvesting, such as shifting to longer lengths of pulpwood and props and cutting unbarked timber.
The study predicts that in 1972 it will take 14.8 million working hours to harvest and 5.4 million working hours to transport a corresponding felling volume as in 1957. However, a new way of producing timber or a working method of wood may change the picture completely. Reduction in harvesting expenses through mechanization may lead to diminishing the minimum diameter of logs, which affects profitability of work. It is also probable that mechanization of wood transportation will lead to working sites with longer distances of forest transportation. Also, industry using wood as raw material will also obviously expand.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Putkisto, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4681, category Article
A. G. Blomqvist. (1959). The itineraries of G.A. Blomqvist in 1867-1869. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 100 article id 4681. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14124
Keywords: forest management; forestry; travelogue; travel literature
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The founder of forest management in Finland, A.G. Blomqvist, travelled widely around the country when he was collecting data for growth and yield tables. He wrote detailed itineraries of his travels. He describes in his notes the forests and forest management practices, such as shifting cultivation, tar burning, felling methods and forest regeneration. The notes were a part of his assignment for the Forest Service in addition to the growth and yield tables, and helped to understand the state of the forests at the time.

The Finnish Society of Forest Sciences acknowledges the value of A.G. Blomqvist’s itineraries and decided to publishes them in this issue of Silva Fennica to prevent the texts to be forgotten.

  • Blomqvist, E-mail: ab@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4452, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Ehdotus puun käyttöä osottavan jatkuvan tilaston järjestämisestä Suomeen. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 11 article id 4452. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8985
English title: A proposal to introduce permanent statistics of wood consumption in Finland.
Original keywords: hakkuumäärät; kaukokuljetus; puunkäyttö; tilastot
English keywords: fellings; consumption of wood; wood utilization; statistics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Forest Research Institute made an investigation on the wood consumption in Finland in 1927. This work brought up a need to organize continuous collection of statistics of wood consumption. Three kinds of existing statistics can be used: statistics of wood consumption, statistic of the fellings, and statistics of transport of wood.

Statistics on wood consumption, such as the fuel used by the industry and State railways are collected annually. The fellings in state forests are published annually, and also the wood manufacturing companies publish statistics of their forests. Furthermore, all fellings on sale, and use of own wood in wood manufacturing industry have to be reported to the forestry committees. These statistics are published annually. Railroads and floating are the main means of long distance transport of wood. These statistics give additional information of wood consumption. Further studies are needed to combine and standardize the statistics collected from different sources.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, E-mail: es@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4451, category Article
Pekka Urho Sakari Tikka. (1928). Havaintoja kuusen esiintymisestä ja kehityksestä Pohjois-Suomen kuivissa kangasmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 10 article id 4451. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8399
English title: Observations on Norway spruce growth and development in dry mineral soil sites in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; luontainen uudistuminen; kuiva kangas; kuusi; Picea abies; taimi
English keywords: Norway spruce; natural regeneration; seedling; northern Finland; dry upland site
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is rarely the dominant species on dry mineral soil sites in Northern Finland. These sites are, in general, too poor and dry for spruce, and suit better for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). According to the study, the natural regeneration of spruce is in Northern Finland poor. In the sample plots, cones could be found in 35% of spruce trees in the stands in natural state and 46% in the harvested stands. Compared to the spruce areas in Northern Finland, or fresh mineral soil sites in Southern Finland, cone and seed production of Norway spruce was in dry mineral soil sites very low due to scarcity of seed trees and their low cone number. There were few spruce seedlings in the sample plots, but according to the observations, spruce is able to regenerate on lichen and heath covered sites. The seedling growth was, however, poor on dry sites. Spruce seedlings were often found near fallen trees and stumps. The growing trees prevent growth of seedlings of all species. Norway spruce seems, however, to be able to spread also to the poor sites. The success depends on the vegetation and dryness of the site. For instance, spruce can spread to dry mineral soil sites from seed trees of nearby peatlands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4434, category Article
Kaarlo Linkola. (1926). Suunnitelma luonnonsuojelualueiden erottamiseksi Pohjois-Suomen valtionmailla. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 1 article id 4434. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8382
English title: Plan for establishment of protected areas in state-owned lands of Northern Finland.
Original keywords: luonnonsuojelualue; Pohjois-Suomi; valtionmaat; rauhoitus; suurpeto; petoeläin
English keywords: northern Finland; protection; protected area; state-owned lands; predator; large carnivore; nature concervation; nature reserves
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article gives a proposal for areas that would be suitable for protected areas, situated in state-owned lands in Northern Finland. Eight areas are described in the article, namely Oulankajoki area in Northern Kuusamo, Kutsajoki area in Kuolajärvi, Pyhätunturi in Kemijärvi, Pisavaara in Rovaniemi, Pallastunturi and Ounastunturi area, Malla fells in Kilpisjärvi, Pääskyspahta area in Petsamo and Heinäsaari in Petsamo.

Each of the areas possess special features in Finnish nature, samples of which should be reserved in pristine state. Furthermore, costs of the protection are small. The resident population is, however, in general against protection. The protection should therefore be organized in a way that minimizes the disadvantages caused by limitations to land use, for example grazing, reindeer husbandry, fishing and hunting.

According to Finnish Nature Conservation Act, all wildlife in the conservation areas should be protected. Protection of wolverine and wolf is, however, difficult because of the damages they cause for domestic animals. Protection of bear is regarded to be possible in most of the proposed protected areas.

  • Linkola, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)

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